Íñigo López de Mendoza, the Marqués de Santillana
Íñigo López de Mendoza, the Marqués de Santillana 1398-1458
Spanish poet and literary patron.
The following entry provides criticism on Santillana's works from 1967 through 1996.
The Marqués de Santillana is an important literary figure of fifteenth-century Spanish poetry and is credited with composing the first Petrarchan style sonnets in Spanish, referred to as the Sonetos fechos al modo (circa 1438-circa 1455), and the first to write formal literary criticism in Castile. In addition to these accomplished firsts, Santillana's allegorical poem, Comedieta de Ponça (1436) marks the first Spanish ars poetica. Although much of Santillana's work enjoyed significant prestige during his lifetime, Santillana is best known today for the composition of his serranillas, many of which can be found in anthologies and histories dealing with Spanish literature. Santillana's work, which is extensive and varied, was significantly influenced by the works of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, making his body of poetry representative of the transition between medieval and Renaissance Spanish literature. While Santillana's poetry mainly deals with the topics of love, politics, morals, and religion, many critics point out that evidence of Santillana's artistic merit lies in the formality, thematic variety, and extensiveness of his work, all of which demonstrate that he was a dedicated poet. Not only is Santillana considered one of the most enthusiastic and talented Spanish poets of his time, he is also considered a great literary patron. At a time when his country was experiencing political and social unrest, Santillana supported the translations of many Greek and Latin classics into Castilian and used his poetry as a voice of counsel and consolation in an effort to encourage intellectual and cultural progress in his country.
Santillana was born Íñigo López de Mendoza on August 19, 1398, at Carrion de Los Condes in Old Castile. He was born into a talented family of writers that introduced him to writing early in his life. His father, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, was a grand admiral of Castile but enjoyed writing poetry occasionally, and his uncles, Pérez de Guzmán and López de Ayala, were also talented writers. Santillana's father died when he was five years old, but his mother, Leonor de la Vega, made sure Santillana received the best education she could provide, along with tutors who would influence him well, among them Chancellor Pedro López de Ayala, a prominent writer and man in Castile at the time. From his eighteenth year on, Santillana became a well-known figure in the court of King Juan II of Castile. His involvement in the court and his country's politics allowed him to establish relationships with other writers and intellectuals of his time, and provided him with an opportunity to write his own poetry. In 1412 he married Catalina de Figuera, and the couple had ten children. Throughout his lifetime Santillana distinguished himself as a skillful politician and a courageous member of the military. For his role in the battle of Olmedo on May 19, 1445, he was granted the titles of Marqués de Santillana and Conde del Real de Manzanares, the former for which he is best known. After King Juan II died in 1454, Santillana left public affairs for the most part, and devoted himself to the pursuits of literature and religious meditation until he died on March 25, 1458 at Guadalajara.
