De Gournay, Marie le Jars
Marie le Jars de Gournay 1565-1645
French prose writer, essayist, poet, and literary critic.
De Gournay was a French social essayist and literary critic who flourished in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. She is remembered chiefly as the editor of Michel de Montaigne's 1595 posthumous edition of the Essais, a publication which has evoked intense critical debate over its authenticity. To this day, literary scholars remain divided in their opinion of the nature and extent of de Gournay's revisions of Montaigne's philosophical ideas. De Gournay is also recognized as a visionary champion of women's rights, advocating the education of women and their acceptance as equals within the patriarchal society. These concepts are articulated in such works as Le Proumenoiur de Monsieur de Montaigne par sa fille d'alliance (1594), Égalité des homes et des femmes (Of the Equality of Men and Women, 1622) and Le Grief des dames (The Complaint of The Ladies, 1626). Reviled in her own time by misogynist critics who opposed her radical ideas, de Gournay is now celebrated as one of the founding mothers of the modern feminist movement.
De Gournay was born in Paris on September 6, 1565, the eldest child of Guillaume de Jars, a minor nobleman and governor of the castles at Remy, Gournay, and Moyenneville. Given the dearth of opportunities for women to attend school in the sixteenth century, de Gournay educated herself, teaching herself how to read Latin and Greek by comparing original works to their French translations. When de Gournay was fifteen, her father purchased the feudal rights to Gournay and moved the family to the estate at Gournay-sur-Aronde. Not long after the move, de Gournay's father died, leaving her mother to raise six children on her own. Around 1585, de Gournay read an advance copy of Montaigne's Essais and became spellbound by the philosopher's revolutionary ideas. Three years later when de Gournay was visiting in Paris, she learned that Montaigne was also in the city and arranged to meet him. The two became fast friends, forming a close mentor and protégé relationship. Indeed, Montaigne honored de Gournay by proclaiming her to be his “fille d'alliance,” or covenant daughter. Their friendship inspired de Gournay to embark on a writing career of her own and she began work on Le Proumenoiur. With Montaigne's death in 1592, de Gournay assumed responsibility for collecting and editing the essays which he had revised since the 1588 publication of his Essais. Released in 1595, critics immediately questioned the work's authenticity, claiming that de Gournay had embellished Montaigne's ideas with many of her own. As a result, de Gournay felt compelled to retract her long preface to the Essais because some critics considered it to be an exercise in opportunistic self-promotion. Despite this controversy, de Gournay succeeded in establishing herself as a writer. Perhaps because she was a independent woman attempting to make her mark in a masculine world or because of her brash advocacy of women's rights, she became the object of scorn and mockery within French literary circles. Undeterred by these attacks, de Gournay made a living writing essays on such topics as the plight of women, the importance of education, and the significance of the French language in poetry. As her reputation grew, she attracted a small group of admirers to her literary coterie, the most notable patron being Cardinal Richelieu. Although de Gournay was never able to overcome fully the aspersions cast upon her character, she secured a comfortable living through income from the publication of her essays and through a series of patronages. She died in Paris on July 13, 1645.
Inspired by her early encounters with Montaigne, de Gournay wrote Le Proumeniour, a prose fiction narrative which analyzes the relationship between a daughter and her father. The work contains several incipient themes upon which de Gournay would elaborate throughout her career, including the role of women as objects within a patriarchal system, the tensions that arise when women attempt to gain equal footing with men, and the psychological ramifications of these gender conflicts. Having gained Montaigne's trust, de Gournay served as his secretary and editor as he dictated revisions to his 1588 edition of the Essais. After Montaigne's death, de Gournay continued editing the essays at his family's insistence. The resulting publication ignited a fierce critical debate which has raged to the modern day about the extent to which de Gournay incorporated her own ideas into Montaigne's philosophy. De Gournay herself was partly to blame for the controversy in that she wrote a long preface to the 1595 edition which underscored her close relationship with the philosopher and her crucial involvement in the revision of the essays. Whether it was her intention or not, the controversy boosted her career as a writer and she went on to publish several memorable essays and treatises on women's rights, the most notable being Of the Equality of Men and Women and The Complaint of The Ladies. De Gournay also wrote several autobiographical essays which shed light on her convictions with regard to social issues, her practical concept of friendship, and her evolution as an essayist, theorist, and literary critic. These works include Copie de la vie de la demoiselle de Gournay (1616), Apologie puir celle qui escrit (1626?), and Peincture de moeurs (1626).
