Martin Delany 1812-–1885
Full name Martin Robinson Delany. American nonfiction writer, essayist, historian, and novelist.
One of the first black Americans to have a novel published in the United States, Delany is most remembered for his advocacy of black separatism and emigration in the nineteenth‐century. Departing intellectual company with most abolitionists of his time, Delany espoused black nationalism and Pan‐Africanism in an effort to elevate the status of blacks in the United States. His views, which emphasized the need for the separation of the races and self‐government for blacks, often alienated him from his colleagues, who still embraced an accommodation philosophy focused on the integration of blacks into white society.
Delany was born into a family of free blacks in Charlestown, Virginia (now West Virginia); his mother, Pati Delany, was the daughter of a Mandinka prince, and his father, Samuel Delany, descended from the Golah tribe in Africa. As a young boy he learned of his noble African heritage from his grandmother, which he contrasted with the oppression faced by blacks, including his own family, in America. When Delany was ten years old, his father was imprisoned for protecting himself from a white man who was beating him. Delany's mother also was found guilty of violating a law that targeted blacks around this time, in this case a prohibition of the education of black children. After the conviction of Mrs. Delany, the family fled to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, where Delany worked as a barber and began his study of medicine. Delany moved to Pittsburgh in 1831, and it was here that he began his lifelong career as a political activist. He joined the Abstinence Society and served as executive secretary of the Philanthropic Society, a group dedicated to helping free blacks migrate to the North. He also joined a vigilante group that protected black communities from attacks by whites. Delany's separatist position, though not yet completely formed, was strengthened by his 1839 visit to the states of Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas, where slavery was still in existence. Delany married Catherine A. Richards in 1843; together they had thirteen children, four of whom died in infancy. That same year Delany became editor of the Mystery, one of the earliest black newspapers, which he used as a vehicle to champion the rights of black people. In 1847, Delany gave up the editorship of the newspaper because of financial difficulties and became co‐editor and western agent for Frederick Douglass's newspaper, North Star. The partnership lasted until 1849, when the two parted ways ideologically because Delany's separatist leanings clashed with Douglass's accommodation belief that the well‐being of blacks lay within the structure of a racially integrated American society.
His interests in science and pan‐Africanism characterized Delany's activities during the 1850s and 1860s. He was accepted to study medicine at Harvard University, but was not allowed to return for a second term because his presence there caused a rift among students. Delany then returned to Pittsburgh to practice medicine and to continue his political activities. He openly advocated the emigration of blacks and represented Pittsburgh at a meeting of black emigrationists in Toronto in 1851. Delany continued to popularize self‐elevation and voluntary emigration of free blacks, issuing a call for a National Emigration Convention, which eventually met in Cleveland in 1854. Here he attacked the American Colonization Society and delivered his famous speech, “Political Destiny of the Colored Race on the American Continent” (1854). In it Delany rejects the idea that blacks can live and prosper in the United States and advocates their emigration to the West Indies and Central and South America. In 1856, he left the United States for Chatham, Canada, where he practiced medicine and conducted scientific research. Between 1859 and 1861, Delany and Robert Campbell, a Jamaican, traveled to the Niger Valley in Africa to investigate the possibilities for the settlement of American blacks. With a group of native chiefs, they signed treaties that outlined a plan to establish a colony that would spread Christianity throughout West Africa, as well as export cotton to England—thus undermining the economy of the slave‐holding states in America. He lectured in England and America to try to gain support for the plan, but it eventually lost momentum because of English and American opposition and the changing social climate that came with the American Civil War. Delany continued to lecture, both in the United States and abroad, and also became involved in domestic politics. He recruited black soldiers to fight against Confederate forces and in 1865 was commissioned as the first black major in the United States Army. After the war, he remained in South Carolina to champion the rights of freed blacks. He made one more attempt at an emigration plan in 1878, when he became treasurer of the Liberian Exodus Joint Stock Steamship Company. The group purchased a steamship, but the maiden voyage ended disastrously. Delany continued to lecture and participate in politics until the end of his life. He rejoined his family in Ohio in 1884 and died of a lung infection in 1885.
