An artist novel detailing the artist's growth to maturity.
The künstlerroman is a type of bildungsroman—a novel where the protagonist undergoes an education—in which the writer charts the course of an artist undergoing an evolution from nascent stirrings to full artistic voice. Literally, künstlerroman translates to English as “artist” (from the German, “künstler”) and “novel” (from the French, “roman”). The künstlerroman traces its origins to the Germanic Romantic tradition of the eighteenth century, when a generation of writers began to rebel against what they believed to be the confining rationalist structures borne of the Era of Enlightenment. They were drawn to the freedom of artistic expression apparent in Romanticism and the beliefs of perhaps its biggest advocate, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Goethe, one of the literary world's most influential thinkers, considered writing as a means to personal contemplation; a writer writes desirous to know his own internal cravings and emotions. From this process arose his Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship) (1795-1796), in which the title character, disillusioned by life and love, seeks a different standard and becomes an artist and a playwright. Considered the genesis of both the künstlerroman and bildungsroman genres, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship became the prototype from which the tenets of modern künstlerromane are drawn. Goethe's Bildung philosophy was meant to establish, in the words of critic Roberta Serat, “the full development of a person's possibilities.” From that, the künstlerroman branched out to mark a specific version of this education—the passage of protagonist from shapeless child to fully-formed artist.
This period in European culture saw tremendous activity in cross-pollination of ideas and theories as writers began to cross borders with increasing frequency. The movement founded by the German Romantic masters eventually spread to the English language in the nineteenth century where it was embraced by leading novelists and poets like Charles Dickens and Alfred Lord Tennyson. But the style is considered to have reached its peak with Stephen Dedalus's personal progression into writer in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), generally considered the standard-bearer of the genre in English. Since then, the künstlerroman form has become a popular method of disseminating an author's own concerns about finding themselves as both artist and human being, though many critics decry the lack of progress made by minority writers to utilize this form, as well as a dearth of critical thought about those few novels that do exist.
In many cases, if an author chooses to do a künstlerroman, it oftentimes comes early in their literary career, perhaps a result of their recent struggles to succeed as writers and the highly personal nature of the style that stems from this. Works of künstlerromane generally reflect the moral battle of writers questioning their appropriate standing as objective artist, a debate outlined by critic Maurice Beebe in his seminal work on the genre, Ivory Towers and Sacred Founts (1964). He characterized this inner turmoil as one that eventually forces its creator into one of two groups: the “Ivory Towers” and the “Sacred Founts,” terms regularly used in the criticism of künstlerromane. For those in the former category, they isolate themselves in so-called self-created “ivory towers,” regarding the sacrifice made to the creation of great art as worth more than a life fully lived. In direct opposite are the “Sacred Founts” who equate art with experience; personal fulfillment, and direct participation in the creation of history as the tableau from which classic literature springs. This inherent conflict is the impulse driving many künstlerroman, as the written protagonist is often a stand-in for their progenitor trying to sort out the conflicts that exist—whether as impediment or assistance—for them as artists in the real world. Their work becomes a reflection of their own travails that drove them to become the artists that exist to write the künstlerroman. This need to write and expunge is cited as both a primary cause and the source material for the books that spring forth, but also as the result of this “Divided Self.”
Characteristics of the genre follow the formation of the artist almost as much as the art they strive to create. In a standard work of the form, the protagonist begins in a state of confinement, often in childhood restricted in their horizons either by the limitations of their home life or the interference of the people around them. Through force of will they escape to another location, one far-removed from their origins and more hospitable to their dreams and desired vocation (as a künstlerroman can be about any type of artist, such as a writer, dancer, painter or blues musician), though there are still crises of confidence and struggles to succeed. Along the journey, they find education from a variety of sources, though often these teachers exist in the shape of two counteracting forces—one that nurtures the artistic career, and one that acts as an obstacle to their inevitable triumph. Ultimately, they reach a standard of success, often at a cost to their own personal well being, either morally or physically. The best of the form debate the value of that art as well as the cost that has been derived from the subsuming need to create. Quasi-biographical, many times the central plot of the story is driven by the creation of a singular work of art—much like the writer's creation of the novel itself.
