Wroth, Lady Mary (Literary Criticism (1400-1800))
Lady Mary Wroth 1587–1653(?)
(Born Mary Sidney) English fiction writer, poet, and playwright.
The following entry provides an overview of Wroth's career and works, and contains criticism published from 1946 through 1993.
Considered the first woman writer of English original prose fiction, Lady Mary Wroth published her lengthy prose romance, The Countesse of Mountgomeries Urania (1621) at a time when women's writing was confined strictly to translation and pious works. For centuries dismissed as an imitation of the pastoral romance genre epitomized by Sir Philip Sidney's The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia (1590), Wroth's Urania and the sonnet sequence at the end of the work, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, have garnered increased scholarly attention since the 1970s for their successful transposition of the gender expectations that prevailed in seventeenth-century literary forms. Wroth's use of secular female viewpoints is recognized as an innovative approach to genres in which the point of view had been exclusively male. In Urania, Wroth reversed traditional male notions of community, creating a word of feminine friendship through which she depicted the quest for self identity and the formation of same sex friendships that support and transcend passion and marriage to the opposite sex. Wroth characterized women as the purveyors of culture and constancy, and while her works reflect the systematic subordination of women to the patriarchal mores of the times, her female characters manage to assert their identities, thereby avoiding victimization. Published after the pastoral and sonnet forms were past their popularity, Wroth's Urania expanded the conventions of the genres by fusing the romantic tradition with the realistic through the use of diversionary subplots and dialogue in the style of the novelle. Both for her daring examination of gender expectations and the stylistic deviations she made from traditional literary forms, Wroth is receiving increased scrutiny in modern scholarship.
The eldest daughter of Sir Robert Sidney, a poet and government official, and Lady Barbara damage, Mary Sidney was born on 18 October 1587 into a family established in both literary pursuits and life in the courts of Elizabeth I and James I. For this reason, she had access to educational and cultural opportunities rare for
a woman of her time. Wroth's uncle was Sir Philip Sidney, author of influential Renaissance works including the sonnet sequence Astrophil and Stella (1590), and the pastoral romance Arcadia, both of which were to provide important models for Wroth's writing. Due to the literary interests of her family and her mother's active role in educating her children, Wroth spent her childhood practicing writing, language, and music. Wroth also traveled with her mother on the Continent when her father assumed a governorship in the Netherlands, spending much of her early childhood abroad. While receiving a thorough education in the arts from her mother, it was Wroth's aunt Mary Sidney, the Countess of Pembroke and sister to Sir Philip Sidney, who inspired her to literary pursuits. The Countess of Pembroke not only wrote poetry and translations from French and Italian, she also published them—a bold venture for a woman in the 1590s. According to Josephine Roberts, the Countess of Pembroke's work in various verse forms, particularly in a metrical version of the Psalms she had begun with Sir Philip Sidney, probably stimulated Wroth's interest in poetical techniques. Wroth used her aunt as the model for characters in her own work, as the Queen of Naples in the Urania, and as Simena in the play Love's Victory (1620s?). The family's standing at court increased during Wroth's early years. When Queen Elizabeth visited Penshurst in 1600 to show her favor for Sir Robert, young Mary Sidney entertained the queen with dancing, foreshadowing later dramatic performances at the court of James I.
In 1604, Mary married Robert Wroth, who had been knighted the previous year by James I and whose hunting skills found favor with the king. The union was not a happy one; Sir Robert Wroth's dissatisfaction with his new wife was apparent to Mary Wroth's father, who commented upon their marital difficulties in a letter to his wife. However unhappy the marriage, Lady Mary Wroth's position at court was enhanced by her new husband's and her father's rising influence with James I. She performed in several court entertainments for Queen Anne, most notably The Masque of Blackness in 1605 and Masque of Beauty in 1608 by the poet Ben Jonson, with whom Lady Wroth shared a mutual admiration for many years. Jonson wrote a poem praising Wroth's poetry, and commented to William Drummond on the unworthiness of her marriage to Robert Wroth. Due to her position at court, Lady Wroth became known as a literary patron as well as poet in her own right. She was most certainly composing verse by 1613, and her work may have circulated as early as 1605. In between her duties at court and at the Wroths' country estate, where she played hostess to the royal couple when James I came to hunt, Wroth wrote songs and sonnets, many of which would make up her sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus. Lady Wroth was well known as a poet long before the first publication of her work in 1621. However, although active and respected in literary circles, Wroth's first effort at publication may have been spurred by financial obligations incurred following the death of her husband in 1614, a month after the birth of their only child, a son. Robert Wroth left his wife a large debt. Her circumstances worsened with the death of her son, which caused Wroth to lose much of her husband's estate to his uncle due to the lack of an immediate male heir.