Delany's works reflect his political interests and closely parallel his activities. In 1852, he published his first polemical work, The Condition, Elevation, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States (1852). In this work he expressed his idea that the United States had not fulfilled its obligation to its black citizens. He also advocated the emigration of free blacks to Central America and the creation of a black country that could use economic and political pressure to defeat American slavery. Delany's treatise on freemasonry, The Origins and Objects of Ancient Freemasonry (1853), based on his ethnological studies, argues that all wisdom began with blacks in Africa and links this idea to the issue of elevation of the black race. Delany's novel, Blake (1859), involves a broken slave family, their escape, and their journey North. Blake, an escaped slave, becomes the general of a force of black insurrectionists, and, with the help of his friend, Placido, a militant Cuban poet, plans to overthrow the Cuban government and to prevent the United States's annexation of Cuba. Delany's Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party (1861), completed after his trip to Africa, is largely an account of his ideas for a settlement project and of his experience is Africa. Delany's final work, Principia of Ethnology, published in 1879, asserts the racial superiority of pure‐blooded blacks over mulattos. Delany also attempts to scientifically prove the intellectual, economic, political, and social ascendancy of early Ethiopian and Egyptian empires, pointing out that this superiority should serve as positive motivation to American Blacks. He concludes the work with his hope for the fulfillment of a prophecy made in the Psalms: “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch forth her hands unto God.”
Delany's ideas and his writings have elicited much controversy, starting with his contemporary critics and continuing through to today. The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States was roundly criticized for extremism, even by the abolitionist newspapers of William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass. Critics consider Blake an important American novel because of the insights it provides into American slavery and because it offers the first portrayal in American literature of a fully‐developed West Indian character in its protagonist. Blake expresses a militancy that was rare for its time and which did not really gain support until the 1960s. However, it is criticized for its poor literary style and inconsistencies. Delany's works did not receive much critical attention until the 1950s because his ideas were considered radical and his works propagandistic. In the 1950s historians began to write about his role in American history. Delany and his works became the subjects of much critical and popular attention in the 1960s and 1970s, when scholars focused on his ideas regarding black separatism and emigration. Interest in Delany's works has continued unabated, with a growing focus on Blake as an ideological as well as a literary work.
The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States (nonfiction) 1852
The Origins and Objects of Ancient Freemasonry: Its Introduction into the United States and Legitimacy among Colored Men (nonfiction) 1853
“Political Destiny of the Colored Race on the American Continent” [published in Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People Held at Cleveland, Ohio the 24th, 25th, and 26th of August, 1854] (essay) 1854
Blake; or, The Huts of America: A Tale of the Mississippi Valley, the Southern United States, and Cuba [published in Anglo‐African, 1859, and Weekly Anglo‐African, 1861‐62] (novel) 1859‐62
Official Report of the Niger River Valley Exploring Party (report) 1861
University Pamphlets: A Series of Four Tracts on National Polity (pamphlets) 1870
Principia of Ethnology: The Origin of Races of Color, with an Archaeological Compendium of Ethiopian and Egyptian Civilization (nonfiction) 1879
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SOURCE: An introduction to Search for a Place: Black Separatism and Africa, 1860, M. R. Delany and Robert Campbell, The University of Michigan Press, 1969, pp. 1‐22.
[In the following essay, Bell explores Delany's views on Black separatism in the 1850s in the context of such like‐minded figures as Robert Campbell, Henry Highland Garnet, and James M. Whitfield.]
Often, present‐day black separatists look for ways to restore the balance of justice for centuries of oppression by penalizing the white man. Their counterparts a century ago looked often for a place beyond the borders of the United States where they might develop a powerful black nation, the products of which would compete economically with those of the slave South, and where the Negro's genius for politics and government would be unhampered by meddling whites.
Mindful always of their responsibility to those still in slavery, the Negro separatists of that era reasoned that uplift of the black race, whether in Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, or Africa would have a “reflex influence” on the plight of those still held in bondage and on those only partly removed from its curse in America. A black nation would in time accomplish the goals which an oppressed people could not accomplish for themselves. To support this thesis they pointed to such examples as the Puritans who had been unable to throw off the yoke of...
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SOURCE: An introduction to Blake; or, The Huts of America, Beacon Press, 1970, pp. xi‐xxv.
[In the following essay, Miller presents an overview of Delany's life and discusses Blake as the epitome of Delany's pre‐Civil War thought.]
