Montagu, Mary Wortley (Feminism in Literature)
Montagu is celebrated as a consummate writer of intelligent, witty, and frequently scandalous letters. Spanning the years 1708 to 1762, Montagu's correspondence is addressed to a wide variety of recipients and is considered remarkable for its versatility and range. By turns philosophical, descriptive, eccentric, affectionate, worldly, thoughtful, and sarcastic, the letters share one common attribute: the forceful imprint of their author's personality.
BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATIONMary Pierrepont was born in London to an aristocratic family. She was known as Lady Mary after her father became the earl of Kingston in 1690. As a child devised for herself a rigorous academic program, that included writing poetry and teaching herself Latin. While she was still in her teens Lady Mary captured the attention of Edward Wortley Montagu (usually referred to simply as Wortley), a politician eleven years her senior. Wortley asked Lady Mary's father for permission to marry her, but the men could not agree on the financial conditions of the proposed marriage, and Wortley and Lady Mary eloped in 1712. Montagu spent the first few years of her marriage alone in the country while Wortley attended to business in London. Her letters from this period reflect her dissatisfaction with the arrangement and her husband's seeming indifference to her.
In 1715 Montagu joined Wortley in the capital, where his political career was flourishing. She moved with ease in prominent social and literary circles, counting among her many friends and admirers Alexander Pope. Wortley was appointed ambassador to Turkey the following year, and the couple, along with their young son, moved to Constantinople. There, displaying her customary curiosity and enthusiasm, Montagu studied Turkish life and language and wrote a number of letters detailing her observations and experiences to friends and acquaintances back in England. These missives later formed the basis of her famous Turkish Embassy Letters (originally published in 1763 under the title Letters of the Right Honorable Lady M—y W—y M—e: Written, during her Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa, To Persons of Distinction, Men of Letters, & c. in Different Parts of Europe. Her visit to Turkey is important from a medical as well as a literary standpoint: noting the success of the Turkish practice of smallpox inoculation, Montagu had the procedure performed on her son and, later, her daughter. Through this example and her anonymously published essay "A Plain Account of the Inoculating of the Small Pox by a Turkey Merchant" (1722), she promoted the practical merits of the procedure.
Montagu returned to London in 1718 and for the next two decades presided over high society, which celebrated her wit and flamboyant behavior. Beginning sometime around 1728 she and Pope engaged in a bitter public quarrel. Pope lampooned Montagu in The Dunciad and elsewhere, and she retaliated with Verses Address'd to the Imitator of the First Satire of the Second Book of Horace (1733). Between December 16, 1737 and February 21, 1738, Montagu anonymously wrote and published nine issues of the periodical The Nonsense of Common-Sense, offering articles of various sorts, including economic analysis, social commentary, and fiction. Having met and fallen in love with Francesco Algarotti, a young Italian count in 1736, Montagu left her husband, her children, and her country in 1738 to live with Algarotti in Italy; the count, however, apparently had a change of heart and failed to meet her in Venice. Nevertheless, for over twenty years Montagu remained abroad, mainly in Italy. She returned to England shortly before her death in 1762.
As a female aristocrat, Montagu abhorred the notion of writing for print, and circulated her works primarily in manuscript. A few were published in her lifetime, however, usually without her consent. In collaboration with Pope and poet John Gay she wrote Six Town Eclogues, satires of well-known society personalities. Montagu had no intention of publishing the work, but in 1716 three of the eclogues were pirated, with coy hints of their authorship, as Court Poems. The original grouping was later issued in Six Town Eclogues. With Some Other Poems (1747). Aside from the anonymously published pieces in The Nonsense of Common-Sense (1737-38) the only work Montagu intended for publication was Turkish Embassy Letters. The fifty-two letters in the collection are thought to be based in part on Montagu's real correspondence and in part on a journal she kept during her journey to and residence in Turkey. Due to popular demand, successive editions of Turkish Embassy Letters were augmented with Montagu's other, private, correspondence as it became available.