Today, the most popular and widely studied of Santillana's works are his serranillas (circa 1423-circa 1440). Eight of the serranillas were written to stand alone, and two represent stanzas from larger collective poems where various authors contributed. These ten poems have distinctive courtly and pastoral elements. Structurally the poems are not difficult, but they do contain innovative features and have a certain musical quality, elements on which many critics have focused studies. Three additional poems that receive great critical attention are El triunfete de amor (circa 1437), El sueño (circa 1437), and Infierno de los enamorados (circa 1437). Each of these poems is an allegorical work about love, and they are the most famous of Santillana's decires, which are defined as love or praise poems. At one time, these three poems were referred to as Santillana's erotic trilogy, but much controversy exists over the order in which the poems should be read, and many current critics disagree that the poems actually represent a true trilogy. These poems and the serranillas demonstrate several innovative writing techniques in Spanish literature of the time. Where some of Santillana's works tend to have a more lighthearted tone, others, typically his later works, demonstrate larger structural complexities and contain more social, political, and religious commentary. For example, the Comedieta de Ponça is one of Santillana's longer poems and is considered a historical or political poem describing the defeat of the Aragonese fleet by Genoese in August of 1435 near the island of Ponça. This poem is one of Santillana's more complex works and is the first documented use of narrative fiction in Spanish literature. Another unique contribution to Spanish literature is seen in the poem Proverbios o Centiloquio (1437). It is considered a moral poem and is unique in the fact that it is the only poem where Santillana provides notes that explain his use of biblical and mythological references. Bías contra Fortuna (1448) is another of Santillana's moral poems, is written in dialogue form, and seems to argue for strengthening royal power. On a different note, Pregunta de nobles (1436) was commissioned to instruct the crown prince of the time on moral lessons aimed at controlling oneself. Although these three poems are connected as part of Santillana's moral poems, each uses a distinctive approach to illustrating the overall themes to the audience. While Santillana has offered a vast contribution to Spanish literature through the previously mentioned poems, he is most widely known for his contribution through the Sonetos fechos al ytalico modo (circa 1438-circa 1455). These poems characterize the first Petrarchan sonnets written in Spanish and represent the bridging between the medieval and Renaissance periods in Spanish literature. Many critics have pointed out that the elements of the Petrarchan style in Santillana's sonnets provide a sort of connective thread to this part of Santillana's work, while incorporating a wide range of topics and themes, adding to their complexity and intrigue for critical study. Above all, the literary work of Santillana is both extensive and diverse and has contributed greatly to the development of Spanish literature.
Many critics agree that Santillana is one of the most important poets of Spanish literature. Because of the diversity, complexity, and extensiveness of his work, critics have produced a varied body of work involving the poet's oeuvre. For instance, one recent critic, Laura R. Bass (1996) takes a different critical approach to interpreting the pastoral elements of Santillana's serranillas. She states in her essay, “Crossing Borders: Gender, Geography, and Class Relations in Three Serranillas” that Santillana was a true innovator in his poetry through the use of specific geographic descriptions to evoke the mood presented by pastoral elements; something his predecessors had not done. Furthermore, Bass argues that these specific details allow Santillana to place symbolic significance on the geography, endowing the landscape with a male persona. This persona, in turn, comments on the boundaries of aristocratic masculine authority. Other critics have not taken such an analytical and fine-tuned approach to this aspect of the serranillas and instead believe that the geographical specificity lends more to providing local color and a sense of realism than any real symbolic significance. Other critics, such as A. J. Foreman (1974), view Santillana's work from a historical perspective and offer the literary student an informative comparison of the historical content of Santillana's work. In his essay, “The Structure and Content of Santillana's Comedieta de Ponça,” Foreman discusses the historical content, as well as the structural elements, of Comedieta de Ponça. He suggests that this poem is the most ambitious of Santillana's pieces and provides the reader with evidence of societal preoccupations of the time. Foreman also discusses the innovations of organization found in the poem, and how these new elements of unity allow Santillana to comment on the historical and moral role of poetry. Like Foreman, David William Foster (1971, 1967) also believes that a historical approach offers an effective method of study for Santillana's work. For instance, Foster considers the possibility that the religious imagery found in Santillana's secular poems reflects fifteenth-century Spain's historical movement to secularization. While many critics, like Bass, Foreman, and Foster, offer favorable analyses of Santillana's work, other critics explore the possibility that some of the poet's contributions to Spanish literature were not as significant. For example, Derek C. Carr (1978), in his essay “Another Look at the Metrics of Santillana's Sonnets,” contends that Santillana's effort to introduce the Petrarchan style sonnet into Spain was unsuccessful. Carr suggests that the elements of the sonnets intended to mirror the Italian models do not succeed in either form or content. Despite any disagreement over literary interpretation or historical contribution, the work of Santillana remains an intriguing subject for a broad group of literary critics.
