Martial Biography


(Literature and the Ancient World, Critical Edition)


Martial (MAHR-shall) came to Rome as a young man and gained attention by publishing a pamphlet, Epigrammaton liber (80 c.e.; On the Spectacles, 1980), celebrating both the grand opening of the Flavian Amphitheater and the glory of the Flavian family, who became his patrons. Martial is best known for his twelve books of epigrams, which he published over the next twenty years before retiring to his hometown.

Martial’s fifteen hundred epigrams are mostly short, satirical in nature, and characterized by a “point” at the end, usually made by the last word of the poem. Martial’s subject matter is daily life in Rome. He is a realist, a hater of pretense, eager to expose hypocrisy, and willing to name names. Martial describes without moralizing. His humor may be cruel and even vicious, but he understands people perfectly.

Criticism of Martial focuses on the obscenity that colors about one-fifth of his epigrams. Another objection has been his admiration of the despotic emperor Domitian; however, Martial could hardly afford to offend the ruler who had supported him. Less pardonable is Martial’s obvious hatred of women, another recurrent theme.


Martial crystallized the epigram as a literary form and is sometimes called “the father of the epigram.”

Further Reading:

Adamik, T. “Martial and the Vita Beatior.”...

(The entire section is 505 words.)

Martial Biography

(Historic Lives: The Ancient World, Prehistory-476)

Early Life

Everything known about Martial (MAHR-shuhl) comes from his poems and from one letter of Pliny the Younger, written at the time of the poet’s death. Martial alludes to his Spanish origins in an early poem, but by the age of fifty-seven he had already spent thirty-four years in Rome. His parents, of whom nothing more than their names is known, provided him with the standard rhetorical education designed to equip him to be a lawyer. In one of his poems, Martial depicts them as already in the underworld. Martial seems to have been in Rome by 64 c.e., perhaps under the patronage of the powerful Seneca family, also natives of Spain.

At some point he received the status of knight and an honorary military tribunate, but he does not mention which emperor bestowed on him those privileges. By contrast, it is clear that Titus gave Martial the privileges of a father of three children and that Domitian renewed the grant. His silence about the emperor who had provided the two earlier honors leads scholars to suspect that it was Nero, who fell into disgrace on his death in 68. It was important to Martial to have his honors known but impolitic to boast about who had given them to him.

Martial probably practiced law during Vespasian’s reign (69-79), though it does not seem to have suited him. His comments about the profession are unkind, yet fairly late in his life he gibed someone who had failed to pay him for pleading his case in court.

Exactly when or why Martial turned to poetry cannot be determined. His first published effort was Epigrammaton liber (80 c.e.; On the Spectacles, 1980), a collection of short poems in honor of the dedication of the Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum) in 80. Between 86 and 98 he published his epigrams at the rate of roughly a volume a year. Publication order is not necessarily the order of writing. Epigrams 2.59 and 5.26, for example, refer to the same incident but were published several years apart. The twelfth and final volume appeared in 101, after he had returned to Spain. There are also two volumes of incidental poems that were meant to accompany gifts given at banquets. Probably written between 80 and 85, these are sometimes numbered books 13 and 14 of his collected works, but this classification does not seem to have been Martial’s intention.

One of the great puzzles about Martial’s early life is how he supported himself. Many of his poems complain about his poverty and the necessity of flattering the rich in the hope of a handout or a dinner invitation. He mentions his wretched third-floor apartment, and his ragged toga is a frequent subject of lament.

In other poems, however, Martial refers to his “Nomentan farm,” a suburban villa not far from Rome, and to his private home in the city. He invites guests to dine with him and boasts about his kitchen and his cook, luxuries beyond the means of the urban poor who inhabited Rome’s apartment houses. He asks permission from the emperor to tap into the city water supply and pipe the water directly into his house, a privilege reserved for the ruler’s wealthy friends. The image that he tries to project of a poor poet scrounging handouts from stingy patrons may be nothing more than a literary pose.

Life’s Work

This problem of the poetic persona complicates enormously the study of Martial’s life and work. His poems are the only source of information about his life, but there is doubt that what he says about himself is to be taken seriously. For example, in one poem he complains about his wife having a lover, while in another he objects that she is too moralistic to engage in the deviant sexual behavior that he enjoys. Can these poems be talking about the same woman? As a result, some modern scholars contend that Martial was never married and that any reference to a wife is merely a literary convention. Another possibility is that he was married several times, something that was not at all uncommon in Rome in the late first century c.e.

If one cannot be certain whether, or how many times, Martial was married, it is difficult to ascertain anything else about his life. In one poem, he refers to a daughter but only once in passing. In another, he mourns deeply the death of the slave child Erotion, tending her grave for years and requiring the next owner of the property to observe the same rituals. It is conjectured that this was his daughter by a slave woman on his farm.

It is virtually impossible to know Martial from his poems, as the contradictions in his work are numerous. In some of the poems he pictures himself engaging in homosexual relations; in others he ridicules men who do the same. He praises the joys of simple country life, but he lived in Rome for thirty-five years. He claims that, although many of his poems are bawdy, his life is decent.

Every writer must please his readers, and Martial seems to have been slanting his material to the tastes of his audience. In...

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Martial Biography

(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Although Marcus Valerius Martialis, known as Martial (MAHR-shuhl), was born in Bilbilis, Hispania, between 38 and 41 c.e. and did not go to Rome until the year 64, he was completely a Roman; he has given posterity one of the best pictures of Roman life in his time that exists. His arrival in Rome was not ostentatious, and he remained poor for a few years, but he soon became acquainted with the famous literary men of the time—Pliny, Lucan, Juvenal—and acquired rich patrons. He received benefits from the Roman emperors Titus and Domitian.{$S[A]Martialis, Marcus Valerius;Martial}{$S[A]Marcus Valerius Martialis;Martial}

Martial was often accused of being a toady to his wealthy patrons; certainly he was often unhappy over the necessity to be witty and entertaining for them, but he was a loyal friend and was generally well liked. He was given an estate in Spain to which he returned in 94 to spend the last few years of his life, dying at Bilbilis about 103.

The epigram was Martial’s poetic specialty, and he wrote a total of fourteen books of satiric verse. About 575 of his epigrams have been preserved, and from these it can be seen that he wrote about almost every phase of Roman life, sharply pinpointing the gentle and gracious as well as the false and disgusting. His epigrams, running from two lines to more than thirty in length, are written in a variety of meters, but they have in common a sharp twist of phrase and meaning at the end, a kind of punch line.

Martial’s epigrams are often bitter, but at times, especially when he was writing of country life or his Spanish homeland, they are full of deep feeling. The epigram in English literature owes much to his clear insight and skillful versatility.

Martial Biography

(European Poets and Poetry)

Marcus Valerius Martialis was the son of ordinary Roman citizens living in Spain, a colony of the Roman Empire. His parents were Fronto and Flaccilla, one of whom was of Celtic-Iberian heritage. His given name, Marcus, celebrates his birth on March first, probably late in the reign of the insane, ill-fated emperor, Caligula. Martial received a liberal education at home, and in 64 c.e., he journeyed to Rome with the intention of making his living as a poet.

Upon his arrival in the capital, Martial was welcomed into the literary circle of two fellow Spaniards, as well as into the patronage system that permitted starving artists of all disciplines to work under the financial sponsorship of the...

(The entire section is 445 words.)