Montagu's letters have maintained scholarly interest both because they offer intimate biographical details and because of Montagu's ability to write witty, engaging, and informative prose. Montagu told her sister in 1726, "The last pleasure that fell in my way was Madam Sevigny's Letters; very pretty they are, but I assert without the least vanity that mine will be full as entertaining 40 years hence." Montagu's work was described by nineteenth-century critics as masculine due to the confidence, intelligence, and honesty apparent in her writing. Critics described some passages as too coarse for a woman writer, and warned that young ladies should avoid reading them. Because the letters are often so personal, Montagu herself has been the object of criticism, even into the twentieth century. Especially in the earlier part of the century, critics found Montagu's witty social gossip malicious, and interpreted their formal character as cold and lacking in genuine emotion. Feminist critics have generally embraced Montagu's concern for women's issues, as evidenced especially in her Turkish Embassy Letters.
Court Poems [with Alexander Pope and John Gay] (poetry) 1716
The Genuine Copy of a Letter Written from Constantinople by an English Lady … to a Venetian Nobleman (verse letter) 1719
"A Plain Account of the Inoculating of the Small Pox by a Turkey Merchant" (essay) 1722
Verses Address'd to the Imitator of the First Satire of the Second Book of Horace [possibly with John, Lord Hervey] (poetry) 1733
The Dean's Provocation for Writing the Lady's Dressing Room (poetry) 1734
The Nonsense of Common-Sense. 9 issues (periodical essays) 1737-38
* Six Town Eclogues. With Some Other Poems [with Alexander Pope and John Gay] (poetry) 1747
† Letters of the Right Honorable Lady M—y W—y M—e: Written, during her Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa, To Persons of Distinction, Men of Letters, & c. in Different Parts of Europe. 3 vols. (letters) 1763
The Poetical Works of the Right Honorable Lady M—y W—y M—e (poetry) 1768
The Works of the Right Honorable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Including Her Correspondence, Poems, and Essays. 5 vols. (letters, poetry, essays) 1803
The Nonsense of Common-Sense, 1737-1738 [edited by Robert Halsband] (periodical essays) 1947
The Complete Letters of Lady...
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SOURCE: Montagu, Mary Wortley. "Letter to Lady Mar (1 April 1717)." In The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol. 1, edited by Robert Halsband, pp. 325-30. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
In the following letter, Montagu writes to Lady Mar about her experiences in Turkey, telling her about the Turkish dress she adopts.
I wish to God (dear Sister) that you was as regular in letting me have the pleasure of knowing what passes on your side of the Globe as I am carefull in endeavouring to amuse you by the Account of all I see that I think you care to hear of. You content your selfe with telling me over and over that the Town is very dull. It may possibly be dull to you when every day does not present you with something new, but for me that am in arrear at least 2 months news, all that seems very stale with you would be fresh and sweet here; pray let me into more particulars. I will try to awaken your Gratitude by giving you a full and true Relation of the Noveltys of this Place, none of which would surprize you more than a sight of my person as I am now in my Turkish Habit, thô I believe you would be of my Opinion that 'tis admirably becoming. I intend to send you my Picture; in the mean time accept of it here.
The first piece of my dresse is a pair of drawers, very full, that reach to my shoes and conceal the legs more modestly than...
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SOURCE: Montagu, Mary Wortley. "Epistle from Mrs. Y[onge] to her Husband." In Essays and Poems, with Simplicity, A Comedy, edited by Robert Halsband and Isobel Grundy, pp. 230-32. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.
In the following poem, written in 1724, Montagu adopts the voice of Mary Yonge, an heiress whose acrimonious divorce and financial settlement caused a stir in London society. Mr. Yonge was a well-known adulterer, and Mrs. Yonge separated from him prior to their divorce. During the separation, she also had an affair. Mr. Yonge sued for and won damages from her lover, totaling 1,500 pounds, and in the divorce he was awarded most of Mrs. Yonge's inheritance. Montagu's poem addresses the injustice of Mrs. Yonge's penalties.
Think not this Paper comes with vain pretence
To move your Pity, or to mourn th'offence.
Too well I know that hard Obdurate Heart;
No soft'ning mercy there will take my part,
Nor can a Woman's Arguments prevail,
When even your Patron's wise Example fails,
But this last privelege I still retain,
Th'Oppress'd and Injur'd allways may complain.
Too, too severely Laws of Honour bind
The Weak Submissive Sex of Woman-kind.
If sighs have gain'd or force compell'd our Hand,
Deceiv'd by Art, or urg'd...
