Places Discussed (Cyclopedia of Literary Places)
*Chicago. Midwestern American city to which many immigrants, mostly eastern European, flocked in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to find work in the meat-packing industry. A major railroad terminus, Chicago had a brisk economy, but its wealth was unevenly distributed. The captains of industry exploited the workers, who worked under appalling conditions for paltry wages, swelling the owners’ bank accounts.
*Lithuania. Small eastern European country on the Baltic Sea from which Jurgis Rudkus, the novel’s protagonist, emigrates hoping to find a better life in the United States. Early chapters of the novel contain flashbacks to Jurgis’s life in Lithuania that reflect the environment from which he has come.
Packingtown. Industrial area in Chicago where meat-packing houses are concentrated. Workers in Packingtown typically live nearby in run-down dwellings. Noxious smells from the meat-processing factories fill the air, and Packingtown’s sewers often overflow, sending streams of polluted water into the streets. In one such overflow, Jurgis’s young son drowns.
In 1904, Sinclair gained firsthand experience with such conditions after being sent by a socialist newspaper to investigate Chicago’s stockyards and packinghouses. He spent seven weeks living among workers in the packinghouses, after which he wrote The Jungle. While trying to touch the hearts of Americans, he also touched their stomachs by accurately reporting the deplorable sanitary conditions in meat-processing plants. After President Theodore Roosevelt read The Jungle, he pressured Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
After his arrival in Chicago, Jurgis tours Durham’s plant and marvels at the...
(The entire section is 755 words.)
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Bibliography (Cyclopedia of Literary Characters, Revised Third Edition)
Bloodworth, William A., Jr. Upton Sinclair. Boston: Twayne, 1977. Portrays Sinclair as a literary rebel who weds art and ideology and sacrifices the last four chapters of The Jungle in his attempt to introduce hope into an otherwise dismal world. Analyzes the novel as a contemporary tragedy, paying attention to the conservative biases inherent in the message.
Harris, Leon. Upton Sinclair: American Rebel. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1975. Depicts Sinclair as the most influential (but not the best) writer in the United States because he changed the way Americans viewed themselves, their rights, and their expectations....
(The entire section is 268 words.)