Serranillas (pastoral songs) circa 1423-circa 1440
Deçir contra aragoneses [Against the Aragonese] (poem) 1429
Coronaçion de Mossén Jordi de Sant Jordi [Coronation of Mossen Jordi] (poem) 1430
Planto de la reina doña Margarida [Lament for Queen Margarita] (poem) 1430
Defunsión de don Enrique de Villena [Death of Don Enrique de Villena] (poem) 1434
Pregunta de nobles (poetry) before 1436
Comedieta de Ponça [Comedy of Ponza] (poem) 1436
El infierno de los enamorados [The Inferno of Lovers] (poem) circa 1437
El sueño [The Dream] (poem) circa 1437
El triunfete de amor [The Triumph of Love] (poem) circa 1437
Proverbios o Centiloquio [Proverbs or A Hundred Sayings] (poetry) circa 1437
Sonetos fechos al ytalico modo [Sonnets made in the Italian mode] (poetry) circa 1438-circa 1455
Bías contra Fortuna [Bias versus Fortune] (poem) 1448
Prohemio é carta qu'el Marqués de Santillana enbió al Condestable de Portugal [Prologue and Letter to the Constable of Portugal] (prose) 1449
Coplas contra Don Alvaro de Luna (poetry)...
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SOURCE: Foster, David William. “Sonnet XIV of the Marqués de Santillana and the Waning of the Middle Ages.” Hispania 50, no. 3 (September 1967): 442-46.
[In the following essay, Foster views Santillana's use of religious imagery in a secular poem as reflective of a larger movement toward secularization in fifteenth-century Spain.]
Johan Huizinga, discussing the secularization of the topoi of religious praise in his study The Waning of the Middle Ages, observes:
While religious symbolism represented the realities of nature and history as symbols or emblems of salvation, on the other hand religious metaphors were borrowed to express profane sentiments. […]
Although we may consider such formulae of adulation empty phrases, they show nonetheless the depreciation of sacred imagery resulting from hackneyed use. […]
The step from familiarity to irreverence is taken when religious terms are applied to erotic relations. […]
The irreverence of daily religious practice was almost unbound. Choristers, when chanting mass, did not scruple to sing the words of profane songs that had served as a theme for the composition: baisezmoi, rouges nez
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SOURCE: Foster, David William. “Works on the Nature of Man and Fortune.” In The Marqués de Santillana, pp. 19-47. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1971.
[In the following essay, Foster examines the Comedieta de Ponça, Bías Contra Fortuna, the Doctrinal de Privados, and other works by Santillana that treat philosophical subjects.]
I COMEDIETA DE PONçA (COMEDY OF PONZA)
In 1435, King Alfonso V of Aragon suffered a decisive defeat at the hands of the Genoese in the naval battle of Gaeta, off the island of Ponza in the Mediterranean. Alfonso and his brothers, Juan, King of Navarra, and Enrique, Maestre de Santiago, were imprisoned by the Duke of Milan, to be released toward the end of that year, but not before the queen-mother Leonor had passed away, supposedly in great part due to her grief at the sudden misfortune to the usually triumphantly victorious royal house.
Santillana, no doubt motivated in great part by his continuing allegiance to and affection for Enrique, in whose household he had served during his youth, composed the Comedieta de Ponça (Comedy of Ponza), probably the following year,1 although the letter of transmittal that accompanied the presentation of the first copy to Doña Violante de Prades is dated May 4, 1444. During the intervening years it appears that the poet neither shared his...
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SOURCE: Foreman, A. J. “The Structure and Content of Santillana's Comedieta de Ponça.” Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 51 (1974): 109-24.
[In the following essay, Foreman analyzes the structure and historical content of the Comedieta de Ponça and compares it to Santillana's earlier works.]
The Comedieta de Ponça is the most ambitious of the Marqués de Santillana's narrative dezires in its length, its use of latinate syntax and diction, and its national, as well as personal, preoccupations.1 It is probably also the last one that he wrote for twenty years.2 It is more than just a culmination, however, for it embodies new principles of organization, verging on the classical and modern ideal of structural unity;3 it represents also a studied attempt by its author to put into practice his beliefs about the rôle of poetry as a source of political wisdom for princes.
