Biography (Dictionary of World Biography: Twentieth Century)
Article abstract: Though within the Continental tradition of philosophy known as existentialism, Heidegger strove to free philosophy from what he claimed were its millennia-old metaphysical shackles. Using complex and arcane terminology, he sought to penetrate the nature of the confrontation of the human being with being itself and to clear a way for the answer to the age-old question of why there is something rather than nothing.
Martin Heidegger was the son of Friedrich Heidegger, a Catholic sexton at Messkirch, a small village in the Black Forest region of southwestern Germany, and Johanna (Kempf) Heidegger. Martin, the elder of the couple’s two sons, attended public school in Messkirch and then entered the Gymnasium at Constance, with an intention to study for the Jesuit priesthood. In 1909, after three years of study at the Gymnasium at Freiburg, he entered the University of Freiburg. Unable to pursue the priesthood because of poor health, Heidegger’s study of Christian theology and medieval philosophy—after courses in physics and mathematics—drew him toward a lifelong devotion to philosophy.
Heidegger’s doctoral dissertation in 1913, Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus (the doctrine of judgment in psychologism), published the next year, took issue with the kind of simplistic reductionism that would collapse speculative philosophy into mere psychology. Heidegger acknowledged the influence of Edmund Husserl, the father of phenomenology, who called for the critical examination of the phenomena of consciousness on their own terms. Heidegger continued his studies even after the outbreak of World War I in 1914, his poor health leading to a quick discharge from military service.
By 1916, a second book-length work, on the doctrine of categories of the medieval Scholastic philosopher John Duns Scotus, enabled Heidegger to teach philosophy at Freiburg as a privatdocent (an unsalaried lecturer paid out of students’ fees). Elfriede Petri became Heidegger’s wife in 1917; the couple had two sons, Jörg and Hermann.
In 1916, Husserl went to Freiburg, and by 1920 Heidegger had become his assistant, though Heidegger began to be uncomfortable with the kind of analysis of the “things” of consciousness promoted by Husserl. Heidegger believed that the ancient Greeks, especially the pre-Socratics, had had an experience of being itself—that is, the “isness” of all things—something Husserl’s epistemology, or theory of knowledge, merely obscured.
From 1923 until 1928, when he returned to Freiburg to succeed Husserl in the chair of philosophy, Heidegger taught as an associate professor at Marburg, where he was exposed to influences to which he would owe much in the shaping of his ontology (or theory of being). A new friendship with the theologian Rudolf Bultmann introduced Heidegger to the work of another theological writer, Karl Barth. That opened the way to a study of Martin Luther and existentialist Søren Kierkegaard. It was at Marburg that Heidegger published the first volume of his masterpiece, Sein und Zeit (1927; Being and Time, 1962).
Being and Time was Heidegger’s attempt to start philosophy over again, to return to the pre-Socratic insights into being lost with the advent of the rationalistic metaphysics of Plato. Heidegger was convinced that the pre-Socratics—true “thinkers” such as Parmenides and Heracleitus—had stood astonished before the presence of being: that which was manifested in all the actually existing beings of the universe. For Heidegger, authentic human being was an openness to exactly this same astonishment, obscured by centuries of forgetfulness of being, of neglect of the most important question: Why is there something rather than nothing? By an extraordinary etymological analysis of the pre-Socratics, Heidegger detected evidence of this primordial awareness of being. Heracleitus said “One is all” (panta ta onta), and for Heidegger this was precisely the insight that “all being is in Being.”
The questioning of being is Heidegger’s task in Being and Time. This questioning is what gives humanity to man, who in his human being is a “being-in-the-world” (In-der-Welt-Sein), a finite creature bounded by death. Time and being are inextricably linked, contrary to Western metaphysical thought, which had attempted to ground its theories in some notion of the eternal. Human being (Heidegger’s Dasein) is open to its “thrownness” into the world with no reference except to that of “no-thing-ness,” or death. Yet Dasein often fails to respond to its being-in-the-world and instead, says Heidegger, becomes an alienated “they,” mass man, with the incessant chatter of words drowning out the speech through which being expresses itself. Dasein does not listen. Only with the experience of an existential angst, or dread—the realization that one’s being-in-the-world is an open question—can the voice of being be heard once again.