During her lifetime, de Gournay endured the derisive critical attacks by French pamphleteers who trivialized her work and mocked her with demeaning caricatures. Nevertheless, she maintained her reputation as Montaigne's editor; indeed, her revised editions of the Essais generally withstood critical scrutiny to become standard texts. By the twentieth century, literary scholars came to recognize that many of de Gournay's literary and social theories were in fact ideas well ahead of their time. Among the first English-language analyses of de Gournay's writings was Peggy P. Holmes's survey of the essays collected in L'ombre de la demoiselle de Gournay (1626). According to Holmes, de Gournay's study of the imagery and metaphors of the baroque poets illustrates the author's belief that language should be used to exhibit “the supreme expression of poetical originality” regardless of its archiasm. In recent decades, literary scholars have championed de Gournay as a visionary advocate of feminism and women's rights. Domna C. Stanton has analyzed De Gournay's sophisticated treatment of gender conflicts in Le Proumenoiur, especially focusing on the author's investigation of the psychological dynamics of manipulation in which men treat women as objects of exchange and women allow themselves to be “subjects of exchange.” In addition, Tilda A. Sankovitch has examined de Gournay's autobiographical works, concluding that the author invents a mythical “autoportrait” in which she projects an image of herself as an androgynous hero who conquers gender barriers and narrow-minded misogynistic critics. Other modern commentators have shown how de Gournay valued and wrote about friendship as a means by which women could advance within the patriarchal system. Maryanne Cline Horowitz has demonstrated how the mentor/protégé relationship between Montaigne and de Gournay was crucial to her evolving concept of the nature of friendship. Further, Patricia Francis Cholakian contrasts de Gournay's practical view of friendship—tempered by the necessities and stresses of everyday life—with the more idealized perspectives found in the essays of Montaigne and Cicero. Ultimately, modern day critics—unlike her contemporary detractors—have come to recognize de Gournay for her visionary insights, her literary achievements, and her dogged defense of her beliefs and rights.
Le Proumenoiur de Monsieur de Montaigne par sa fille d'alliance (prose) 1594
Les essais de Michel Seigneur de Montaigne [editor] (essays) 1595; revised edition, 1598; revised as Ediction troisieme, plus correcte et plus ample que les précédents, 1607
De l'education des enfants de France (essay) 1600
La Bienvenue à Monseigneur le duc d'Anjou (essay) 1608
Adieu de l'Ame du Roy de France (essay) 1610
Copie de la vie de la demoiselle de Gournay (autobiography) 1616
Égalité des hommes et des femmes [Of the Equality of Men and Women] (essay) 1622
Le Prince de Corse (essay) 1624
Remerciement au Roy (poetry) 1624
Apologie puir celle qui escrit (autobiography) 1626?
Le Grief des dames [The Complaint of the Ladies] (essay) 1626
L'ombre de la demoiselle de Gournay (essays) 1626
Peincture de moeurs (autobiography) 1626
Les Advis ou les presens de la demoiselle de Gournay (essays) 1634; revised edition, 1641
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SOURCE: Holmes, Peggy P. “Mlle de Gournay's Defence of Baroque Imagery.” French Studies 8, no. 2 (April 1954): 122-31.
[In the following essay, Holmes discusses de Gournay's study of the imagery and metaphors of baroque poets to illustrate the author's belief that language should be used to exhibit “the supreme expression of poetical originality.”]
