Louis Aragon 1897-1982
(Born Louis Andrieux; also wrote under pseudonyms Albert de Routisie, Arnaud de Saint Roman, Francois La Colere, Francois Lacolere) French novelist, poet, nonfiction writer, journalist, essayist, and critic.
Regarded as one of the most distinguished figures in modern French literature, Aragon was a prolific writer whose works reflect some of the most significant artistic trends and political events that took place during a lifetime that spanned much of the twentieth century. While he produced works in various genres and styles, from political tracts to love poems to multi-volume novels, he is most honored for a relatively small number of works that he wrote at several critical points throughout his life. These include his Surrealist novel Le Paysan de Paris (1926; Nightwalker) and the historical novel La Semaine sainte (1958; Holy Week).
Aragon was born the illegitimate son of a married man, whom he was told was his “tutor,” and a woman he was raised to believe was his sister. His parents ran a boarding house in a respectable, though not fashionable, section of Paris. From the age of eleven Aragon was captivated by literature and literary life through his reading of French novelists Maurice Barrès and Stendhal, as well as through the influence of his mother, who was a translator of novels and introduced her son to the works of the major Russian novelists of the nineteenth century. He also read Maxim Gorky, a twentieth-century Russian author whose novels became a model for Soviet literature and promulgated the advancement of communist society over the life of the individual. In 1916 Aragon received a bachelor's degree from the Lycée Carnot and afterward began to study medicine. During World War I he served in the medical corps, and it was at this time that he met André Breton and Phillipe Soupault, with whom he would later found the Surrealist Movement. After the war, during which he was awarded the Croix de Guerre for his role in the occupation of the Rhineland, Aragon, along with Breton and Soupault, started publishing the journal Littérature, which initially aligned itself to the new movement of Dadaism, whose founder, Tristan Tzara, preached a philosophy of nihilism and revolt against social convention as a reaction to what he considered the madness of a civilization that was responsible for the First World War. Aragon, Breton, and Soupault ultimately broke with Tzara and later founded Surrealism, which was more vital and affirmative than Dadaism, though no less rebellious against the established social order. In its early stages in the 1920s, Surrealism was influenced by the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, and its primary goal was to create artistic works that were spontaneous outpourings from the unconscious as a means of bypassing the conditioned modes of thinking that society imposed on the individual. Aragon's outstanding work that derived from this technique was Nightwalker. Later, however, Aragon and the Surrealists, influenced by the writings of Karl Marx and the example of the newfound Soviet Union, increasingly viewed their mission as one of social and political change. Even more decisive for Aragon's political awakening in the direction of Soviet communism was the influence of the Russian-born Elsa Triolet, whom Aragon met in 1928 and later married. From the 1930s until the end of his life, Aragon was a supporter, often indefensibly so in the view of critics, of Soviet ideology and activities, from Joseph Stalin's bloody purges of both actual and suspected political dissidents to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1980. While Aragon was occasionally critical of Soviet policy and aggression, he essentially functioned as an apologist for the USSR and was bestowed with honors by that country for his service. Aragon's political sympathies are evident in much of his work, including his Hourra l'Oural (1934; Hurrah, the Urals), a paean to the Soviets, and his six-volume novel Les Communistes (1949-51; The Communists), a celebration of the French Communist Party's activities during the Nazi occupation of France during World War II. In these works Aragon adhered to the artistic doctrines of Socialist Realism, which was intolerant of literary experimentalism and viewed literature as an extension of political propaganda. Later in his career Aragon employed a more inventive and unconventional technique in the composition of his works, most prominently Holy Week. He died in 1982.
