Other literary forms
In addition to his novels, Louis-Ferdinand Céline (say-LEEN) published his dissertation for his medical degree, the biographical work La Vie et l’uvre de Philippe-Ignace Semmelweis (1936), and a denunciation of life in the Soviet Union under Communism titled Mea culpa (1936); the last two of these appeared in English in 1937 in a volume titled “Mea Culpa,” with “The Life and Work of Semmelweis.” He also wrote a play, L’Église (pb. 1933; The Church, 2003); three anti-Semitic pamphlets, Bagatelles pour un massacre (1937; trifles for a massacre), L’École des cadavres (1938; school for corpses), and Les Beaux Draps (1941; a fine mess); and several ballets, which were collected in Ballets, sans musique, sans personne, sans rien (1959; Ballets Without Music, Without Dancers, Without Anything, 1999). Céline’s diatribe against Jean-Paul Sartre, who had accused him of having collaborated with the Nazis for money, was published as À l’agité du bocal (1949; to the restless one in the jar). Céline claimed to have lost several manuscripts when his apartment was pillaged during the Occupation. A surviving fragment of a novel was published as Casse-pipe.