The writings of Marie le Jars de Gournay1 have added considerably to our knowledge of the French language during that confused transitional period between the decline of the Renaissance and the rise of Classicism. Brunot reaped a rich harvest from the laboriously compiled lists of words to which she claimed that both Malherbe and his followers had taken exception.2 Yet these shrewd comments on the vocabulary of her day, valuable as they are for a study of the progress of Malherbe's ideas, do not form the most vital part of Marie de Gournay's literary articles. It is not generally realized that her remarks on poetic style, and particularly on the use of metaphor, show her to have been a critic of unusual sensibility. She believed that even more dangerous than the tyranny of Malherbe and the excesses of his disciples was their threat to the humanistic conception of poetry, and made repeated efforts to rekindle enthusiasm for the Pléiade doctrine of ‘fureur’ and for the pomp and dignity peculiar to heroic verse.
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SOURCE: Stanton, Domna C. “Woman as Object and Subject of Exchange: Marie de Gournay's Le Proumenoir (1594).” L'Esprit créateur 23, no. 2 (summer 1983): 9-25.
[In the essay below, Stanton analyzes gender conflicts in de Gournay's Le Proumenoiur, especially underscoring the dynamics of manipulation in which men treat women as objects of exchange and women allow themselves to be “subjects of exchange.”]
“L'échange … Fournit Le Moyen de lier les hommes entre eux,” Lévi-Strauss writes in Structures élémentaires de la parenté; and of the goods men exchange, the ‘most precious’ is women, “sans lesquelles la vie … est réduite aux pires formes de l'abjection.”1 Copiously analyzing the exogamous matrimonial rules that legislate the incest prohibition, Lévi-Strauss nonetheless fails to explore the “abjection” to which his universalist theory reduces women; he simply cites “[le] dur destin d'un exil … l'existence lointaine et isolée qui est le lot des filles nées sous les régimes patrilinéaires” (p. 354). Even when he describes certain figures in Gilyak mythology, such as the man who saves his sister or niece from the claws of the bear, as “profondément imprégnée d'une poésie qu'on appellerait volontiers féminine” (p. 354), the Father of Structuralism focuses on “les frères de ces femmes toujours portés à surestimer la perte...
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SOURCE: Horowitz, Maryanne Cline. “Marie de Gournay, Editor of the Essais of Michel de Montaigne: A Case-Study in Mentor-Protégée Friendship.” The Sixteenth-Century Journal 17, no. 3 (fall 1986): 271-84.
[In the following essay, Horowitz demonstrates how the mentor/protégé relationship between Montaigne and de Gournay influenced de Gournay's artistic maturation and her evolving concept of the nature of friendship.]
In Paris in the spring of 1588, a mutual friendship developed between the fifty-five-year-old, married essayist and former mayor of Bordeaux, Michel de Montaigne, and a twenty-two-year-old, self-taught, unmarried admirer of the Essais, Marie de Gournay. Later that year Montaigne visited his “fille d'alliance,” covenant daughter, Marie at her family estate at Gournay-sur-Aronde on several visits between working on a new edition of the Essais and negotiating for a political peace between Henry of Navarre and King Henry III. Her walks with Michel de Montaigne are immortalized in the curious title of her first novella, which she sent to him shortly afterwards, Le Proumenoir de Monsieur de Montaigne par sa fille d'alliance. They corresponded for the next four years. In May or June 1593, when a letter arrived from Justus Lipsius, Marie learned of Montaigne's death in September 1592. Grief-stricken over this event, as well as over the recent death of her...
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SOURCE: Bauschatz, Cathleen M. “‘Les Puissances de Vostre Empire’: Changing Power Relations in Marie de Gournay's Le Proumenoir de Monsieur de Montaigne from 1594 to 1626.” In Renaissance Women Writers: French Texts/American Contexts, edited by Anne R. Larsen and Colette H. Winn, pp. 189-208. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1994.
[In the essay below, Bauschatz examines de Gournay's concept of the various uses of power in Le Proumenoiur. The critic also demonstrates how de Gournay's revisions to subsequent editions of the work illustrate her artistic maturation.]