“I beg to call your attention to the Story of ‘Blake or the Huts of America’ now being published in the ‘Anglo‐African Magazine’” Martin R. Delany wrote the noted abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison from a New York boardinghouse in February 1859. In the midst of a lengthy and frustrating attempt to raise money for a proposed African exploring venture (on which he would leave May 24, bound for Liberia), Delany added this plea in his letter to Garrison: “I am anxious to get a good publishing house to take it, as I know I could make a penny by it, and the chances for a Negro in this department are so small, that unless some disinterested competent persons would indirectly aid in such a step, I almost despair of any chance.”1
Any efforts Garrison may have made clearly did not succeed, for Blake was never printed in book form. Twenty‐six chapters were printed in The Anglo‐African Magazine from January to July, 1859. Although the magazine continued to appear monthly until March, 1860, no further installments of Delany's novel were printed. Whether Delany lost confidence in the magazine, or, as is more likely,...
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SOURCE: “The Editor,” in Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism, Beacon Press, 1971, pp. 52‐86.
[In the following excerpt, Ullman surveys Delany's career as editor of The Mystery, and focuses on his antislavery activities.]
The Mystery was wholly a reflection of its editor. Aside from its news content, which was concerned chiefly with reports on slave‐stealing events, Delany wrote directly to his people on every variety of theme applying to them and exposing every white hypocrisy directed at them. Today, his journalistic colleagues would dismiss him as a propagandist because he thumped a drum rather than pursued the modern course of greater subtlety in general newspaper propaganda. In Pittsburgh, and then throughout the country in Delany's day, his colleagues first were amazed and then admiring—all but the outrightly pro‐slavery editors.
Delany minced no words as his writing on manhood made clear:
Situated as we are, as mere nonentities in the midst of others—the most deserving, respectable and praiseworthy among us, in the eye of the law and its consequent enactments, being placed far beneath the most vile vagabonds while being denied the privileges granted to the pauper and vagrant—those, by the laws, declared to be nuisance—while privileges are being enjoyed by other men, privileges which from their...
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SOURCE: “Emigrate!” in Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism, Beacon Press, 1971, pp. 141‐71.
[In the following excerpt, Ullman traces the growth of Delany's theory of Black separatism, emphasizing his role in the National Emigration Convention of 1854.]
Condition and Elevation has always been a neglected source of information in the study of the American Negro. The reason may be because it violates the American illusion of democratic equality. It sets forth quite clearly and in detail the genesis of one of today's unmentionables—that the American brand of apartheid differs little in white attitudes from those of South Africa and Rhodesia.
Delany can be accused—and was—of poor writing in portions of Condition and Elevation but never of superficial thinking or compromise with his innate honesty. He declared in his preface that his “sole object has been to place before the public in general, and the colored people of the United States in particular, great truths concerning this class of citizens, which appears to have been heretofore avoided, as well by friends and enemies to their elevation.”
Had he too avoided these “great truths,” which both white and black abolitionists disregarded in schizophrenic unity, the strange storm that arose among abolitionists after the book's publication would never have occurred....
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SOURCE: “In Search of International Support for African Colonization: Martin R. Delany's Visit to England, 1860,” in Canadian Journal of History, Vol. X, No. 3, December, 1975, pp. 307‐24.
[In the following essay, Blackett details the events of Delany's visit to England and his attempt to gain support for his separatist plans for American Blacks.]
Movements for social change invariably produce international support organizations, which through lobbying attempt to influence policies and action favorable to their cause. In the first half of the nineteenth century the many revolutionary and nationalist wars in Europe and South America had created their respective support movements in western Europe. Garibaldi's and Kossuth's, Louis Blanc's and Bolivar's and many more all found support in the main cities in Europe. Throughout this period, England which had remained relatively free from the pressures of domestic revolution, became the principal refuge for those fleeing the turmoil of revolution and counter‐revolution. The American antislavery movement falls squarely into this pattern and tradition, and especially so after the final emancipation of slavery in the British West Indian colonies in 1838.
After West Indian emancipation the British antislavery movement turned its attention and efforts to the United States. Every year numbers of Americans visited Britain in the hope of...
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SOURCE: “The Drift toward Emigration,” in The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization 1787‐1863, University of Illinois Press, 1975, pp. 93‐133.
[In the following excerpt, Miller discusses Delany's interaction with other leading figures in the abolitionist movement, his disappointment with their ideas, and his eventual espousal of Black separatism and emigration.]