More recently, a feminist critical perspective has arisen that deviates from that generalized plot line. Feminists have noted that in the male-authored künstlerroman, the lead character is often a delicate, sensitive type taking on many feminine and stereotypically artistic characteristics, but when that protagonist is a woman she is defined by the world as fearless, pushy, and masculine. For the man, the sole pursuit of art is a noble goal in contrast to the woman's drive, whereby she is described as selfish, her striving for personal glory coming at a cost to the family that needs her. Similarly, for the man-artist, the intent is about the artistic result, the process of creation. But just as much, the female künstlerroman attempts to chart the woman's freedom from traditional roles, ironically putting her in opposition to the males in her life.
The künstlerroman is one of several sub-genres in the bildungsroman tradition, the others being the Entwicklungsroman and the Erziehungsroman. In the Entwicklungsroman, or novel of development, the author tries to illustrate the growth of his protagonist which, as opposed to the künstlerroman, is done without a particular goal in mind. The Erziehungsroman is a novel of instruction, the primary events occurring within the grounds of some type of educational institution. However, all three follow the bildung archetype where the primary focus is to trace the personal development of the lead character. Finally, there exists a sub-type of the künstlerroman: the artiste manqué, which charts the downfall of an artist whose talents have been sabotaged by an inherent weakness either within the artist himself, such as an addiction, or by the failings of those around him.
In essence, the künstlerroman is often a therapeutic exercise in self-exploration for a writer: Who am I, how did I come to be here, and finally, was the result worth what I've given to achieve it? Not necessarily written with the intent for concrete answers, the künstlerroman still seeks a way to find a better understanding of the value and suffering inherent in the eternal struggle to create.
Harriette Simpson Arnow
The Dollmaker (novel) 1954
Surfacing (novel) 1972
Honoré de Balzac
La Comédie humaine. 40 vols. (novels and short stories) 1895-1900
The Floating Opera (novel) 1956
Lost in the Funhouse: Fiction for Print, Tape, Live Voice (short stories) 1968
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Aurora Leigh (narrative poem) 1857
The Song of the Lark (novel) 1915
The Awakening (novel) 1899
Rebecca Harding Davis
Life in the Iron Mills (short story) 1861
David Copperfield (novel) 1850
Through the Ivory Gate (novel) 1992
The “Genius” (novel) 1915
Harriet the Spy (novel) 1964
Another Good Loving Blues (novel) 1993
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
The Yellow Wallpaper, A Novella (novella) 1899
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre: Ein Roman. 4 vols. [Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship] (novel) 1795-1796
A Sound of Chariots (novel) 1972
Crome Yellow (novel) 1921
Roderick Hudson (novel) 1875
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (novel) 1916
Edith Summers Kelley
Weeds (novel) 1923
D. H. Lawrence
Sons and Lovers (novel) 1912
The Golden Notebook (novel) 1962
“Tonio Kröger” (novella) 1903
Doctor Faustus (novel) 1947
Alfred Lord Tennyson
In Memorium (poem) 1850
William Makepeace Thackeray
The History of Pendennis (novel) 1850
The Golden Apples (novel) 1949
To the Lighthouse (novel) 1927
The Master (novel) 1895
SOURCE: Beebe, Maurice. “Honoré de Balzac: The Novelist as Creator.” In Ivory Towers and Sacred Founts: The Artist as Hero in Fiction from Goethe to Joyce, pp. 175-96. New York: New York University Press, 1964.
[In the following essay, Beebe assesses the work of French writer Honoré de Balzac and concludes that contrary to most appraisals of Balzac, as a writer, he was both a romantic and a realist.]
“The crossroad of sensibility and social history,” we have seen, is the area from which the finest fiction comes.1 Because the greatest novelists achieve a balance between individual vision and the life which they must use in their art, they seem to...
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SOURCE: Engelberg, Howard. “James and Arnold: Conscience and Consciousness in a Victorian Künstlerroman.” In Henry James's Major Novels: Essays in Criticism, edited by Lyall H. Powers, pp. 3-27. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1973.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1968, Engelberg argues in his examination of Roderick Hudson that Henry James was the first author writing in English to utilize the künstlerroman's “artist's dilemma” as a plot device for a novel.]