The earlier dezires (for example, the Sueño or the Infierno de los enamorados, both circa 1430) offer a clear comparison. They are basically paratactic; distinct episodes are set out over a rambling time-scale in the order in which they happened to the narrator; the imagery is quite local in its implications, the only wider effect being the juxtaposition of groups of pleasant images with groups of unpleasant ones in dramatic contrasts...
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SOURCE: Carr, Derek C. “Another Look at the Metrics of Santillana's Sonnets.”1Hispanic Review 46 (1978): 41-53.
[In the following essay, Carr questions the notion that Santillana's sonnet writing was a deliberate, yet unsuccessful, attempt to introduce Italian meter into Spain and suggests instead that the poems reveal elements alien to their supposed Italian models in both form and content.]
Gerald Brenan, in his Literature of the Spanish People, has dedicated one sentence to the sonnets of the Marqués: “In his sonnets … [Santillana] was moderately successful in introducing the Italian hendecasyllable.”2 This statement sums up succinctly almost all that has been written on the subject. Lapesa refers to Santillana's hendecasyllables as having “un aspecto de tentativa inmadura,”3 and again: “sus endecasílabos fluctúan entre el todavía no y el ya, entre la inmadurez y el logro.”4 J. B. Trend's brief introduction to his selection of sonetos fechos al itálico modo is chiefly concerned with making the same point.5 The object of this article is to re-examine this position.6
The widely-held view that Santillana's sonnet-writing was a deliberate, though not wholly successful attempt to introduce the Italian metre into Spain seems to me to be based on a misunderstanding of the phrase sonetos...
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SOURCE: de Cruz-Saenz, Michele S. “The Marqués De Santillana's Coplas on Don Alvaro de Luna and the Doctrinal de privados.” Hispanic Review 49, no. 2 (spring 1981): 219-24.
[In the following essay, Cruz-Saenz attempts to ascertain the relationship between Santillana's coplas on Don Alvaro De Luna and the Doctrinal de Privados.]
In 1900, as Francisco de Uhagón was comparing the privately-owned Cancionero de Oñate-Castañeda with other cancionero manuscripts, he noticed a poem not included by Amador de los Ríos when he published this same cancionero in 1852. This poem, entitled “Otras coplas del dicho ssenor Marques sobrel mesmo casso,” follows the Marqués' “Doctrinal de privados,” in the codex. The manuscript of the Cancionero de Oñate-Castañeda disappeared soon after Uhagón's publication of the unedited portions in the Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas y Museos of 1900.1 The Cancionero has now turned up in the Harvard University Houghton Library.
The Coplas and the Doctrinal de privados both treat the death of the powerful Don Álvaro de Luna. My investigations of the contents of some ninety cancioneros2 show that the Doctrinal appears in fifteen collections, whereas the Coplas, as Uhagón pointed out in 1900, only appear in the 1480...
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SOURCE: Marino, Nancy F. “The Vaquera de la Finojosa: Was She a Vision?” Romance Notes 26, no. 3 (spring 1986): 261-68.
[In the following essay, Marino suggests that, in contrast to the realism found in most of Santillana's serranillas, one in particular might portray a vision he had during one of his journeys.]
The Marqués de Santillana's serranillas recount his supposed adventures with various mountain girls that he claims to have met while traveling throughout Spain, usually on military missions that took him from Cordoba to Granada, to the Aragonese border and back home to Castile.1 As Rafael Lapesa points out in his early study of Santillana's serranillas, one of the Marqués' intentions in composing this series of works—besides the poetic—was to season the story of his journeys with accounts of amorous escapades in order to entertain his fellow courtiers upon his return.2 If this indeed was part of the design, then it could be reasonably expected that Santillana would inject the serranillas with a certain amount of realism so that his audience would believe that what he describes in them did truly take place. He did in fact accomplish this: a number of these songs contain details which seem to “authenticate” the poet's stories. These seemingly genuine embellishments take various forms. Some are geographical details that attest to...
