Kalispel (American Indians Ready Reference)
The Kalispel, also known as the Pend d’Oreille, belong to the Plateau tribes, with their land base covering part of the Columbia River basin. Their location in northern Idaho and western Montana placed them on the eastern boundaries of the Plateau tribes. As European American contact pushed the Plains Indians farther west, the Kalispel were also affected; they were pushed farther west by tribes such as the Blackfoot.
The Kalispel comprised two groups: the Upper Pend d’Oreille, or Upper Kalispel, who lived below Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana, and the Lower Pend d’Oreille, or Lower Kalispel, who occupied areas along the Clark Fork River and Pend Oreille Lake in northern Idaho. The Kalispel had contact with other tribes throughout the area, including the Spokane, Kutenai, and Flathead. Their economy depended on gathering roots and berries and on fishing. Unlike tribes such as the Nez Perce, whose culture greatly changed with use of horses and firearms (they began to hunt buffalo), the Kalispel continued to rely on traditional food sources and live a traditional Plateau lifestyle.
Initial Kalispel contact with European Americans began with fur traders. In the early 1820's, Alexander Ross of the Hudson's Bay Company managed the Flathead House (near present-day Missoula, Montana) and traded with the Kalispel, Flathead, Kutenai, and Nez Perce. Further contact with European Americans occurred with the arrival of Jesuit missionaries....
(The entire section is 655 words.)
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