Flannery O’Connor’s story “The Lame Shall Enter First” is told from the point of view of Sheppard, who is unable to empathize with the grief of his son, Norton, over the death of his mother a year ago. Instead, Sheppard insists that helping others is the most important good in life. In addition, Sheppard does not believe in God or heaven, espousing a rational view of life that does not provide Norton the means to understand the death of his mother and the emptiness it created in his life. It takes Rufus Johnson, a fourteen-year-old child who fully believes in good and evil and especially in the power of Satan, to enable Sheppard to understand the love and attention his son needs. However, Sheppard learns this only after Norton kills himself in an attempt to reach his mother, whom he imagines he sees on the moon when he looks at it through a telescope. Through both satire and irony, O’Connor suggests that science cannot replace moral thought and that moral thinking begins with authentic love and compassion rather than a false sense of “doing good.” Furthermore, evil, represented by Rufus, becomes an instrument of good, but only with tragic consequences. Atheism more than Rufus is the real antagonist in the story, for Sheppard’s lack of belief in God and compassion undermines his attempts to accomplish a false, self-absorbed understanding of good.
The Lame Shall Enter First Summary
Sheppard has little sympathy for his ten-year-old son, Norton, who in his view lacks brains, curiosity, and, most importantly, empathy for others. Instead, Sheppard prefers the fourteen-year-old miscreant Rufus Johnson, whom he had been trying to help at the reformatory. Sheppard thinks that Rufus is brilliant and needs only a chance to make something of himself. In fact, Sheppard gives Rufus a key to his house to demonstrate his trust, for Rufus’s grandfather, a religious zealot, beats him. When Sheppard pressures his son by asking him how he would like to live as poor Rufus has, Norton “lamely” says that he “doesn’t know.” The child misses his dead mother too much to think of the welfare of others, but his father thinks his son has been sad much too long. An atheist and rationalist, Sheppard has told Norton his mother simply is “gone” now that she is dead, an idea that only intensifies the child’s grief.
Although Norton answers his father’s questions “lamely,” Rufus in fact is lame, marked by a clubfoot, which Sheppard believes is the crux of his bad behavior and attitude toward life. He is certain that if he challenges Rufus’s mind and gives him a decent shoe for his deformed foot, the child will mend his ways. Rufus, on the other hand, flaunts his foot and brags he is evil because “Satan has [him] in his power.” Eventually Rufus does come to Sheppard’s house, initially terrifying Norton. Sheppard’s goal is to “save” Rufus, and he is willing to sacrifice his son to Rufus to do this. Even after Sheppard puts a telescope up in the attic for Rufus to see something greater in life and purchases an orthotic shoe for him, the boy only scoffs at his would-be benefactor, telling Norton his father is a fool who thinks he is “Jesus Christ.”
Rufus begrudgingly enjoys the comforts of Sheppard’s house and at first shows some interest in the telescope, but when Sheppard enthusiastically tells him he could go to...
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