Mathilda, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
Mathilda Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
The following entry presents criticism of Shelley's novella Mathilda (1959). See also Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus Criticism.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley is best remembered for her 1818 novel, Frankenstein, the story of a man who brings a monster to life. Although that work was very popular in her time and continues to be read today, the 1959 publication of Mathilda renewed interest in Shelley's work as a writer who explored themes of incest, familial relationships, and psychological trauma in her fiction. Mathilda was never published in Shelley's lifetime, its publication having been suppressed by Shelley's father and publisher, William Godwin, because of the autobiographical nature of the work. Since its discovery and publication by Elizabeth Nitchie in the mid-twentieth century, the work has mostly been studied as a psychological and autobiographical text, continuing to fuel debate regarding Shelley's relationship with her father as well as her husband, poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Mary Shelley was born in 1797 to two of the foremost intellectuals of the eighteenth century, William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. An outspoken advocate of women's rights, Shelley's mother died shortly after Shelley's birth and her father became the primary caretaker for the first few years of young Mary's life. Shelley's attachment to her father was powerful and it was to become a major theme in her work, especially Mathilda. In 1801, however, Godwin married again, this time to a widow named Mary Jane Clairmont. Shelley's relationship with her stepmother was strained from the start, partly because of the young girl's intense feelings for her father. As a result of this, Shelley did not receive any formal education, instead learning to read at home while being given access to her father's extensive library. The young Shelley was also influenced by the political, philosophical, and scientific discussions held in the household by Godwin's various visitors. Writing was her favorite pastime even as a child, and in 1808 she published a very popular version of a 39-quatrain reworking of a song by Charles Dibdin. In 1812, growing tensions between Shelley and her stepmother prompted Godwin to send his daughter to visit an acquaintance, William Baxter, and his family. On her return to London later that year, she met her father's wealthy new disciple, Percy Bysshe Shelley. A believer in Godwin's humanist principles, Percy Shelley was soon supporting the family financially. And although he was already married, he also formed an attachment to Mary. In 1814 they declared their love for each other and eloped to France. Although the couple married (following the suicide of Percy Shelley's first wife, Harriet), their initial relationship and flight caused a long-lasting estrangement between Shelley and her father. The Shelleys spent their entire married life in Europe, living in various cities on the continent. They had four children together, only one of whom survived to adulthood. It was also during these years that Shelley published her first full-length work, titled History of a Six Weeks' Tour (1817). This was followed the next year by her most popular work, Frankenstein, often interpreted by critics as a dramatization of Shelley's own ambivalent feelings regarding motherhood. She also wrote the novella Mathilda shortly after finishing work on Frankenstein. Her next novel, Valperga, was issued in 1823 and focused on the theme of ambition and its malevolent nature. In 1822, Percy Shelley died unexpectedly in a drowning accident. While their relationship had been strained for some time following the deaths of their children and Shelley's resulting withdrawal from her husband, his sudden death left Mary Shelley in a state of deep turmoil and extreme guilt. This led her to commit herself to the task of immortalizing her husband by writing his biography and publishing a definitive collection of his poetry. Her final novel, The Last Man (1826), was to reflect an idealized portrait of Percy Shelley. Shelley herself spent the rest of her life being a devoted mother to Percy Florence Shelley and a devoted daughter to her father, whom she supported financially and emotionally until his death in 1836. She also continued to write, publishing three more books—The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck (1830), Lodore (1835), and Falkner (1837). Her work continued to be infused with autobiographical themes and accounts of father-daughter relationships. She died of complications due to a brain tumor in 1851.
Plot and Major Characters
Like most of Shelley's novels, Mathilda is a semiautobiographical work. The work was never published in her lifetime, and the first available edition was issued only as recently as 1959. A rough draft of the book was originally titled The Fields of Fancy and is based on a similar text by her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft. The novel tells the story of three main characters—Mathilda, her father, and Woodville, a poet. Critics generally agree that the characters are based on the author, William Godwin, and Percy Shelley. The tale is told in the form of a memoir addressed to Woodville by a woman, Mathilda, who expects to die at the young age of 22. Like Shelley, Mathilda's birth causes the death of her mother, who had been blissfully married to her father. Following the death of his wife, the father abandons Mathilda, who is left to grow up lonely and unloved with a distant and austere aunt. When her father returns 16 years later, Mathilda's happiness is short-lived because he admits his incestuous love for her. Eventually, Mathilda runs away from her father, who kills himself. Following this tragedy, Mathilda stages her own suicide and then goes to Scotland to mourn him. Here she meets a poet, Woodville, to whom she is narrating the events of her life.