The difficulties for women brought on by patriarchal mores greatly influenced Wroth's later works, which extensively address the problems of marrying for financial gain, and the impoverishment that widowhood often brought to women of her class. During her early years as a widow, Wroth continued a romantic liaison with her cousin William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke, which had begun during her marriage, eventually bearing two illegitimate children by him. Herbert is thought to be the model for the character Amphilanthus, the object of Pamphilia's affections in Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, while Wroth herself is thought to be reflected in Pamphilia. Despite her relationship with the wealthy Herbert, Wroth's financial position became increasingly desperate, and she may have decided to publish as a means out of her difficulties. Unfortunately, this avenue was forever closed to her with the appearance of the Urania, appended with the sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, in 1621. Composed during the period 1618-1620, the Urania incorporates elements of the roman à clef, detailing Wroth's fall from favor in court upon the death of her husband, attributing her circumstances to court slander, and basing several episodes in the work on actual court scandals. Publication of the Urania sparked a venomous flurry of criticism by courtiers who claimed to identify their own embarrassing episodes in the work. Sir Edward Denny, in particular, was incensed by Wroth's depiction of his affairs and waged a public campaign to disparage the Urania and Wroth. Wroth responded in kind, answering his public outcries with spirited rebuttals and attempting to rally the support of influential friends, to whom she insisted she had not meant any harm. In the end, however, she was forced to remove the work from circulation, and it remained unpublished for the rest of her life. Despite the scandal, Wroth continued to write prolifically throughout the 1620s, producing a second part to the Urania, and composing the drama Love's Victory, for which there is no record of performance. Her financial position, however, became increasingly dire, and she was forced to petition the king several times for protection from creditors. Little is known of Wroth's later years, and no literary material exists from the last three decades of her life. Wroth likely died in 1651 or 1653 without ever having regained financial stability or her former standing at court.
Wroth's three major works all derive from established literary forms popular in her time, but their unifying and distinguishing feature is the adaptation of exclusively male forms and techniques to a female point of view. In each of her works, the protagonists are women who suffer subordination to a patriarchal society, but nevertheless shape their own destinies in fulfillment of a quest for identity and spiritual freedom. Wroth's concern is to evoke a female community of friendship in which women attain acceptance and respect outside the norms of male-dominated society, which glorified court rituals or traditional heroic exploits. Strong women characters in Elizabethan literature often were paragons of virtue or female extensions of the male concept of heroism; for example, warriors or Amazons in the tradition of Spenser. In contrast, Wroth's women range from the virtuous to the deceitful. None defines herself by male standards of female virtue or heroism, and instead looks inward to determine her identity. In the Urania, for example, Wroth presents resilient women characters whose notions of self are challenged by male inconstancy and their subordinate position in society. The 600 page prose romance chronicles the adventures of a huge cast of characters, with the central theme being Queen Pamphilia's vow of love and loyalty to King Amphilanthus. Pamphilia's vow is tested continually by separation from her beloved and by various intrigues that reveal his inconstancy to her. Parallel to this plot is that concerning Pamphilia's close friend Urania, an important commentator on the many adventures narrated in the work. Ostensibly a shepherdess, Urania embarks on a search for her parents and her true identity, symbolizing the feminine quest for self identity and the rejection of societal expectations. The heroic deeds of knights are compared with the spiritual heroism of women's striving for the freedom to shape their lives. Female unhappiness is portrayed as a result of betrayal by the men to whom they have pledged loyalty; a theme that is explored further in the sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, which follows the Urania in the 1621 edition.
