Kalapuya (American Indians Ready Reference)
The patrilineal, socially stratified Kalapuya (or Calapooya) people comprised approximately thirteen autonomous tribes, each with dialectic differences. Subsistence was mainly from camas and other seeds, nuts, roots, and tubers, supplemented by hunting and trapping. The Kalapuya occupied multifamily dwellings in permanent villages during the winter, and temporary shelters in spring, summer, and fall. Chieftainship was probably passed on from father to son.
First contact with European Americans occurred in 1812 with Donald McKenzie of the Pacific Fur Company and continued until the 1840's with fur traders, missionaries, and settlers, who introduced various debilitating diseases, including malaria. In 1855 treaties embracing all the Kalapuya were enacted; most of the Kalapuya were resettled on the Grande Ronde Reservation, where many Kalapuya intermarried with other groups.
In 1956 the Grande Ronde Reservation was terminated by the federal government. Indians living there reorganized themselves as the Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde in 1974; in 1975, they incorporated as a nonprofit organization.
(The entire section is 152 words.)
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