There are no records of any attempts to publish this text during Shelley's lifetime, although it is clear that many of her acquaintances read it. The story is widely interpreted as an outlet of her emotions in 1819, a time when Shelley was struggling with depression following the deaths of two of her children and an ongoing estrangement with Percy Shelley and Godwin. The tone of the work is at once angry, self-recriminatory, and elegiac, and Mathilda's relationship with the poet in the novel is considered by many to be extremely revelatory of the writer's own relationship with her husband at the time. Following the deaths of her children, Shelley had become cold and withdrawn, but not insensitive to the pain she was inflicting on her husband. The idealized portrait of Woodville may be seen as her earliest portrait of her husband drawn in a year when she was attempting to return to him after a period of great despair. Similarly, her portrait of Mathilda's father is reflective of Shelley's own relationship with Godwin. Although it is fairly certain that Shelley's representation of the incestuous relationship between Mathilda and her father was wish fulfillment on her part, Godwin, who had forgiven Shelley's elopement after her marriage in 1816, had continued to remain cold and distant. In Mathilda's sorrow over the death of her father, Shelley may be seen as recording her own grief at her spiritual separation from her father. In addition to the autobiographical and psychological elements of the novel, much of the criticism on Mathilda has focused on the theme of incest. There is evidence that both the Shelleys felt an interest in this subject at the time, regarding it as a dramatic and effective theme.
In her essay discussing Mathilda in the context of the incest theme, Rosaria Champagne contends that the text was unpublished until the late 1950s because of an ongoing attempt by the literary canon-bearers to suppress texts such as this that seek to de-center the power of paternity. Champagne asserts that readers of Mathilda have protected and maintained the novel's obscurity by finding “real” incest in the Godwin household impossible. Instead, the critic notes, critical thinking over the years has sought to undermine and even deny the autobiographical elements of this novel as pertaining to the incest theme. Kerry McKeever's essay on the novel also focuses on the familial relationships explored in Mathilda. McKeever includes an extensive discussion of the mother-daughter relationship as represented in the novella, noting that the seduction fantasy in the work is the father's, and that the story is actually a condemnation of fathers who fail to act like fathers. The critic considers Godwin's refusal to publish this work as an indication of his realization that Shelley was condemning his efforts to deter her from establishing her autonomy, and that Mary Shelley is not Mathilda: unlike the character, Shelley did find the means to overcome the drive to suicide. Continuing the study of Mathilda as a text with psychological undertones, Margaret Davenport Garrett calls the incest tale in the work “a metaphorical representation of a woman's experience when she blindly follows the dictates of her own heart as well as her excessive dependence upon a male protector.” Garrett believes that Mathilda provides Shelley with a means to sharpen her own ideas about a woman's role in relationships and is therefore an explicit critique of women's education and experience. Taking the psychology framework theory even further, William D. Brewer contends that although Shelley creates characters that are skeptical about the value of expression as a therapeutic tool, she acknowledges the human need to articulate suffering because of the short-term relief it can provide. This preoccupation with the theme of language therapy is seen to anticipate a major concern of modern psychoanalysis.
History of a Six Weeks' Tour through a part of France, Switzerland, Germany, and Holland, with Letters descriptive of a Sail around the Lake of Geneva, and of the Glaciers of Chamouni (nonfiction) 1817
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus 3 vols. (novel) 1818
Valperga: or, The Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca 3 vols. (novel) 1823
The Last Man 2 vols. (novel) 1826
The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck 3 vols. (novel) 1830
Lodore 3 vols. (novel) 1835
Falkner 3 vols. (novel) 1837
*Mathilda [edited by Elizabeth Nitchie] (novel) 1959
(The entire section is 77 words.)
SOURCE: “‘Did you get Mathilda from Papa?’: Seduction, Fantasy and the Circulation of Mary Shelley's Mathilda,” in Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1989, pp. 49-67.
[In the following essay, Harpold draws parallels between the events in Mary Shelley's life and the action of Mathilda, noting that the book mirrors major events in the author's life.]
In a dream, I saw myself descending toward my father, intending to join him in the library. But along the way, the little skeleton always snatched me from behind with its outstretched hand. And I continued to live with my nightmares, and would never dare, when night had fallen—and now even in the day—to go down alone to the library.