Among Aragon's works, those that account for his international acclaim as a modern author are Nightwalker and Holy Week. The first of these originated in the artistic ideals of Surrealism and explores two central motifs of the movement: the search for the “marvelous” behind the mundane appearances of the everyday world and love as a means for achieving an experience of transcendence. In the first part of the book, the “Paris peasant” of the French title wanders the city, observing seamy or downtrodden sites such as transients' hotels, brothels, and run-down shops through a dream-like perspective that projects upon these venues a sense of magic and wonder. As Breton commented of Aragon's imaginative abilities: “When one walked through parts of Paris with him—even the most colorless places—the experience was greatly enhanced by his magical-novelistic gift for stories, a gift that never failed and that came to him at any corner or shop window.” The second part of Nightwalker introduces three young men in search of love and, in Surrealist parlance, the “ideal woman”—a “child-woman,” part muse and part sorceress, who would inspire her lover to artistic creation and transport him beyond the confines of ordinary existence. Throughout Nightwalker, Aragon employs techniques borrowed from visual media to create an effect of immediacy, reproducing placards, menus, and other non-literary elements that are redolent of Cubist collage works of the period. In Aragon's historical novel Holy Week, it is evident that the author had left behind the “marvelous” of Surrealism and had for a time turned away from the more strident and doctrinaire political views that had motivated such serial novels as The Communists. While Holy Week was written as the last of the series of “Real World” novels in which The Communists is subsumed, critics praise this work for integrating its political agenda into a rich narrative that relates the historical events that brought about Napoleon's short-lived return to power in 1815, employing what Aragon termed a “stereoscopic” technique in which complex parallels between the past and present are artfully illuminated. The result is a highly inventive novel that blends the political aims of Aragon's Socialist Realist style with a more objective and deeply insightful view of its vast and varied subject. After the 1958 publication of Holy Week, Aragon produced several highly ambitious works of fiction during the 1960s and 1970s, including a two-volume novel based on the life of the artist Henri Matisse.
Critics have often viewed Aragon as a twentieth-century counterpart of such titans of nineteenth-century French literature as Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac, both for the prodigious nature of his output and the ideological passions that drove him to produce so much of his work. At the same time, those passions—most conspicuously his attachment to the Soviet Union and its policies—have caused a good deal of his work to be viewed as misguided or irrelevant in retrospect. Nevertheless, Aragon retains a high literary stature as the creator of several widely recognized masterpieces of modern world literature and as an important figure in the political history of France. French President Francois Mitterand declared following Aragon's death: “France is grief-stricken by the death of one of its greatest writers. … I bow before his memory.”
Feu de joie (poetry) 1920
Anicet; ou, Le panorama (novel) 1921
Les Aventures de Télémaque [The Adventures of Telemachus] (novel) 1922
Le Libertinage [The Libertine] (novel) 1924
Le Movement perpétuel (poetry) 1926
Le Paysan de Paris [Nightwalker] (novel) 1926
Traité du style [Treatise on Style] (novel) 1928
Les Cloches de Bâle [The Bells of Basel] (novel) 1934
Hourra l'Oural [Hurrah, the Urals] (poetry) 1934
Les Beaux Quartiers [Residential Quarter] (novel) 1936
Le Crève-coeur (poetry) 1941
Brocéliande (novel) 1942
Les Voyageurs de l'impériale [The Century Was Young] (novel) 1942
Aurélien (novel) 1947
Les Communistes 6 vols. (novel) 1949-51
Les Yeux et la mémoire (poetry) 1954
La Semaine sainte [Holy Week] (novel) 1958
Les Fou d'Elsa (poetry) 1963
La Mise à mort (novel) 1965
Blanche; ou, L'oubli (novel) 1967
Les Poètes (poetry) 1969
Henri Matisse, roman...
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SOURCE: Balakian, Anna. “Anicet, or the pursuit of pulchérie.” In Symbolism and Modern Literature, edited by Marcel Tetel, pp. 237-47. North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1978.
[In the following essay, Balakian argues that Aragon's first published prose work, Anicet, cemented his importance to twentieth-century art and literature by “igniting” the “spirit of surrealism.”]