The first known edition of Wroth's sonnets consisted of 110 poems and seven miscellaneous pieces, but by the publication of the Urania, she had revised the sequence to the eighty-three sonnets and twenty songs. The only Renaissance sonnet sequence composed by a woman, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus transforms the traditional Petrarchan conceit of a male sonneteer addressing a female love object to a female sonneteer writing of her love for a man. The characters' names reflect the main concern of the poetry; Pamphilia means "all-loving", while Amphilanthus means "lover of two". The contrast between women's constancy and men's inconstancy is voiced with emotion and depth by Pamphilia, who attempts to resolve the struggle between her desire to surrender to passion and the need to retain her identity and freedom. Although the poems are addressed to Amphilanthus, the focus of the poetry is Pamphilia's examination of her own character, her thoughts on love, her inner virtue, her ambivalence towards marriage. These themes are continued in Love's Victory, Wroth's pastoral tragicomedy modelled after the love story in Sir Philip Sidney's sonnet sequence Astrophil and Stella. In the play, Wroth focusses on a woman's right to choose whether and whom to marry. As in the Urania and Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, there are strongly autobiographical motifs to the play, as Wroth decries the repercussions of marrying for financial gain rather than for love. As in her other works, women play the dominant role in the action; the deity Venus, who comments on the action and guides the characters' behavior, dominates Cupid. The drama portrays one woman's decision to marry for love and another's decision to not marry at all, while the forced marriage of two characters ends in their mock deaths, a symbol of the stifling nature of arranged unions. Female friendship again is an important element of the action, with the women characters meeting to discuss their roles in romance and to empower each others' decisions regarding marriage. Although men are portrayed as disrespectful of women, in some cases comparing women with animals, Wroth endows her female characters with self-respect and the strength to shape their lives and make decisions, thus avoiding victimization. In her works, Wroth adhered to traditional forms and took her stylistic cues from the literary establishment of her times, but her writing was far from merely derivative of these forms in its transposition of gender roles to endow a female narrator with the ability to examine her own character and her society.
With the rediscovery of her works and the release of important editions of her poetry by Gary Waller in 1977 and Josephine Roberts in 1983, among others, Wroth's place in the development of literary forms received new scrutiny. Most Wroth critics have sought to examine and clarify the role of the female voice and the revolutionary impact of the transposition of gender. The majority of scholars studying this aspect of Wroth's work have agreed that her representation of female perspectives and the creation of feminine community are both artistically successful and refreshing variations on established forms. In addition, critics have noted that the feminine viewpoint in her work serves as an important aid in a historical and sociological understanding of the role of women and the difficulties they faced during the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. From both an historical and a literary standpoint, critics are continuing to research Wroth's contributions to English literature and to acknowledge her role in establishing the tradition of a literary feminine voice.
The Countesse of Mountgomeries Urania (fiction) 1621
*Pamphilia to Amphilanthus (poetry) 1621
‡Love's Victorie (drama) 1621(?)
†The Poems of Lady Mary Wroth (poetry) 1983
* Sonnet sequence first printed as the conclusion to Urania; published as separate work Pamphilia to Amphilanthus by Lady Mary Wroth, edited by G. F. Wallter, 1977.
†Wroth's poetry circulated in manuscript as early as 1605. This edition was edited by Josephine A. Roberts.
‡No record of performance. First published as Lady Mary Wroth's 'Love's Victory': The Penshurst Manuscript, edited by Michael J. Brennan, 1988.
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SOURCE: "The Pastoral Romance," in Women Writers: Their Contribution to The English Novel 1621-1744, 1944. Reprint by Cork University Press, 1946, pp. 47-69.
[In the following excerpt, MacCarthy examines Wroth's The Countesse of Mountgomeries Urania in the context of Elizabethan prose traditions and the influence of Sydney's Arcadia, and shows how Wroth blends realism and romanticism through the use of sub-plots and dialogue.]
In 1621, in the person of Lady Mary Wroath, woman made her first contribution to English prose fiction. Having barely mentioned the name of the first English woman-novelist, we must at once retrogress after the manner of a writer who introduces his heroine only to leave her standing while he laboriously sketches in the background. But truly it would quite impossible to judge the work of Lady Mary Wroath without at first considering briefly the state of Elizabethan and Jacobean prose fiction of which her novel was an integral part.