In the dedicatory epistle to its first reader, Montaigne, before the original 1594 edition of her moralistic novel Le Proumenoir de Monsieur de Montaigne (Monsieur de Montaigne's Walk), Marie de Gournay stated that she hoped Montaigne would correct some of the errors in her book and also that in the process she might take pleasure in experiencing the power the essayist had over her: “C'est tout un, encore ne sçay-je si je ne prends pas volontiers plaisir à faire quelque niaiserie exprez, pour vous mettre, en me chastiant mon pere, à l'exercice de l'Empire que vous avez en moy”1 (It's all the same, but still I'm not sure whether I don't take pleasure in doing some sort of foolishness on purpose in order to goad you, in chastising me, my father, to exercise the power...
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SOURCE: Cholakian, Patricia Francis. “The Economics of Friendship: Gournay's Apologie pour celle qui escrit.” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 25, no. 3 (fall 1995): 407-17.
[In the following essay, Cholakian contrasts de Gournay's practical view of friendship, tempered by the necessities and stresses of everyday life, with the more idealized perspectives in Montaigne's “De l'amitié” and Cicero's “De amicitia.”]
The title of Gournay's Apologie pour celle qui escrit would seem to indicate that it is a first-person narrative intended to justify the writer's life to her readers.1 This impression is confirmed early in the text, when she begs an unnamed prelate to use the true facts in it to defend her reputation after her death.2 She does not proceed with her revelations in an orderly, chronological fashion, however. Instead of telling her story in the form of mémoires, she speaks about only the financial aspects of her life, and these she embeds in a long essay on the subject of false friendship. The hybrid form, mingling self-representation with expository prose, Latin citations, and classical anecdotes, is, of course, familiar to readers of Montaigne's Essais. Gournay uses this fragmented and digressive way of writing not only to affirm her filiation to her “père d'alliance,” but to prove that her œuvre belongs to the...
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SOURCE: McKinley, Mary. “An Editorial Revival: Gournay's 1617 Preface to the Essais.” Montaigne Studies 8, nos. 1-2 (October 1996): 193-201.
[In the essay below, McKinley maintains that de Gournay's restoration of her long preface to the 1617 edition of Montaigne's Essais after removing it from the 1595 edition indicates the self-assurance that she had gained as a writer and editor in the interval between the two publications.]
The 1617 edition of Montaigne's Essais marks a significant turning point in Marie de Gournay's often stormy editorial career. In the new paratextual material of that edition, Gournay foregrounds her collaboration and conflicts with the book's printers, introducing her new and ostensibly begrudging role as translator of Montaigne's Latin quotations. Her introduction to those translations reveals a woman affirming her role as faithful editor while expressing more than a little irritation at the compromising exigencies imposed by the printers.
An even more striking assertion of Gournay's new editorial role in 1617 is the reappearance, in revised form, of her preface to the 1595 edition of the Essais. The history of that preface, commonly identified as the “long” Gournay preface, tells a complicated story of textual vulnerabilities and vicissitudes. Montaigne Studies has gone far toward clarifying that history by publishing...
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Ilsley, Marjorie H. A Daughter of the Renaissance: Marie le Jars de Gournay, Her Life and Works The Hague: Mouton, 1963, 317 p.
Seminal English-language biography of de Gournay.
Bijvoet, Maya. “Marie de Gournay: Editor of Montaigne. In Women Writers of Seventeenth Century, edited by Katharina M. Wilson and Frank J. Warnke, pp. 3-29. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989.
Provides an overview of de Gournay's life and work and reprints excerpts from The Equality of Men and Women and The Ladies' Grievance.
Bauschatz, Cathleen M. “Marie de Gournay's ‘Préface de 1595’: A Critical Evaluation.” Bulletin de la societe des amis de Montaigne 3-4, nos. 3-4 (January-June 1986): 73-82.
Analyzes the textual history of de Gournay's “Préface,” its critical reception, and its significance as an introduction to Montaigne's Essais.
Sankovitch, Tilde A. “Marie le Jars de Gournay: The Self-Portrait of an Androgynous Hero.” In French Women Writers and the Book: Myths of Access and Desire, pp. 73-99. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1988.
Asserts that de Gournay creates a mythical “autoportrait” in her autobiographical works in which she projects herself as an androgynous hero who...
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