Sigourney, Lydia (Howard Huntley)
Lydia (Howard Huntley) Sigourney 1791-1865
American poet, sketch writer, essayist, novelist, and travel writer. For additional information on Sigourney's life and works, see NCLC, Volume 21.
Known as “the sweet singer of Hartford,” Sigourney was one of America's most popular poets during the first half of the nineteenth century. Her celebration of religious and patriotic values, talent for writing commemorative poetry, and reputation for moral integrity strongly appealed to her contemporary public. A prolific author, Sigourney contributed widely to magazines and published numerous volumes of her work, becoming one of the first women in the United States to establish a successful and remunerative career as a writer.
Sigourney was born in Norwich, Connecticut, the only daughter of Sophia Wentworth Huntley and Ezekiel Huntley, a gardener in the employ of a wealthy matron, Mrs. Daniel Lathrop. Encouraged by both her mother and Mrs. Lathrop to read and write at an early age, Sigourney received her primary education from local schools. She later paid tribute to the influential guidance of her father's employer in her fictional Sketch of Connecticut, Forty Years Since (1824) and in her autobiography, Letters of Life (1866). Determined to become a teacher and aid her parents financially, Sigourney went on to supplement her early education by studying at a Hartford school. Subsequently, she opened schools for young ladies in Norwich and Hartford; after the failure of the school in Norwich, Sigourney established the Hartford school, in which, instead of teaching such traditionally “feminine” subjects as art and needlework, she instructed young women in reading, arithmetic, rhetoric, natural and moral philosophy, and history.
In 1815, she published her first book, Moral Pieces, in Prose and Verse, to critical acclaim. Encouraged by this positive reception, Sigourney continued to write. However, when in 1819 she married Charles Sigourney, a Hartford hardware merchant who disapproved of her writing career, she modified her literary aspirations by publishing anonymously and under pseudonyms. During the early years of their marriage, she not only published books but also contributed poems and prose pieces to over twenty periodicals, using the proceeds to aid her parents and support such charities as war relief, temperance movements, and missionary work. In 1833, Sigourney published Letters to Young Ladies, one of her most popular works. Prompted by its success and an increasing need for money, Sigourney allowed her name to be placed on later editions of the book, despite her husband's objections. The popularity of this volume created new demand for her work, and, by 1839, she was able to support her household by writings published under her own name.
As her reputation grew, Sigourney was able to sustain the family with her writing and editorial work. She edited the annual Religious Souvenir in 1838 and 1839, and from 1839 to 1842 she is listed as an editor of Godey's Lady's Book, primarily for the prestige her name conferred on the journal. A prolific contributor to periodicals as well as to annuals and gift books, Sigourney became familiar to a broad range of the reading public, reissuing much of her magazine verse in numerous collections and editions. By the early 1840s, her popularity was so great that magazine editors vied for her contributions. In 1841, Edgar Allan Poe, then editor of Graham's Magazine, requested material for the journal, and the editor of the competing Godey's Lady's Book paid her—purportedly five hundred dollars a year—for exclusive use of her name on the title page. Her prestige as a writer was established, and on a tour of England she visited such figures as William Wordsworth, Joanna Baillie, Samuel Rogers, Thomas Carlyle, and Maria Edgeworth; Sigourney would later recount these travels in Pleasant Memories of Pleasant Lands (1842). Sigourney reached the height of her popularity in the late 1840s with the publication of Illustrated Poems (1849), a lavish edition issued in a series that included the works of William Cullen Bryant and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. A national figure, she was often courted by dignitaries and literary celebrities, and her works were anthologized in many collections of American prose and poetry. During the last years of her life, Sigourney composed few new writings, choosing instead to reissue retitled versions of earlier volumes. She died at her Hartford home in 1865, after having prepared her autobiography, which was published the following year.
A prolific author, Sigourney produced more than sixty-five books and several thousand articles that appeared in such periodicals as the North American Review, Graham's Magazine, and the Southern Literary Messenger. Although Sigourney also produced a number of prose works, including writings on history, biography, a novel, sketches, essays, and an autobiography, she was primarily recognized for her poetry, most of which was first introduced to the public in periodicals, then collected in her books. Her first published volume, Moral Pieces, in Prose and Verse, was drawn from the poems and prose that she composed for her students and was, by and large, received enthusiastically by her contemporaries. The book is filled with the sentimental verse, moralistic tone, and fondness for the so-called graveyard school of poetry that characterize most of her writings; many critics contend that the subjects of her verse—death, religion, and history—never changed. In this and later works such as Poems (1827), Pocahontas, and Other Poems (1841), and Poetry for Seamen (1845), her best-loved poems commemorated the deaths of both famous and unknown persons, especially young children; indeed, the three-hundred-page Zinzendorff, and Other Poems (1835) consists almost entirely of funereal verse. Such eulogistic poems as “'Twas but a Babe” and “The Faithful Editor” were admired for their sentimentality and elaborate, euphemistic language, but also their honesty in coming to terms with personal tragedy.