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SOURCE: Montagu, Mary Wortley. "Number VI (Tuesday, January 24, 1738)." The Nonsense of Common-Sense, 1737-1738, edited by Robert Halsband, pp. 24-28. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University, 1947.
In the following essay, taken from Montagu's anonymous periodical The Nonsense of Common-Sense, Montagu makes a characteristically witty attack on men who lampoon women as weak, irrational, and faithless.
I have always, as I have already declared, professed myself a Friend, tho' I do not aspire to the Character of an Admirer of the Fair Sex; and as such, I am warmed with Indignation at the barbarous Treatment they have received from the Common-Sense of January 14, and the false Advice that he gives them.—He either knows them very little, or like an interested Quack, prescribes such Medicines as are likely to hurt their Constitutions.—It is very plain to me, from the extreme Partiality with which he speaks of Operas, and the Rage with which he attacks both Tragedy and Comedy, that the Author is a Performer in the Opera: And whoever reads his Paper with Attention, will be of my Opinion: Else no Thing alive would assert at the same Time the Innocence of an Entertainment contrived wholly to soften the Mind, and sooth the Sense, without any Pretence to a Moral, and so vehemently declaim against Plays, whose...
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SOURCE: Grundy, Isobel. "The Politics of Female Authorship: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Reaction to the Printing of Her Poems." The Book Collector 31, no. 1 (spring 1982): 19-37.
In the following essay, Grundy reviews Montagu's personal annotations of Dodsley's Collection of Poems, which included poems printed without her permission. In the marginalia, Montagu claims some poems and vehemently denies writing others, revealing her thoughts on the controversies of her publication. Grundy suggests that the annotations add to the portrait of Montagu as a reluctant writer, with mixed emotions about being published.
In the stormy career of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu the ambition of authorship played a large but mostly secret part. One of the earliest controversies to involve her was Edmund Curll's illicit publication of three more or less scandalous poems which she had been quietly circulating in manuscript among her friends; one of the latest was the feud that developed between her and the British Resident and British Consul in Venice,1 about which new information has recently come to light. Each episode brings out the period's feeling that it was not fitting for a well-born woman to publish verses except in circumstances of the most careful decorum and discretion. When Curll scooped the three eclogues which appeared as Court Poems, 1716, various...
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INGE E. BOER (ESSAY DATE WINTER, 1995-96)
SOURCE: Boer, Inge E. “Despotism from under the Veil: Masculine and Feminine Readings of the Despot and the Harem.” Cultural Critique 32 (winter, 1995-96): 43-73.
In the following excerpt, Boer examines Montagu’s Turkish Embassy Letters as a voice within a silenced subculture in a despotic society. Boer suggests that Montagu offers an alternate understanding of the power relationship between the watcher-subject (usually male), and the object being watched (usually female).
Despotism figures as a persistently dominant concept in Western representations of the Orient.1 Because of concepts commonly related to despotism, such as polygamy, the harem, and the presumed oppressed position of women under despotism, representations of Oriental women have been affected in particular.
Montesquieu’s De l’esprit des lois, published in 1748, has been instrumental in establishing despotism as a basically political system.2 Simultaneously, through the Greek despotes, meaning “master over slaves in a domestic space,” despotism maintains a link with the domestic. This linkage between despotism and the domestic is present in various forms in De l’esprit des lois. Given the extraordinary influence of...
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Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, 680 p.
Considers Montagu's life as a series of struggles.
Halsband, Robert. The Life of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956, 313 p.
Offers a modern scholarly biography of Montagu.
Campbell, Jill. "Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Historical Machinery of Female Identity." In History, Gender and Eighteenth-Century Literature, edited by Beth Fowkes Tobin, pp. 64-85. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994.
Focuses on the Turkish Embassy Letters as a demonstration of Montagu's use of cultural difference to discuss feminine pleasure and desire.
Cooley, Emily. "Proto-Feminism and Ethnography in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Turkish Embassy Letters." Publications of the Mississippi Philological Association (2002): 8-15.
Critiques Montagu as an amateur anthropologist, including her attitude toward the otherness of foreign cultures.
Darby, Barbara. "Love, Chance, and the Arranged Marriage: Lady Mary Rewrites Marivaux."...
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