Kamia (American Indians Ready Reference)
The Kamia include the Tipai and Ipai. The Ipai spoke a northern dialect and the Tipai a southern dialect—both being autonomous, seminomadic bands with thirty exogamous, localized patrilineal clans. Though bands controlled communal land, springs were always available to anyone.
The Kamia were greatly influenced from 1769 to 1821 by Spanish Franciscan and Dominican missionaries. Initially, the Tipai-Ipai resisted conversion and missionization. By 1779, however, many had adapted to mission life. In 1834, Mexico secularized all Spanish missions, with half the land going to Indians. This policy failed, however, as the Indians were treated as serfs. In 1875, the first Tipai-Ipai reservation was established. Many Indians continued to labor in mines and on ranches, and to relocate to urban settings.
By 1968, the Tipai-Ipai had twelve reservations, sharing the Pala Reservation with Takic speakers. Despite religious factionalism, Roman Catholicism is the dominant faith. Some aspects of traditional life are still followed.
(The entire section is 146 words.)
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