A library is an organized (using a classification system) collection of books and other print and nonprint materials. Library contents and materials vary according to the patrons or clientele being served. Library searches used to be done through the card catalog, a record of the collection’s materials. Most libraries, in the late twentieth century, switched their records (under the same classification systems) to computers, so that users can access information in various databases. Libraries’ vast collections of materials can be obtained by such methods as going to the shelf and finding a desired book, requesting a book (many libraries do not allow patrons to access books directly), making a computer printout, or asking for a book through interlibrary loan. Libraries are vital organizations in modern global societies. They house not only books but also other resources, including periodicals, newspapers, audiovisual materials and various other print and nonprint information. Librarians provide a variety of services to a clientele used to a service oriented, computer-age society. The Internet has enabled individuals to reach libraries across nations and to acquire information instantaneously. The roles of libraries and librarians have become more complex and challenging, especially in issues of selection and censorship.
The earliest known libraries (of clay tablets) date back to Mesopotamia of 3500 b.c.e. The ancient library (of papyrus documents) in Alexandria (305-283 b.c.e.) was destroyed in various fires. Scholars at this Egyptian library copied, revised, and collated works of classical Greek writers. Libraries flourished for centuries and held about 500,000 rolls. The Roman Empire had many libraries, but during the Middle Ages the Roman Catholic church kept the library traditions in Europe. Libraries in the Middle Ages were primarily in monasteries, cathedrals, and universities. Books were laboriously made by hand, by monks, thus limiting the size and number of libraries. Additionally, books that the Church thought immoral were destroyed. The great libraries of Damascus and Baghdad were destroyed by the thirteenth century. The first libraries in China appeared with the Ch’in Dynasty. A copy of every book was stored in the imperial library.
During the Renaissance more libraries emerged, including the Vatican Library. The invention of the printing press further increased the number of libraries, and more books became available, primarily for elites with private libraries. Public libraries started in the seventeenth century and their number multiplied throughout Europe and America. As illiteracy rates decreased, the use of public libraries increased in the eighteenth century. National libraries appeared—La Bibliotheque National in Paris in the seventeenth century, the British Museum in London and Italy’s National Library in Florence in the eighteenth century, Russia’s Saltikov-Shchdrin Library in Saint Petersburg, and the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., which started with purchases from Thomas Jefferson’s personal library.
Most countries have national libraries, as well as other scholarly libraries—Charles University in Prague, the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem, the Egyptian National Library in Cairo, and others. In some countries, public libraries are not as abundant as in the United States and Canada. Canada maintains government libraries in Ottawa—the Library of Parliament, the National Library of Canada, and the Canadian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information. The Internet allows easy access to these libraries and others throughout the world. Several organizations work to improve libraries across the world, including UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), AID (the Agency for International Development), IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations), IASL (International Association of School Librarianship), and others.
Libraries and Censorship Types of Libraries, Organization, and Services (Critical Guide to Censorship and Literature)
There are various types of libraries: private, public, academic, school, and specialized. The first libraries were private collections of rulers, aristocrats, and those who could afford to build collections. With the advent of the printing press, more books became available and public libraries were organized. Most private and public libraries benefited from donor generosity, and many private collections are available to the public for research (such as Huntington Library in San Marino, California, or the Ambrosian Library in Milan, Italy). Andrew Carnegie helped establish two thousand public libraries in the United States. Private libraries may limit access to their collections, and use is often based on the research needs of clients. Public libraries have a responsibility to maintain a collection that reflects the needs of the community and that is accessible to all users.
Public libraries often work cooperatively with other libraries, especially school libraries. In some cases, public libraries may lend collections to schools for a period of time. Public libraries are actively involved in providing services for children and young adults. Story hour and literacy programs are popular, along with writer group meetings and other community activities. Services for special groups are also available, for example materials for the visually impaired. More and more public (and school) libraries are purchasing materials in many different languages to accommodate...
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Acquisition of library materials is usually delegated to a committee (of professional librarians and community members) decision and is based on a written selection policy. Ultimate control over those controversial decisions that cannot be handled by librarians are determined by library governing boards for public libraries and school boards for school library media centers. Librarians and selection committees choose materials for the whole community, especially in public libraries.
School libraries select materials to support the curriculum; public libraries must meet the needs of a variety of patrons. Adult materials often fall victim to censorship complaints. The Intellectual Freedom Committee of the ALA provides counsel and legal support to librarians embattled by censorship issues. School libraries report the highest incidence of censorship complaints, followed by public libraries. Academic libraries appear to have few censorship incidents, perhaps because of the academic freedom afforded university libraries. Private, religious colleges, however, may actually practice censorship through the selection process. Authors such as Judy Blume and Kurt Vonnegut, along with publisher associations, are stout defenders of libraries and the freedom to read.
The ALA is concerned about attempts to suppress individuals’ rights of access to library materials. The association believes that free communication is necessary for the preservation of creativity in a free society. The ALA has publicly affirmed its stance against censorship and on behalf of free debate. It argues that it is in the public interest for publishers and librarians to make available the widest diversity of views and expressions, including those which are unorthodox or unpopular with the majority. The association’s...
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Walter M. Daniels’ The Censorship of Books (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1954) provides a comprehensive historical perspective on book censorship. Grant S. McClellan’s Censorship in the United States (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1967) presents a historical perspective. Mary Duncan Carter, Wallace John Bonk, and Rose Mary Magrill’s Building Library Collections (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1974) provides information and guidelines for developing library collections. Eli M. Oboler’s Censorship and Education (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1981) focuses on issues of censorship in educational settings. The Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom, published serially by the American Library Association, gives examples of censorship, along with the court cases involved. Jean Key Gates’s Guide to the Use of Books and Libraries (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983) presents a historical perspective on books and libraries, organization and management, including censorship. Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs (Chicago: American Library Association, 1988) gives standards for developing, organizing, and managing school library media programs, along with policy statements for dealing with censorship. Henry Reichman’s Censorship and Selection: Issues and Answers for Schools (Chicago: American Library Association, 1993) is a useful resource for school media specialists offering suggestions for dealing with censorship problems. Daniel F. Ring’s “Has the American Public Library Lost Its Purpose?” in Public Libraries (July-August, 1994) is an insightful article on many aspects of public librarianship. Phyllis J. Van Orden’s The Collection Program in Schools: Concepts, Practices, and Information Sources (2d ed. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1995) includes policies, guidelines, and procedures for selecting library materials for schools.