The main point to be observed in regard to the prose fiction of the Elizabethan age is that on the whole it did not recognise itself as a separate literary medium. Narrative had undergone many changes in aim and in form, since the days of the old epics which had for their object the recital of certain events. This uncomplicated aim led to a direct form, to a treatment which Heine [in The Prose Writers of Heinrich...
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SOURCE: "The Nature of Poetry," in The Poems of Lady Mary Wroth, Louisiana State University Press, 1983, pp. 41-60.
[In the following essay, Roberts discusses Wroth's treatment of the subject of love relationships and the influence of Petrarchan and pastoral literary traditions in Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, Urania, and Love's Victory.]
PAMPHILIA TO AMPHILANTHUS
Lady Mary Wroth's contemporaries recognized that her verse belonged to the Petrarchan tradition and strongly identified her as Sir Philip Sidney's successor, "In whom, her Uncle's noble Veine renewes." Despite the early seventeenth-century fashion of "hard lines," and metaphysical wit, Lady Mary chose to reach back to a much older poetic model. Although her sonnet collection uses the voice of a female persona, the sequence contains many Elizabethan elements, especially in its structure, diction, and imagery. Yet the distinctive tone of her poems is much closer to that of Donne's lyrics, with a harsh, occasionally cynical attitude toward earthly constancy.
Lady Mary's preference for the older Petrarchan forms may be best understood in the context of a seventeenth-century critical essay on poetry, which was addressed to her: Dudley, third Baron North's "Preludium to the first Verses," which appeared as the introduction to his collection of poems [entitled A Forest of Varieties]. In this...
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SOURCE: "Feminine Identity in Lady Mary Wroth's Romance Urania," in English Literary Renaissance, Vol. 14, No. 3, Autumn, 1984, pp. 328-46.
[In this excerpt, Swift discusses Wroth's portrayal of the search for female identity through the characters Pamphilia and Urania, and draws parallels to Wroth's own struggle for acceptance and recognition in seventeenth-century society.]
In 1621 Lady Mary Wroth published The Countesse of Mountgomeries Urania, a beautiful folio divided into four lengthy books, approximately 600 pages of prose and poetry that concludes with the sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus. An unpublished 145-page manuscript, evidently in Wroth's own hand and now at the Newberry Library, continues the story into a second generation but remains incomplete. Generally ignored today, Lady Wroth was recognized by many of her contemporaries. But while patronage may explain the attention of Jonson, Wither, and Chapman, still many of her 120 songs and sonnets, as well as much of Urania, can justify both her own contemporaries' praise and the study of modern scholars.
Herford and Simpson in their edition of Jonson describe briefly Lady Wroth's Urania as "gracefully" continuing "the Arcadian-Sidneyan tradition of her uncle". But Wroth seems to have begun her book with a deeper interest in the nature of women than is apparent in Sidney's...
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SOURCE: "'Not much to be marked': Narrative of the Woman's Part in Lady Mary Wroth's Urania," in Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, Vol. 29, No. 1, Winter, 1989, pp. 121-37.
[In this excerpt, Miller studies Wroth's creation of a female community in the Urania, and examines her use of narrative strategies that revise the conventions of romance and affirm the resiliency of female characters.]
Virginia Woolf's speculations in A Room of One's Own about the hypothetical fate of Shakespeare's unknown sister achieve unexpected relevance in the example of Lady Mary Wroth, Sir Philip Sidney's niece. Woolf muses that any woman born with a gift of poetry in the sixteenth century would never have been able to realize that gift as did a Shakespeare, or, one might say, a Sidney. Many feminist critics have used Woolf's reference to Shakespeare's sister as the starting point for their own analyses of women writers, particularly of the nineteenth century, without making any direct connection with a Renaissance woman who fits Woolf's model. In fact, Lady Mary Wroth, born in 1587, produced both a sonnet sequence, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, and a prose romance, The Countesse of Mountgomeries Urania, which is the first published work of fiction by an Englishwoman in the Renaissance.
Woolf's prediction [in A Room of One's Own] that even a noble lady of a later...
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SOURCE: "'A Sydney, though un-named'; Lady Mary Wroth and her Poetical Progenitors," in English Studies in Canada, Vol. XV, No. 1, March, 1989, pp. 12-20.