In his recent study of the artist-hero in fiction, Maurice Beebe examines the scores of novels in nineteenth-century English fiction which might be...
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SOURCE: Stouck, David. “The Song of the Lark: A Künstlerroman.” In Willa Cather's Imagination, pp. 183-98. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975.
[In the following essay, Stouck details how Thea Kronberg's artistic journey in Willa Cather's Song of the Lark marks it as a classic künstlerroman.]
Willa Cather's most positive view of art and the artist's life is found in The Song of the Lark (1915).1 The images of the artist as a divine figure and a heroic conqueror which occur in her journalistic writings are given their full dramatic value in the story of Thea Kronborg who becomes a famous singer—a Wagnerian opera...
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SOURCE: Malmgren, Carl D. “‘From Work to Text’: The Modernist and Postmodernist Künstlerroman.” Novel 21, no. 1 (fall 1987): 5-28.
[In the following essay, Malmgren gives an in-depth scrutinization of Thomas Mann's “Tonio Kroger” and John Barth's Lost in the Funhouse, using them as examples of modernist and postmodernist künstlerromane respectively.]
“… what an artist talks about is never the main point.”
—John Barth quoting from Thomas Mann's “Tonio Kroger” in “The Literature of Replenishment”
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SOURCE: Houston, Gail Turley. “Gender Construction and the Künstlerroman: David Copperfield and Aurora Leigh.” Philological Quarterly 72, no. 2 (spring 1993): 213-36.
[In the following essay, Houston tries to differentiate between Victorian gender construction in male and female authored English künstlerromane by using Charles Dickens's David Copperfield and Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh as a basis for the comparison.]
A nineteenth-century Romantic genre, the Kunstlerroman, as a kind of palimpsest, conceals the material concerns of the writer by asserting that self-making is...
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SOURCE: Falk, Lilian. “The Master: Reclaiming Zangwill's Only Künstlerroman.” English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 44, no. 3 (2001): 275-96.
[In the following essay, Falk closely reviews Israel Zangwill's The Master—examining how themes of morality are explored, how it falls into the künstlerroman genre, and whether it was inspired by Elizabeth Bishop's grandfather, George Hutchinson.]
Israel Zangwill's status as an important writer is firmly established. His weakest works are falling out of sight, while his best confirm his claim to fame. The Big Bow Mystery (1892) is recognized as a pioneering work in the locked-door...
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SOURCE: Beebe, Maurice. Introduction to Ivory Towers and Sacred Founts: The Artist as Hero in Fiction from Goethe to Joyce, pp. 3-18. New York: New York University Press, 1964.
[In the following introduction to what is generally considered the definitive study of the künstlerroman, Beebe examines the theory of the “Divided Self” whereby the main character of a book is an outward expression of the author himself; he also explores the “Ivory Tower” tradition in which the writer “exalts art above life” and the “Sacred Fount” theory where the artist equates art with experience.]
No sooner has Denis Stone, the young poet in Aldous Huxley's Crome...
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SOURCE: Mahlendorf, Ursula R. Introduction to The Wellsprings of Literary Creation: An Analysis of Male and Female “Artist Stories” from the German Romantics to American Writers of the Present, pp. xii-xx. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1985.
[In the following introduction to Mahlendorf's book-length examination of the künstlerroman, she surveys the ways in which the künstlerroman can be studied psychologically.]
A Künstlernovelle and Künstlerroman (artist story and artist novel) contains the creation of a work of art as a central event of its plot. Based on the creative work and psychology of a fictitious sculptor, painter, poet or...
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SOURCE: Serat, Roberta. “Origins of the Künstlerroman.” In Voyage into Creativity: The Modern Künstlerroman, pp. 17-27. New York: Peter Lang, 1992.
[In the following essay, Serat traces the origins of the modern künstlerroman from its manifestation during the German Romance period to its current form.]
Although the voyage motif traditionally embodies both social and psychological elements, during the Romantic period the emphasis is concentrated on the latter as the artist becomes aware of his difference from other members of society. Rousseau's Confessions1 and Goethe's Werther2 present early delineations of this...