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SOURCE: Trivison, Mary Louise. “A Pilgrim Poem of the Marqués de Santillana: Resumé of Medieval Marian Lyric.” In Estudios Alfonsinos Y Otros Escritos, edited by Nicolás Toscano Liria, pp. 246-53. New York: National Endowment for the Humanities/National Hispanic Foundation for the Humanities, 1991.
[In the following essay, Trivison relates Santillana's poem “Dominosa gloriosa” to lyric tradition in Spain.]
Enroute to his castle as he travelled from battle with the Moors, fighting on behalf of Henry IV of Castile, the Marqués de Santillana, Iñigo López de Mendoza, stopped at the shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Estremadura to thank her for Castile's victory, for her protection in battle, and to pay homage to her in his verse. The poem which Santillana wrote on this occasion commemorates the battle, the pilgrimage and the Virgin Mary's protection. The year was 1445, just three years before his death.
This pilgrim-poem represents the Marian lyric so popular in Spain—the loor or praise poem—which combines the motifs of the dolce stil nuovo and courtly love in general, and echoes the final cantos of Dante's Paradiso in particular. As one studies the poem, one is aware of many lyric traditions, and one senses that this is the work not only of a Castilian poet, but of medieval man who has left record of his joyous praise of the great Mother of God, the...
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SOURCE: Bass, Laura R. “Crossing Borders: Gender, Geography and Class Relations in Three Serranillas of the Marqués de Santillana.” La corónica: A Journal of Medieval Spanish Language and Literature 25, no. 1 (fall 1996): 69-84.
[In the following essay, Bass investigates the “symbolic significance of geography in three serranillas, arguing that “Santillana places his male persona within the landscapes of the poems to metaphorically configure the boundaries of aristocratic masculine authority.”]
One of the most salient and innovative features of the serranillas of Íñigo López de Mendoza, the Marqués de Santillana, is their geographic specificity. More than any of his literary predecessors, the poet-narrator locates his encounters with peasant women in a wide variety of settings such as the mountainous border separating Castile from Aragon and Navarre (serranillas 1 and 2), a pastoral landscape in Santander (serranilla 4), and the Christian-Moorish border in southern Spain (serranilla 6).1 Such geographic specificity, as well as numerous topographic details and the frequent use of place names, has received little critical attention. When scholars have commented upon the poems' settings, they have focused either on the empirical, providing information to readers unfamiliar with the geographic and historical referents, or on the merely...
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Borgia, Carl Ralph. “Notes on Dante in the Spanish Allegorical Poetry of Imperial, Santillana, and Mena.” Hispanofila 81 (May 1984): 1-10.
Attempts to use the works of Dante as a departure for finding meaning in the allegorical works of Santillana as well as Francisco Imperial and Juan de Mena.
Chaffee, Diane. “Ekphrasis in Juan de Mena and the Marqués de Santillana.” Romance Philology 35, no. 4 (May 1982): 609-16.
Analyzes a work by Santillana in an effort to establish a definition of ekphrasis in relation to his poetry.
Duffell, Martin J. “The Metre of Santillana's Sonnets.” Medium Aevum 56, no. 2 (1987): 276-303.
Examines the various disagreements among scholars regarding the metrics of Santillana's sonnets and aims to reevaluate the hendecasyllables by examining the range of possible models, carefully scrutinizing the surviving manuscripts and providing quantified comparisons of the structure of Santillana's hendecasyllables to those of Dante, Petrach, and Garcilaso.
Fucilla, Joseph G. “Santillana's ‘Villancico’ and a Boccaccio Sonnet.” Modern Language Notes 66, no. 3 (March 1951): 167-68.
Provides a side-by-side comparison of the themes found in sonnets by Boccaccio and Santillana, and suggests that Santillana may have...
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