There is no easy way to achieve authenticity in one’s human being, for one’s very existence means being-with-others and a falling away from true self-possession. Yet the uncanny feeling of homelessness in the world, elicited by one’s angst, serves to shatter complacency and allow the human being to see that his authenticity must come in the caring for being, in the answering to being. This insight allows Heidegger to commend, in his later writings, those who care for the earth by working with it, and to condemn the technological rapacity of both the Soviet Union and the United States. Dasein is a being-toward-death, and this future inevitability must mark how man perceives his past as well as his present. It must be the same for whole peoples: History is a...
(The entire section is 2424 words.)
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Bibliography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Beistegui, Miguel de. Heidegger and the Political. New York: Routledge, 1998. A comprehensive look at Heidegger’s political and social views.
Bernstein, Michael André. Five Portraits: Modernity and the Imagination in Twentieth-Century German Writing. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2000. A study of five modernist poets, including Heidegger, whose elitism—according to Bernstein—limited his moral reasoning.
Biemel, Walter. Martin Heidegger: An Illustrated Study. Translated by J. L. Mehta. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976. Biemel, a student under Heidegger, elucidates Heidegger’s concern for Being and truth in an accessible analysis of seven works, including Being and Time. Dozens of black-and-white photographs of Heidegger and his contemporaries, a five-page chronology, and a twenty-page bibliography (including English translations and important secondary works) contribute to this introduction to Heidegger’s thought.
Clark, Timothy. Martin Heidegger. New York: Routledge, 2002. A volume in the series Routledge Critical Thinkers.
Dallmayr, Fred. The Other Heidegger. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993. Argues against the idea that Heidegger’s political involvement with National Socialism can be separated from his philosophical writings but makes an insightful case for why Heidegger’s involvement does not imply that his philosophy should be rejected. There is, Dallymayr claims, an “other Heidegger” whose work can be...
(The entire section is 682 words.)
Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
The work of Martin Heidegger (HI-dehg-ur) was extremely influential in twentieth century philosophy, theology, and literary criticism. His writings are essential reading for a study of phenomenology, existentialism, and deconstruction.
Heidegger was born into a Catholic family, and he began his academic studies as a student of theology. During his studies and early teaching career at the University of Freiburg, however, Heidegger became a follower of Edmund Husserl, who encouraged Heidegger’s work only as Heidegger began to reject his adherence to Catholic doctrine. Heidegger’s study of Friedrich Nietzsche completed his break with Catholicism.
Heidegger’s first major work is his magnum opus, Being...
(The entire section is 730 words.)
Biography (World Philosophers and Their Works)
Article abstract: From within the Continental tradition of philosophy known as existentialism, Heidegger strove to free philosophy from what he claimed were its millennia-old metaphysical shackles. Using complex and arcane terminology, he investigated the confrontation of the human being with Being itself and cleared a way for the answer to the question of why there is something rather than nothing.
Martin Heidegger was the son of Friedrich Heidegger, a Catholic sexton at Messkirch, a small village in the Black Forest region of southwestern Germany, and Johanna (Kempf) Heidegger. Martin, the elder of the couple’s two sons, attended public school in Messkirch and then...
(The entire section is 2741 words.)
Biography (Ethics (Ready Reference series))
Heidegger studied at the University of Freiburg under Edmund Husserl, whom he succeeded as professor of philosophy in 1928. For Heidegger, the basic questions of ethics, such as “What is good?” and “What is it that one ought to do?” are subsumed in the prior ontological question “What is?” Heidegger found, however, that the traditional formulation of the ontological question “What is being?” failed to explicitly thematize the dimension of meaning. The leading question in Heidegger’s thought, as opposed to traditional ontology, became “What is the meaning of being?” The Greek words used by Plato and Aristotle that are commonly translated as “being” and...
(The entire section is 917 words.)