This phobia was a too marvelous compromise between two powerful tendencies in my unconscious: to be my mother, in dying like her, which satisfied the most positive part of my oedipal complex: the love for my father; and to be punished with death by my mother, in reprisal for the death that I had caused her, which satisfied, in the other part of my oedipal complex, the unconscious sentiment of culpability attached to it.
—Marie Bonaparte, “L'identification d'une fille à sa mère morte”1
Mary Shelley's entries to the journal dating from her...
(The entire section is 8936 words.)
SOURCE: “Mary Shelley's Mathilda: Melancholy and the Political Economy of Romanticism,” in Studies in the Novel, Vol. 26, No. 2, Summer 1994, pp. 43-68.
[In the following essay, Rajan describes Mathilda as a narrative of trauma that lends itself more easily to a psychoanalytic interpretation rather than a formalist reading.]
Although Mary Shelley was better known in her lifetime than her husband, her writings other than Frankenstein have been largely forgotten until recently. It is, moreover, a curious fact that the reassessment of her place in the canon (and of the canon in relation to that “place”) is being mobilized by the reissuing of two of her most depressing texts: The Last Man and Mathilda.1 Part of the fascination of the latter seems to be that it was never published. “Censored” by Godwin, who was asked to secure a publisher for it but found its focus on father-daughter incest “disgusting,”2 and then left behind by Mary Shelley herself as she turned from the political to the domestic novel in Lodore, it was first brought out by Elizabeth Nitchie in 1959, when it must have seemed no more than a psychobiographical curiosity.3 That it lends itself more to psychoanalytic than to formalist interpretation, and that it is unlikely to impress those committed to an ideology of the aesthetic, are, by contrast,...
(The entire section is 12798 words.)
SOURCE: “Mary Shelley on the Therapeutic Value of Language,” in Papers on Language and Literature, Vol. 30, No. 4, Fall 1994, pp. 387-407.
[In the following essay, Brewer proposes that Shelley's use of oral and written language as a therapeutic tool is a dominant theme in many of her works, including Mathilda.]
The therapeutic value of oral and written self-expression is a recurrent theme in Mary Shelley's works, particularly in those works, such as Mathilda and Valperga: or, the Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca, in which the heroines have been subjected to psychological trauma. For example, the eponymous heroine of Mathilda refuses to tell her friend Woodville of her dead father's incestuous passion for her because she fears words, especially the word “incest,” and, perhaps partially as a result of this self-censorship, she lives out her life in a state of chronic depression. In contrast, Beatrice, the brutalized prophet of Valperga, does relate her tale of suffering to the sympathetic (and aptly named) Euthanasia, but this narration provides only temporary relief. Mary Shelley's often garrulous characters frequently speak or write of their experiences, even when, as in the case of Frankenstein's monster, these narrations seem implausible. As Marc A. Rubenstein notes, “the author permits the monster an improbable series of digressions as he relates...
(The entire section is 6988 words.)
SOURCE: “Naming the Daughter's Suffering: Melancholia in Mary Shelley's Mathilda,” in Essays in Literature, Vol. 23, No. 2, Fall, 1996, pp. 190-205.
[In the following essay, McKeever contends that Mathilda, in addition to being an intensely personal response to tragedy in Shelley's life, also presents a condemnation of fathers who fail to fulfill their role.]
Mary Shelley's Mathilda recounts the story of a young woman who, in a letter written prior to her death, divulges her life story to her friend Woodville. In this letter, Mathilda relates her parents' history, accentuating their profound love for each other as well as the father's devastation when, shortly after giving birth to Mathilda, his wife Diana dies. Unable to look at his daughter, the father arranges for Mathilda to be cared for by his sister and then disappears for a period of fifteen years. After this period of wandering, the father reappears and enjoys a two-month period during which his relationship with Mathilda flourishes.
However, when a potential suitor makes himself known, the father expels him, realizing subsequently that his feelings for Mathilda exceed the boundaries prescribed for parent and child. In his attempt to control his passion, he withdraws from Mathilda, who desperately endeavors to ascertain why her father seemingly rejects her. Finally, Mathilda forces him to blurt out his...
(The entire section is 8172 words.)
SOURCE: “Writing and Re-writing Incest in Mary Shelley's Mathilda,” in Keats-Shelley Journal, Vol. XLV, 1996, pp. 44-60.