Among the astonishing areas of neglect in the criticism of twentieth-century literature is the substantial work of Aragon. The oversight is the more surprising in the light of resurgent interest in Dada and surrealism, extending to collateral references such as Jarry, Roussel, and Artaud. André Breton has fared better, although the current scholarly attention to narrative has overstressed the importance of Nadja and underestimated Breton's poetry.
In perspective, Aragon may well loom as the Victor Hugo of this century, and with luck and good health he may well make it to 1985. Like his predecessor he has had an active role in forming a literary movement, he has had his politically and patriotically inspired phases, his colossal narratives, and if he was not exiled at a certain period in his life like Victor Hugo, he has known what it is to be a stranger in his own land, evidenced in the poignant poetry of En Etrange Pays dans mon pays lui-même.
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SOURCE: Scaldini, Richard J. “Les Aventures de Télémaque, or Alienated in Ogygia.” Yale French Studies, no. 57 (1979): 164-79.
[In the following essay, Scaldini examines modernity in Aragon's Les Aventures de Télémaque.]
In Je n'ai jamais appris à écrire, ou les incipit Aragon informs us that he learned to read from Fénelon's didactic novel Les Aventures de Télémaque.1 He also tells us that his own Dadaist Aventures de Télémaque, published in 1922 and “correcting” (in the Ducassian sense of the term) Fénelon's original, could only evolve “insofar as, in the decor of the Odyssey, my life, my modern preoccupations, could disrupt its development.”2 Under the auspices of Ducasse's Poésies, Aragon opposes his disruptive iconoclastic text—product of what he calls the “lyric of the uncontrollable”—to one of the most tradition-bound, voluntarily derivative texts in the French canon.3 The two works bear the same title, but they invest it with radically antagonistic values. Where Fénelon seeks to establish the authority and merit of his Télémaque through its inscription in the merged classical and Christian traditions, Aragon seeks a solution of continuity with the tradition and with the literary history which perpetuates it.4
The modern work which will effectuate such a break with the...
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SOURCE: Collier, Peter. “Surrealist City Narrative: Breton and Aragon.” In Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art, edited by Edward Timms and David Kelley, pp. 214-29. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985.
[In the following essay, Collier discusses the urban settings in works by André Breton and Aragon.]
In French poetry of the second half of the nineteenth century urban motifs were easily recognisable as signs of street-corner realism (Baudelaire's cats, rats, bodies, jewels, mud, mobs, carriages, cafés, dogs, beggars) or of elevated symbolism (Mallarmé's drawing-room vases and fans). But the Surrealists' interest in the urban per se derives strictly from neither of these sources. Two aspects of city life were particularly likely to appeal to them: the presence in the city of a potentially revolutionary mass audience, exciting to poets who believed that they could change the real world—lying dismembered since the Great War—as well as people's inner lives, and who believed that poetry could and should be written by the people for the people; secondly, there was a concentration in the city of certain cultural and imaginative facilities—the theatre, cinema and music hall for passive consumption and stimulation of escapist dreaming, the café for the social congregation of artists and sometimes for their performances, the brothel and the street...
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SOURCE: Calin, William. “The Poets' Poet: Intertextuality in Louis Aragon.” Symposium 40, no. 1 (1986): 3-15.
[In the following essay, Calin explores Aragon's use of collage, and its meaning to his view of literary tradition, in some of his major poems.]
Scholars are aware of the pervasive presence of intertextuality in the work of Louis Aragon. The poet himself defined one aspect of the intertextual process—what he calls collage—in his thought and in the creation of his works. Allied to collage as an esthetic phenomenon is Aragon's vision of literature, especially the literature of the past, viewed as a cultural phenomenon. His cultural vision, which dates from the surrealist years, can be seen in the interviews that he gave to D. Arban and J. Ristat:
il s'était au cours de 1921 pratiqué une rupture entre les dadaïstes et nous, c'est-à-dire ceux-là qui sont devenus nommément les surréalistes en 1923 … sur la question même de l'activité littéraire. En particulier à cause du refus de Breton, d'Eluard, de moi-même, de Soupault, de jeter par-dessus bord du point de vue pur et simple de la table rase, ce qu'on appelle aujourd'hui l'héritage littéraire … [les] surréalistes, les gens de ce siècle qui se sont le plus attachés à redonner vie véritable à des oeuvres du passé abusivement accaparées par l'académisme et...