Despite Sigourney's widespread popularity, critical reception of her works has often been unfavorable. During her lifetime, reviewers acknowledged her skill with blank verse and language, but found little original thought in her writing. For example, in a review of her Zinzendorff, and Other Poems, Poe labeled her work imitative of the work of Felicia Hemans; he did concede that “many passages are very noble and breathe the truest spirit of the Muse,” however, and, bending to the force of her popularity, Poe would later retract the charge and solicit work from her for Graham's Magazine. At the height of her popularity in June, 1850, the Western Literary Messenger declared: “[Her poems are] laid on a million of memory's shelves. Children in our infant schools lisp her mellow canzonets; older youths recite her poems for riper minds in our grammar schools and academies; mothers pore over her pages of prose for counsel, and the aged of either sex draw consolation from the inspirations of her sanctified muse in their declining years.” And, while many critics accused Sigourney of publishing too much unpolished material, contemporary criticism was never completely derogatory, since few magazine editors competing for her poetry and prose wished to offend her.
After Sigourney's death the popularity of her writings waned as the heyday of sentimental writing passed. In The Poetry of American Women from 1632 to 1945, Emily Stipes Watts describes Sigourney's mature work as “padded, pedantic, and prudish,” and the characteristics of her works that captured nineteenth-century audiences—sentimentality and didacticism—seem to have rendered Sigourney little more than a historical curiosity through much of the twentieth century. Recently, however, there has been a renewed interest in Sigourney, particularly among feminist literary scholars. Critics such as Annie Finch, Nina Baym, and Dorothy Z. Baker have studied Sigourney's successful attempt to establish herself as a distinctly American and distinctly female poet. Critics are divided, however, on whether Sigourney's writing represents a feminist empowerment or, as Ann Douglas Wood claims, “a means for a kind of militant sublimation.” In contrast to both the popular adulation of her contemporaries and the indifference of early twentieth-century critics, modern literary scholars have come to recognize the importance of studying Sigourney's position in American letters, both for her limitations and her transgression of limits.
Moral Pieces, in Prose and Verse (poetry and essays) 1815
Traits of the Aborigines of America (poetry) 1822
Sketch of Connecticut, Forty Years Since (sketch) 1824
Poems (poetry) 1827
Female Biography: Containing Sketches of the Life and Character of Twelve American Women (sketches) 1829
Evening Readings in History: Comprising Portions of the History of Assyria, Egypt, Tyre, Syria, Persia, and the Sacred Scriptures (history) 1833
Letters to Young Ladies (letters) 1833
Poems (poetry) 1834; also published as Selected Poems, 1838
Poetry for Children (poetry) 1834
Sketches (sketches) 1834
Zinzendorff, and Other Poems (poetry) 1835
History of Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome (biography) 1836
Pocahontas, and Other Poems (poetry) 1841
Pleasant Memories of Pleasant Lands (sketches) 1842
Poetry for Seamen (poetry) 1845
Myrtis, with Other Etchings and Sketchings (sketches) 1846
Illustrated Poems (poetry) 1849
The Faded Hope (memoir) 1853
Lucy Howard's Journal (novel) 1858
The Man of Uz,...
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SOURCE: “Lydia H. Sigourney,” in The Female Prose Writers of America with Portraits, Biographical Notices, and Specimens of Their Writings, E. H. Butler & Co., 1852, pp. 76–92.
[In the following essay, Hart presents a study of Sigourney's life and works with excerpts from her prose.]
Justice has hardly been done to Mrs. Sigourney as a prose writer. She has been so long, and is so familiarly, quoted as a poet, that the public has in a measure forgotten that her indefatigable pen has sent forth almost a volume of prose yearly for more than a quarter of a century—that her prose works already issued number, in fact, twenty-five volumes, averaging more than two hundred pages each, and some of them having gone through not less than twenty editions. She has indeed produced no one work of a thrilling or startling character, wherewith to electrify the public mind. Her writings have been more like the dew than the lightning. Yet the dew, it is well to remember, is not only one of the most beneficent, but one of the most powerful of nature's agents—far more potential in grand results than its brilliant rival. When account shall be made of the various agencies, moral and intellectual, that have moulded the American mind and heart during the first half of the nineteenth century, few names will be honoured with a larger credit than that of Lydia H. Sigourney.
The maiden name of this...
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SOURCE: “Lydia H. Sigourney,” in Eminent Women of the Age; Being Narratives of the Lives and Deeds of the Most Prominent Women of the Present Generation, by James Parton et al., S. M. Betts & Company, 1869, pp. 85-101.
[In the following essay, Huntington briefly sketches Sigourney's life in an effort to account for her widespread popularity.]
Were any intelligent American citizen now asked to name the American woman, who, for a quarter of a century before 1855, held a higher place in the respect and affections of the American people than any other woman of the times had secured, it can hardly be questioned that the prompt reply would be, Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney.