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SOURCE: Goodman, Charlotte. “Portraits of the Artiste Manqué by Three Women Novelists.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women's Studies 5, no. 3 (1981): 57-9.
[In the following essay, Goodman reviews three contemporary novels that employ the Artiste Manqué, a literary device in which the artist-protagonist's talents are sabotaged by weaknesses in themselves or those close to them.]
As fiction became increasingly autobiographical in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, many novelists began to write about artist protagonists. Novels such as Henry James' The Tragic Muse, D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers, James Joyce's Portrait of The Artist...
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SOURCE: DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. “To ‘Bear My Mother's Name’: Künstlerromane by Female Writers.” In Tell Me a Riddle, edited by Tillie Olsen with an introduction by Deborah Silverton Rosenfelt, pp. 243-69. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1985.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1985, well-known feminist writer DuPlessis explores the nature of the feminist künstlerroman by examining several of the genre's more prominent examples from the last century.]
No song or poem will bear my mother's name. … Perhaps she was herself a poet—though only her daughter's name is signed to the poems that we know....
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SOURCE: Mahlendorf, Ursula R. “Kate Chopin's The Awakening1: Engulfment and Diffusion.” In The Wellsprings of Literary Creation: An Analysis of Male and Female “Artist Stories” from the German Romantics to American Writers of the Present, pp. 147-59. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1985.
[In the following essay, Mahlendorf considers how Kate Chopin's The Awakening was perhaps the first feminist künstlerroman and how the mother-figure is the possible antithesis of the artist-hero.]
Up to this point of our inquiry, we have examined the patterns of creativity which authors from the Romantics to Franz Kafka ascribe to the heroes of...
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SOURCE: Hankins, Leslie Kathleen. “Alas, Alack! or A Lass, a Lack? Quarrels of Gender and Genre in the Revisionist Künstlerroman1: Eudora Welty's The Golden Apples.” Mississippi Quarterly 44, no. 4 (fall 1991): 391-409.
[In the following essay, Hankins tries to come to a clear definition of the female künstlerroman through an analysis of Eudora Welty's The Golden Apples.]
All of Eudora Welty's writings interrogate the possibilities of art. Delta Wedding, The Golden Apples, and The Optimist's Daughter, probing again and again the complex web of relationships between women and art, would seem to fall naturally into the...
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SOURCE: Trites, Roberta Sellinger. “Re/Constructing the Female Writer: Subjectivity in the Feminist Künstlerroman.” In Waking Sleeping Beauty: Feminist Voices in Children's Literature, pp. 63-79. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1997.
[In the following essay, Trites evaluates a sub-genre of the children's künstlerroman—the feminist children's book künstlerroman—where the protagonist is a child developing self-identity through her desire to become a writer.]
Margaret Mahy's The Tricksters examines what it means to one girl that she is a writer; so does Patricia MacLachlan's Cassie Binegar. Both of these novels depict a...
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SOURCE: Jablon, Madelyn. “The Künstlerroman and the Blues Hero.” In Black Metafiction: Self-Consciousness in African American Literature, pp. 55-79. Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1997.
[In the following essay, Jablon attempts to define the characteristics of the black künstlerroman genre, using several novels that use a blues musician as its artist-protagonist.]
Today. My simple passion is to write our names in history and walk in the light that is woman.
—Sonia Sanchez, Poem
Linda Hutcheon's discussion of mimesis of process situates metafiction in its classical context by explaining how mimesis of product...
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Eysturoy, Annie O. Introduction to Daughters of Self-Creation: The Contemporary Chicana Novel, pp. 3-28. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.
Traces how critics have chosen to study the bildungsroman/künstlerroman genre, particularly from feminist and Chicana standpoints.
Franklin, Carol. “The Female Künstlerroman: Richardson versus Bjørnson.” Southerly 43, no. 4 (1983): 422-36.
Draws a detailed comparison between H. H. Richardson's The Getting of Wisdom and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Fiskerjenten.
Nanney, Lisa. “Zelda Fitzgerald's...
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