Laforgue, Jules (Poetry Criticism)
Jules Laforgue 1860–1887
French poet, short story writer, essayist, and dramatist.
Laforgue was an early experimenter in vers libre (free verse). A member of the French Symbolist movement, he advocated abandoning popular literary conventions and maintained that art should be the expression of the subconscious mind. Laforgue's earliest writings, particularly the posthumously published Le sanglot de la terre (1901-03), resemble the poetry of Charles Baudelaire and Walt Whitman. The impressionistic language, fluid metric construction, and vivid imagery of his later works influenced such twentieth-century authors as T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Hart Crane. While widely recognized for his Moralités légendaires (1887; Moral Tales), a collection of short stories which parody famous literary works, including William Shakespeare's Hamlet, Laforgue is perhaps best known for his final poems, published posthumously as Les derniers vers de Jules Laforgue (1890). The experimental rhythmic patterns, psychological realism, and evocative language of these poems provided the Symbolists with a dynamic model for their later, more refined free verse.
Laforgue was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. His father was an indigent teacher from Gascony, who in 1866 sent his family to Tarbes, France, where Jules and his brother Emile attended school. Although exceptionally intelligent, Laforgue was a mediocre student at the Lycée Tarbes. While there he made his first attempt at prose, writing a melodramatic account of his experiences entitled "Stéphane Vassiliew." In 1876, he enrolled at the Lycée Fontanes in Paris, and, although he liked the school, his work did not improve; he failed his baccalaureate exams twice and never received a diploma. In 1880, while studying art and working as a part-time journalist in Paris, Laforgue met Gustave Kahn, a poet and editor of the periodical Le vogue et le symboliste, who later became his mentor. With the encouragement of Kahn and Paul Bourget, a noted literary critic, Laforgue wrote his first significant poetic work, Le sanglot de la terre, a collection that evinces the influence of Arthur Schopenhauer's pessimistic philosophy and Edward von Hartmann's concept of the unconscious mind. In 1881, Laforgue accepted the position of French reader and secretary to Empress Augusta of Germany. For five years he traveled with the Empress, leading a leisurely life that kept him estranged from Parisian literary circles. Les complaintes (1885), his first poetry to employ the image of Pierrot—a white-faced mime that symbolizes humor, fate, and humanity, and personifies themes of uncertainty
and anguish—was published during his stay at the Berlin court, as were L'imitation de notre-dame la lune (1886) and Le concile féerique (1886), a verse drama that remained unperformed until four years after Laforgue's death. Leaving Berlin in 1886 after his marriage to Leah Lee, an English tutor, Laforgue moved to Paris, where a particularly harsh winter severely affected his health. Supported by loans, he wrote for Kahn's periodical Le vogue and tried unsuccessfully to find a publisher for Moral Tales until the opiates given him for his illness left him too weak to eat or work. He died, at the age of twenty-seven, virtually unknown. His Moral Tales, published within weeks of his death, were immediately acclaimed.
Laforgue's earliest poetic work is reflected in the thirtyone poems entitled Le sanglot de la terre. Laforgue himself denied the consequence of these pieces during his lifetime, but the poems themselves dramatize some of the themes that were to occupy him throughout his literary career. The subjects of these and other early works is decidedly existential in character, containing a young man's musings on cosmic despair and the lack of meaning in the universe. Laforgue abandoned these works by about 1882 in favor of a more innovative form of the complainte. Les complaintes (1885), Laforgue's first published volume of poetry, reveals a thematic affinity with the poems of sanglot along with the additional exploration of love, a topic unbroached in the earlier collection. This later volume, however, demonstrates a broad technical development and a move toward a new poetic sensibility. Laforgue's varied and innovative experiments with language began in Les complaintes, especially with the use of invented words and slang adopted from everyday speech. This work was also strongly informed by a philosophical system, specifically Edward von Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious, and exhibits Laforgue's interest in the poetic personae, particularly in that of Pierrot, a stylized projection of the author as a fin de siècle Decadent in clown-face. Pierrot is also one of the binding aspects of Laforgue's next volume, L'imitation de notre-dame la lune. The figure of the clown and images of the moon give the collection a sense of ironic detachment from nature, and pervade the work with a tone of modern sterility. In terms of technical skill, L'imitation is said to be transitional between the early experimentalism of Les complaintes and the free verse of Les denier vers. In the latter, which consists of twelve sections or monologues, Laforgue dramatized the anxieties and tensions prevalent in the modern world, including those of alienation, disillusionment, and fragmentation.