And this would be the answer, not simply on the ground of her varied and extensive learning; nor on that of her acknowledged poetic gifts; nor on that of her voluminous contributions to our current literature, both in prose and verse; but rather, because with these gifts and this success, she had with singular kindliness of heart made her very life-work itself a constant source of blessing and joy to others. Her very goodness had made her great. Her genial goodwill had given her power. Her loving friendliness had made herself and her name everywhere a charm. So that, granted that other women could be named, more gifted in some endowments, more learned in certain branches, and even more ably represented in the...
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SOURCE: “The Sentimental Poetess in the World: Metaphor and Subjectivity in Lydia Sigourney's Nature Poetry,” in Legacy, Vol. 5, No. 2, Fall, 1988, pp. 3-18.
[In the following essay, Finch claims that Sigourney has been widely neglected recently because she fails to accommodate the predominant model of poetic subjectivity and instead describes nature poetically, but without using it as a means to her own self-expression.]
In the revision of American women's literary history that has been taking place over the past few decades, one important area has remained almost completely untouched.1 While novels, stories, and memoirs by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American women are reissued and reappraised every year in mounting numbers, years after Cheryl Walker's The Nightingale's Burden and Emily Stipes Watts's history of American women's poetry, virtually no new revisionist work has been done on American women poets. Apparently, most scholars feel that there was no American woman poet worth reading between Wheatley and Dickinson, or between Dickinson and H. D. The usual explanations offered for this situation do not account for such monolithic neglect of a major part of the American poetic tradition. The dedication with which these literary silences have been respected—even by committed feminist literary historians—suggests that the very existence of this poetry fundamentally...
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SOURCE: “Reinventing Lydia Sigourney,” in American Literature, Vol. 62, No. 3, September, 1990, pp. 385-404.
[In the following essay, Baym claims that critics have failed to appreciate the extent to which Sigourney's writings express a very public (as opposed to domestic) program, which required Sigourney to assume particular social roles as a strategy to achieve a mass audience.]
If Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney had not existed, it would have been necessary to invent her. In fact, she was invented. As American women writers began to publish in numbers before the Civil War, one of their number would inevitably be construed as an epitome of the phenomenon of female authorship in its range of allowed achievements and required inadequacies. Now, here was a poor, virtuous, essentially self-educated woman whose writing was sponsored by one of the leading families in Hartford, Connecticut, with additional patronage from many other New England aristocrats.1 She published pious poetry on domestic subjects in the major magazines and wrote for the Sunday School League. Having made a good marriage (from the social point of view), she faithfully performed her duties as wife, mother, and hostess; and she began to write for money only after financial reverses put the family under economic duress.
Here, in short, was a woman whose example could instruct all would-be literary women as...
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SOURCE: “Ars Poetica/Ars Domestica: The Self-Reflexive Poetry of Lydia Sigourney and Emily Dickinson,” in Poetics in the Poem: Critical Essays on American Self-Reflexive Poetry, edited by Dorothy Z. Baker, Peter Lang, 1997, pp. 69-89.
[In the following essay, Baker claims that both Sigourney and Dickinson use images of domesticity in attempts to forge an identity for the American woman poet.]
I'm plain at speech, direct in purpose: when I speak, you'll take the meaning as it is, And not allow for puckerings in the silks By clever stitches. I'm a woman, sir, And use the woman's figures naturally, As you, the male license.
(Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh)
When Aurora Leigh points out that she “uses the woman's figures,” she is speaking of rhetorical tropes, in particular, of metaphor. In this conversation with Romney, who is also an artist, Aurora distinguishes between the range of her metaphorical language and his. Romney possesses “the male license” to poetic language that places him within the tradition of the poet as seer and shaman, prophet and priest. Yet, Aurora's use of feminine and domestic figures is linguistic evidence of her essential nature as a woman, and signals her identification with an alternate, female poetic voice. It is a commonplace that nineteenth-century American female authors often address their domestic roles...
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Griswold, Rufus Wilmot, and Stoddard, R. H. “Lydia H. Sigourney.” In The Female Poets of America, pp. 91-101. 1873. Reprint. New York: Garrett Press, 1969.
A discussion of Sigourney's life and works prefixing a selection of her poetry.
Haight, Gordon S. Mrs. Sigourney: The Sweet Singer of Hartford. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930, 201 p.
Critical biography of Sigourney that seeks to explain both her reputation as “America's leading poetess” during her lifetime as well as the subsequent neglect of her work.
Hale, Sarah Josepha. “Sigourney, Lydia Huntley.” In Woman's Record; or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women from the Creation to A.D. 1854, pp. 782-84. 1855. Reprint. New York: Source Book Press, 1970.
A sketch of Sigourney's life and literary career followed by extracts from her work.
Kilcup, Karen L. “Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney (1791-1865).” In Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook, edited by Denise D. Knight, pp. 361-67. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Brief biographical study of Sigourney, along with a review of her major works' themes and a bibliography of primary and secondary materials.
Bode, Carl. “The...
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