[In the following essay, Garrett traces the development of Mathilda's text, proposing that Shelley uses this work to critique women's education and experience.]
Mary Shelley's second work of fiction, written in 1819 but not published until 1959, was a “tale” she eventually titled Mathilda. This novella has received relatively little critical attention, and, for the most part, analyses have been directed to the autobiographical or psychological significance of the work. Elizabeth Nitchie, editor of the first published version, read the story of Mathilda, her father, and Woodville the poet as versions of Mary Shelley herself, her father, William Godwin, and Percy Shelley.1 More recent critics have found in the narrative evidence of Mary Shelley's critique of her relationship with both her husband and her father.2 Mary Poovey, in an assessment of Mary Shelley's struggles with cultural and familial incentives to be first a Romantic rebel and then a proper Victorian lady, argues that her first three works of fiction (including Mathilda) are those of the rebel—created out of the self-confidence of being Wollstonecraft's daughter and drawing on Shelley's aesthetics.3
(The entire section is 6259 words.)
SOURCE: “The Law of the (Nameless) Father: Mary Shelley's Mathilda and the Incest Taboo,” in The Politics of Survivorship: Incest, Women's Literature, and Feminist Theory, New York University Press, 1996, pp. 53-89.
[In the following essay, Champagne discusses Mathilda as an example of incest narratives that were consistently suppressed because of their de-centered vision of paternity.]
Society expressly forbids that which society brings about.
—Lévi-Strauss, The Elementary Structures of Kinship
British romanticism, a literary movement spanning the years from 1790 to 1830, is the only canon to remain almost wholly resistant to feminist challenges. Still represented by six male poets (William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron, and Percy Bysshe Shelley), romanticism is really the last bastion of male canonicity. Both a celebration of individualism and a place-keeper in intellectual history, marking the historical moment when subjectivity and perception became privileged terms, romanticism contains within its definition a potentially feminist understanding of epistemology. But this potential has not yet been realized. Mary Shelley, the only canonized woman romanticist—marshaled into the canon derivatively, as the daughter of William Godwin and Mary...
(The entire section is 13312 words.)
SOURCE: “‘Knew shame, and knew desire’: Ambivalence as Structure in Mary Shelley's Mathilda,” in Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after Frankenstein, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997, pp. 115-29.
[In the following essay, Himes offers a comparison of the sources Shelley used to compose Mathilda.]
“Such is my name, and such my tale, Confessor—to thy secret ear, I breathe the sorrows I bewail, And thank thee for the generous tear This glazing eye could never shed.”
—Lord Byron, “The Giaour” (1813)
Mathilda is an arresting, riveting work, strange in its representation of incestuous love yet believable in its evocation of forbidden desire. The tightly confined internal and external spaces of and around the title character, who is the scriptor of this confessional work, force the reader to participate with Mathilda in the text. The reader cannot objectively receive the novel but must engage with Mathilda in her psychological landscape, and that is an area fraught with ambivalence created by vacillation between two equally powerful poles: Mathilda's position as both the subject and the object of the verb “to desire.” This ambivalence provides the structural and intellectual underpinning for the story as a whole, both within the text and, by extension, within the consciousness of the responding reader....
(The entire section is 6222 words.)
Barbour, Judith. “‘The meaning of the tree’: The Tale of Mirra in Mary Shelley's Mathilda.” In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after “Frankenstein,” edited by Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, and Gregory O'Dea, pp. 98-113. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
A discussion of textual sources for Mathilda.
Bowen, Arlene. “‘Colui Da Cu’ lo Tolsi / Lo Bello Stilo’: Dante's Presence in Mary Shelley's Mathilda.” Italian Culture 12 (1994): 59-84.
Traces the influence of Dante's La Divina Commedia on Shelley's Mathilda.
Nitchie, Elizabeth. An introduction to Mathilda, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, pp. vii-xv. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.
A brief overview of the novel, including a history of the manuscript, tracing it from conception to publication.
Todd, Janet. An introduction to Mary Wollstonecraft, “Mary Maria,” Mary Shelley, “Mathilda,” pp. vii-xxviii. London: Pickering & Chatto, 1991.
Comparative analysis of the above-mentioned texts by Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley.
Ford, Susan Allen. “‘A name more dear’: Daughters, Fathers, and Desire in A Simple Story, The False Friend and...
(The entire section is 262 words.)