Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Jun’ichir Tanizaki (tahn-ee-zahk-ee) explored Japanese traditionalism and the male infatuation with dominant women in a wide-ranging body of work embracing novels, novellas, short stories, plays, and essays. He was the son of the struggling owner of a printing establishment and spent his childhood growing up in the Nihonbashi section of Tokyo. His mother was quite attractive, and the young Tanizaki, as later autobiographical statements attest, was enthralled by her beauty. He was a handsome youth, often bullied by his classmates. In primary school, his precociousness was recognized by a teacher who guided him in exploring the Japanese and Chinese classics, giving him an early appreciation of traditions and literary aesthetics. At the First Municipal High School in Tokyo, he was an outstanding student and went on to study in the Japanese literature department at Tokyo Imperial University, where he joined the student literary magazine Shinshich (new thought tides). Because he could not pay his university fees, he did not finish his degree studies, choosing instead to pursue writing as a career.[Tanizaki, Junichiro]}[Tanizaki, Junichiro]}[Tanizaki, Junichiro]}
His first substantial works were two plays published in 1910, but it was “The Tattooer,” an erotic short story describing the coming to life of a spider etched on the back of a drugged courtesan and the enraptured entrapment of the tattooer in the transformed beauty of his “victim,” that launched his literary career. In 1911 this Poe-like creation and other works won for Tanizaki the praise of Nagai Kaf, a writer-critic whom Tanizaki admired and who characterized Tanizaki as a fellow struggler against the prevailing naturalist school of writing and its emphasis on describing reactions to real-life situations. Many of his early works—“Shnen” (children), “Akuma” (demon), and “Kyfu” (terror)—reflecting fin de siècle influences of Charles Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde, and Edgar Allan Poe and his personal infatuation with the hedonistic macabre, are characterized by “diabolism” (akumashugi), his preoccupation with the perverse and deviant.
Tanizaki was married for the first time in 1915; the marriage, which ended in divorce in 1930, was complicated by a liaison between his wife and his friend the writer Haruo Sato and by Tanizaki’s fascination for his sister-in-law Seiko. The writer’s involved personal life received autobiographical treatment in Itansha no kanashimi (sorrows of a heretic), about a gifted writer and the sadistic carnal attentions of his prostitute lover, and “Longing for Mother,” published a year after his mother died, concerning the narrator’s dream quest for his departed mother. These and other stories, serialized in magazines and newspapers, developed Tanizaki’s fixation on women characters representative of the idealized mother or the domineering sexual siren ministering to the lustful desires of emotionally repressed men. Other important writings from this period include an autobiographical novel, a two-act play set in Edo, and a rare political novel, perhaps inspired by the Russian Revolution. Tanizaki also wrote plays in the early 1920’s, exploring the theme of guilt and happiness involving two men competing for the love of...
(The entire section is 1346 words.)
Want to Read More?
Subscribe now to read the rest of this article. Plus get complete access to 30,000+ study guides!
Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Jun’ichir Tanizaki, whose father owned a printing establishment, was born in Tokyo on July 24, 1886. He attended the Tokyo Imperial University, studying classical Japanese literature, but had little interest in attending lectures and did not earn a degree. Even at the university, however, he wrote stories and plays for small magazines, some of them serialized; indeed, he continued to be productive throughout his life. In his early years, he was noted for dissolute habits, and some readers blamed him for what they believed was worship of women. His three marriages were unconventional, the experiences of which some will say are hinted at in his short fiction. The suggestion is made occasionally that Tanizaki’s moving from Tokyo to the Kansai after the earthquake of 1923 contributed to changes in his writing, but changes in phrasing, characterization, or dialogue in these different years are not easy to see in English translations. As one reviews the publications of his life, one finds no time when he was unproductive. In fact, he continued writing to the time of his death, on July 30, 1965, in Yugawara.
Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Jun’ichir Tanizaki was born in the heart of downtown Tokyo. For generations, his ancestors had lived there as members of the merchant class engaged in rice-brokering and printing and had little of the traditional samurai-class interest in affairs of state. Despite the traditional male-dominated culture of Japan, Tanizaki’s grandfather and father were considered feminists, his father nearly worshiping Tanizaki’s mother. The boy, as a result, was drawn to his mother very strongly, thus establishing the reverential attitude toward women seen in so many of his works. Tanizaki was also a handsome boy, but not a strong one, and, consequently, was often bullied by older classmates, perhaps encouraging a masochistic streak.
During Tanizaki’s primary education, a young teacher noticed the boy’s talents and gave him special instruction in Japanese and Chinese classics. It is often reported that Tanizaki became known as the brightest student ever to graduate from the First Municipal Secondary School of Tokyo. He entered Tokyo Imperial University in 1908, where he studied Japanese classical literature. He helped found the literary magazine of the university, Shinshicho, in which he published several short stories that received praise from older writers such as Mori Ogai and Nagai Kafu. After only a year, however, because he did not pay his fees, he left the university without finishing his degree.
Tanizaki’s unfinished education did not hinder him unduly, because he was becoming known as a writer. A notorious frequenter of the “Bluff,” or foreign sections of Yokohama, he wore checked suits and gaudy ties and was strongly under the influence of Decadent Western writers such as Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire, and...
(The entire section is 718 words.)