[In this analysis of the Urania and Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, MacArthur contends that the absence of important Petrarchan conventions in Wroth's poetry functions as an assertion of the persona's feminine voice.]
Critics have often commented upon the tensions in Lady Mary Wroth's prose romance The Countesse of Montgomeries Urania (London, 1621), of which the sonnet sequence Pamphilia to Amphilanthus became a part. Carolyn Ruth Swift [in English Literary Renaissance, 14, 1984] has suggested that Lady Wroth was ambivalent, caught between her "empathy with society and her empathy with beleaguered women." Josephine A. Roberts [in The Poems of Lady Mary Wroth] also finds ambivalence, which she claims surfaces in the stylistic unevenness of the sequence: "the poems as a group vary widely in quality, from those that merely repeat the well-worn Elizabethan conceits to others that rise above the traditional imagery to present an intensely ambivalent response to love." In her dissertation of 1978, Margaret Witten-Hannah concludes that "the see-sawing of the different attitudes towards constancy and change [in the Urania] must be regarded as significant and as illustra tive of the author's own uncertainty in...
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SOURCE: "Feminine Self-Definition in Lady Mary Wroth's Love's Victorie," in English Literary Renaissance, Vol. 19, No. 2, Spring, 1989, pp. 171-88.
[In the following essay, Swift studies how Wroth's belief that women should have freedom of choice regarding marriage and the direction of their lives finds expression in her tragicomedy Love's Victory.]
In her pastoral play Love's Victorie, Lady Mary Wroth created a feminine dreamworld analogous to the "masculine dreamworld" that Renato Poggioli [in his The Oaten Flute] finds in traditional Renaissance pastorals. As male authors retreat to Arcadia in protest against sexual conformity and responsibility, in Love's Victorie a female author retreats to a world in which women can enlarge their freedom by overcoming family pressure and marrying as they wish. In seventeenth-century England an aristocratic woman usually married a man her parents chose for her because of his status or wealth; in Love's Victorie one woman chooses to remain single and another marries the man she loves. Wroth draws her protagonists from the story her uncle Sir Philip Sidney told in Astrophil and Stella, a sonnet sequence which most scholars accept as based upon his own love affair with Lady Penelope Rich. At the end of Love's Victorie characters who represent Sir Philip Sidney and Lady Penelope die a mock death that represents the...
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SOURCE: "A New Woman of Romance," in Modern Language Studies, Vol. XXI, No. 4, Fall, 1991, pp. 63-77.
[In the following excerpt, Shaver examines Wroth's female protagonists, observing the ways in which they assert power within the strict behavioral confines of the feminine Renaissance ideal.]
An examination of Pamphilia, the cynosure and central character of the Lady Mary Wroth's romance Urania, shows to how great an extent her author appears to have internalized the Renaissance ideal of womanhood with its insistence on chastity above all, then silence and obedience. On the other hand, Wroth's women characters also embody glimmerings of new kinds of political, poetic, and persuasive powers just becoming available to women as well as men. Pamphilia suppresses her impulses to power or disguises them as something more acceptable; she keeps her most extreme transgression, her writing, very private. Other women, like Nereana, who try to exercise undisguised power, are usually presented as eccentrics who risk public shame, punishment and even insanity. Pamphilia, however, for all her conventional perfections, finally subverts the ideal in another way: she carries the patriarchal idea of feminine virtue to fiercely independent extremes.
Lady Mary Wroth published The Countesse of Montgomery's Urania, a long but unfinished prose romance, in 1621. Almost immediately objections to...
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SOURCE: "Mary Wroth's Love's Victory and Pastoral Tragicomedy," in Reading Mary Wroth: Representing Alternatives in Early Modern England, edited by Naomi J. Miller and Gary Waller, The University of Tennessee Press, 1991, pp. 88-109.
[Lewalski provides a brief history of the pastoral tragicomedy and discusses the influence of this tradition in Wroth's Love's Victory.]