By the summer of 1851, when he first arrived in Canada to lecture on physiology in the weeks before the Toronto convention, Martin R. Delany no longer adhered to the traditional abolitionist shibboleths which he had espoused so frequently and effectively as an editor and orator during the 1840's. At that time he had combined militant abolitionism with less fiery activities on behalf of political antislavery, black suffrage, and the more amorphous principles of moral reform and the “elevation” of the race. After 1850, however, Delany emerged as a leading advocate of nationalist‐emigrationist positions and thus departed sharply from the attitudes he had held during the previous decade. From Delany's perspective, however, this development must have appeared inevitable. Not only had he been nurtured on the whole range of similar ideas which Lewis Woodson had developed in the late 1830's and early 1840's, but he also claimed to be a descendant of a Golah village chieftain on his father's side and a Mandingo...
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SOURCE: “African Dreams Deferred,” in The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization 1787‐1863, University of Illinois Press, 1975, pp. 250‐63.
[In the following excerpt, Miller explores Delany's plans to facilitate emigration of American Blacks to the African country of Yoruba.]
Although neither Martin R. Delany nor any other black emigrationist would explore West Africa again during the 1860's, the African emigration movement did not simply disappear once Delany returned to North America and the African Civilization Society's E. P. Rogers died in Liberia. Rather, both Delany and the Civilization Society's Henry Highland Garnet still hoped that British and American philanthropy might underwrite the costs of emigration of American and Canadian blacks to West Africa. Although unsuccessful in their efforts, both men labored throughout 1861 and into early 1862 to fulfill the dreams they had been nurturing for several years. However, developments both in West Africa and in the United States forced them to abandon their plans to establish a colony in Yoruba. Instead, they turned their attention to their enslaved brethren in the American South.
Delany continued to pursue his Yoruba emigration plan after he arrived in Portland, Maine, from England on Christmas, 1860. While there were no demonstrations to greet the black adventurer and entrepreneur when he...
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SOURCE: “Paradigms of the Early Past,” in The Way of the New World: The Black Novel in America, Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1975, pp. 1‐24.
[In the following excerpt, Gayle presents an overview of The Condition and Blake, concluding that Delany's rejection of the tradition of the Black novel that existed in America up to his time took away the foundation for later Black writers.]
… [Delany] was firm in his conviction that “the man who has suffered the wrong is the man to demand redress—the man struck is the man to cry out—We must be our own representatives and advocates.”1 Only men of such stature, those capable of thinking for themselves and believing in unity of race and purpose, are able to understand the historical forces arrayed against them and move forthrightly in the cause of liberation. It is no accident of history that men from Caesar to present‐day Americans have considered those who think long and hard about their conditions to be dangerous men.
Such men, and many are named throughout the book, do not want to become like the Americans, realize that like other national and racial groups, black people constitute “a nation within a nation,” and that “A child born under oppression has all the elements of servility in its constitution; who, when born under favorable circumstances, has to the contrary, all the...
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SOURCE: “The Redemption of His Race: Creating Pan‐African Community in Delany's Blake,” in Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity, The University of North Carolina Press, 1997, pp. 177‐223.
[In the following excerpt, Levine explores Blake as an expression of Delany's ideology, noting that the novel “can be viewed both as an allegorical account of Delany's quest for leadership in the community, circa 1852‐59, and as an engaged response to and intervention in events of 1859‐62. …”]
Martin Delany's Blake; or, The Huts of America (1859‐62) may be read as an effort on his part, comparable with Douglass's in My Bondage and My Freedom, to define, fashion, and celebrate his representative identity as a Mosaic black leader. But how coherent is that self‐representation? The evidence suggests that the novel, first published in book form in 1970, emerged from multiple contexts and addressed Delany's sometimes competing interests and concerns.1 Eric J. Sundquist and Jean Fagan Yellin hypothesize, for example, that Delany began Blake in 1852 or 1853 as a revisionary response to Uncle Tom's Cabin. Perhaps the early chapters on plantation blacks were drafted shortly after Delany read sections of Stowe's novel, but references later in part 1 to the condition of blacks in Canada, where Delany moved in 1856,...
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Rollin, Frances. Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany. In Two Biographies by African‐American Women, edited by William L. Andrews, pp. 13‐67. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Highly complimentary biography of Delany, originally written in 1868.
Additional coverage of Delany's life and career is contained in the following source published by the Gale Group: Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 50.
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