Though there are a number of thematic elements in the social concerns discussed above, certain themes per se may be found in Baum's second Ozian adventure story: 1) breaking down boundaries and barriers; 2) establishing legitimacy of rule; and 3) the use of air power in escape and pursuit, and in warfare. As to the first, animals (even an insect) and hand-made figures are seen participating actively, almost on equal terms, with humans, in human concerns. Another aspect of this human-nonhuman interrelationship is the active involvement of wonder- workers (sorcerers, witches, and wizards) in the affairs of the human-nonhuman group. Though the human-nonhuman dichotomy was breached over two thousand years ago in Greek and Roman fables, Baum's treatment of the matter is only one part of a more complex whole. What were, at the time Baum wrote the book, conventional gender roles (involving a "separation of powers,") were reversed by General Jinjur's military takeover of the Emerald City; then this reversal was itself canceled when Glinda the Good helped Tip, the Scarecrow, and their companions retake the Emerald City. A more striking gender reversal, however, awaits the reader at the end of the story. In a sense Baum (doubtless under the influence of the Wright Brothers' achievement in 1903) also tells of the breaking of the gravity barrier, by describing the Gump, that fairy-tale "lighter-than-air" flying- machine. More subtly than any of the above instances, is Baum's...
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