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SOURCE: Kimyongür, Angela. “Introduction.” In Socialist Realism in Louis Aragon's Le Monde réel, pp. 1-8. Hull: The University of Hull Press, 1995.
[In the following essay, Kimyongür presents an overview of Aragon's sociopolitical views in his novel cycle Le Monde réel.]
Louis Aragon owes his popular reputation to his poetry, both his Surrealist poetry of the early to mid 1920s and his Resistance poetry of the Second World War; but to evaluate him solely in these terms is to fail to acknowledge the varied nature of his literary career as poet, novelist, literary critic and journalist, a career which, from the late 1920s onwards, bears the imprint of his membership of the Parti Communiste Français (PCF). The focus of this study will be the cycle of novels he wrote between 1934 and 1951 entitled Le Monde réel. The cycle is made up of five novels: Les Cloches de Bâle (1934), Les Beaux Quartiers (1936), Les Voyageurs de l'Impériale (1942), Aurélien (1944) and Les Communistes (1949-51), which together constitute a portrait of French society from the Third Republic until the débâcle of 1940. More than this, the novels are an attempt by Aragon to translate his political allegiance to the French Communist party, which he joined in 1927, into literary expression through his espousal of the doctrine of socialist realism. The novels will be...
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SOURCE: Walz, Robin. “The Baedeker of Hives: The Opera Passageway and Aragon's Le Paysan de Paris.” In Pulp Surrealism: Insolent Popular Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Paris, pp. 13-41. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
[In the following essay, Walz explores Aragon's depiction of the Paris Opera Passageway in his novel Le Paysan de Paris and the socio-historical role of the Passageway in Parisian culture.]
paysan, anne (de pays). n. Homme, femme de compagne.—Par extens. Rustre, personne grossière: Un franc paysan.—Œnol. Se dit, dans la classification des vins de Bordeaux, de ceux qui occupent le dernier rang.
peasant (from pays, country). n. Countryman or country-woman.—By extension, Unsophisticated, uncouth character: A simple peasant.—Œnology. Name commonly given to the lowest order of Bordeaux wine classifications.
—Larousse du XXe siècle (1932)
Toward the end of the first half of Le Paysan de Paris—that portion dedicated to the Opera Passageway—some of the owners of the arcade's shops got a peek at what surrealist Louis Aragon had been writing about them since the summer of 1924. The commercial proprietors, Aragon recounted, were shocked by a series of...
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Ahearn, Edward J. “Surrealism and Its Discontents: Breton's Nadja and Aragon's Paysan de Paris.” In Visionary Fictions: Apocalyptic Writing from Blake to the Modern Age, pp. 94-116. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1996.
Discusses the revolutionary tenets of Aragon and Breton as they are depicted in their literary works.
Nicholls, Peter. “Death and Desire: The Surrealist Adventure.” In Modernisms: A Literary Guide, pp. 279-302. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Discusses Nightwalker as a defining work of the Surrealist movement.
Spender, Stephen. “Louis Aragon's The Red Front.” In The Thirties and After: Poetry, Politics, People, 1933-1970, pp. 30-31. New York: Random House, 1979.
Condemns Aragon's poem The Red Front as communist propaganda.
Suleiman, Susan Rubin. “Subversions, or the Play of Writing …” In Authoritarian Fictions: The Ideological Novel as a Literary Genre, pp. 199-238. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
Brief consideration of Aragon's novel Residential Quarter in a discussion of several French thesis novels of diverse political, social, and religious ideologies.
Walker, David H. “Young Iconoclasts: Surrealism and the...
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