Mary Wroth's pastoral tragicomedy, Love's Victory, has recently been published for the first and only time; it was unknown except to a small contemporary coterie, and is still virtually unread. Only one complete manuscript is extant, at Penshurst; the Huntington Library has a partial manuscript. Both are holograph. The date of composition is uncertain: Wroth's editors, Josephine Roberts and Michael J. Brennan, suggest the 1620s on the strength of a few parallels to an early section of the unpublished second part of Wroth's Urania, extant only in one manuscript at the Newberry Livrary. We know more about Wroth than about most women writers of the Elizabethan and Jacobean era … but we know next to nothing about this drama. It might have been written for performance at private theatricals at the Wroths' country estate at Durrants in Enfield but there is no record of such performance. Nor are there other contemporary records to supply context, nor any contemporary, or subsequent criticism of the work. As with much other...
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SOURCE: "Mary Wroth and the Invention of Female Poetic Subjectivity," in Reading Mary Wroth: Representing Alternatives in Early Modern England, edited by Naomi J. Miller and Gary Waller, The University of Tennessee Press, 1991, pp. 175-90.
[In the following excerpt, Feinberg explores Wroth's innovative use of a female perspective in Pamphilia to Amphilanthus and her evocation of "a fictional audience of women readers and writers."]
The nature of women's writing was clearly at issue early in the seventeenth century. Remember Rosalind's response to Phoebe's verses: "I say she never did invent this letter, / This is a man's invention and his hand" ([William Shakespeare, As You Like It,] IV.ii.28-29). She insists that "women's gentle brain / Could not drop forth such giant-rude invention" (IV.iii.34-35). While Rosalind as Ganymede speculates about how a woman's writing might sound, the work of feminist scholars confirms the range of women writers. Yet as scholars have reexamined the writings of Vittoria Colonna, Veronica Gambara, Marguerite de Navarre, and Margaret More Roper, they have reconstructed a history of the invention of female subjectivity that Renaissance women writers themselves worked to recover. When Mary Wroth writes Pamphilia to Amphilanthus (1621), the first sonnet sequence in English written from the point of view of a woman, she demonstrates her poetic invention....
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SOURCE: " 'Watch, gaze, and marke': The Poetry of Mary Wroth," in The Sidney Family Romance: Mary Wroth, William Herbert, and the Early Modern Construction of Gender, Wayne State University Press, 1993, pp. 190-219.
[In this essay, Waller presents an overview of the traditions, influences, and seventeenth-century gender roles that shaped Wroth's poetry.]
Despite their apparent obviousness, the words we use to describe gender assignments are sites of continual struggle. "Man" and "woman" are sliding, not stable, signifiers. Nor are the material practices that embody our lived sexual roles adequately descibed by the tragic limitations of such binarism. New forms of gender assignment emerge; new patterns of what we persist in calling "masculinity" and "femininity" are engendered. Representations never fully correspond to lived experiences, yet experiences are given form only by means of their representations. No literary text attempting to articulate gendered experiences is, therefore, ever "merely" literary; inevitably part of the history of ideologies, it opens political, religious, racial, class, and gender related questions—and perhaps the more intensely so when it is situated on the margins of the dominant literary forms of its society, where it is a reminder that any moment in history is constituted by a multiplicity of material practices and that what appears to be dominant depends, in part, for...
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Paulissen, May Nelson. "The Life and Milieu of Lady Mary Wroth." In The Love Sonnets of Lady Mary Wroth: A Critical Introduction, edited by Dr. James Hogg, pp. 1-77. Austria: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 1982.
A complete study of Wroth's life and the context of her work.
Roberts, Josephine A. "The Biographical Problem of Pamphilia to Amphilanthus." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring, 1982, pp. 43-53.
Provides a biography of Wroth and comments on the autobiographical nature of Pamphilia to Amphilanthus.
——. "The Life of Lady Mary Wroth." In The Poems of Lady Mary Wroth, edited by Josephine A. Roberts, pp. 3-40. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983.
A comprehensive history of Wroth's life, including her relationship with the poet Ben Jonson and the biographical sources of the Urania.
Beilin, Elaine V. " 'The Onely Perfect Vertue': Constancy in Mary Wroth's Pamphilia to Amphilanthus." In Spenser Studies: A Renaissance Poetry Annual, Vol. II, edited by Patrick Cullen and Thomas P. Roche, Jr., pp. 229-45. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press,...
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