According to many critics the overall strength of Laforgue's poetry lies in his sustained use of self-ridiculing irony. His works consistently display individuals and forces locked in the drama of conflict, but undercut by a pervasive sense of parody and humor. Several critics, however, have disapproved of the dissonance in tone and theme found in many of Laforgue's poems. Some, for instance, have argued that Les dernier vers lacks unity and is marred by its ambivalence. While early critics called Les complaintes incomprehensible and decried its excessive "modernness," more recently, Laforgue has been hailed as a brilliant technical innovator and as one of the creators of modern free verse. His motto of "originality at any cost" and his outright rejection of old forms, such as his abandonment of syntax in Les dernier vers and his experimentation with language and form in Les complaintes, have added to his reputation as an iconoclast. Overall, scholars have accorded him attention in terms of his ironic wit and bold originality, even though he is often remembered more for his technical virtuosity than his intellectual depth, and for his influence on succeeding generations of poets than the quality of his own writings.
Les complaintes 1885
L'imitation de Notre-Dame la lune 1886
Les derniers vers de Jules Laforgue 1890
Poems of Jules Laforgue 1958
Other Major Works
Le concile féerique (verse drama) 1886
Moralités légendaires (short stories) 1887
[Moral Tales, 1928]
*Oeuvres complètes. 3 vols. (poetry, verse drama, short stories, essays, and letters) 1901-03
Lettres à un ami: 1880-1886 (letters) 1941
Selected Writings of Jules Laforgue (poetry, short stories, essays, letters, and sketches) 1956
*This work includes Le sanglot de la terre, Pierrot fumiste, and Mélanges posthumes.
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SOURCE: "Jules Laforgue," in Forty Immortals, Joseph Lawren, 1926, pp. 159-62.
[In the following essay, De Casseres records his impressions of Laforgue as an artist.]
Jules Laforgue, Frenchman, who died at twenty-seven, left three volumes—a book of poems, a book of legendary moralities and a book of epigrams and meditations.
Three great poets of modern times have left for us in their work mirrors of the beauty that is ghastly—Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire and Jules Laforgue. The beauty of the ghastly—whence comes it? In the poems of Laforgue one is in the midst of death and in the midst of life at once. The ghastly, the cynical, the Ideal and Absolute make up the monstrous arabesque of his nature. Moored to the wharf of the flesh, the sails of his spirit strain with breezes from the Open. What Open? The Cimmerian Open of the Néant or the light-blasting Open of a boreal Absolute?
Down the spine of the gods themselves there runs a chill at the reading of his poems and satires. And yet from them drifts a beauty, nameless and unconsecrated, ethereal and super-Chopinesque.
This unshriven Dante, whose moods were the rungs to his secret hell, was touched with moonmadness. He was an immigrant from the moon. He was moon-botanist. He tells us of its flora, its fauna, its metaphysical opalescence, its incandescent and stalactitic marvels, its...
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SOURCE: "The Poetry of Jules Laforgue," in Scrutiny, Vol. V, No. 2, September, 1936, pp. 128-49.
[In the following essay, Turnell examines Laforgue poetic method, primarily through an analysis of his Dernier vers and a comparison of his poetry to that of Charles Baudelaire.]
Je songe à une poésie qui serait de la psychologie dans une forme de rêve, avec des fleurs, du vent, des senteurs, d'inextricables symphonies avec une phrase (un sujet) mélodique dont le dessin reparaît de temps en temps.
J.L. in a letter to Charles Henry, December, 1881.
The influence of Laforgue on modem poetry has been decisive. In the ordinary way it is a mistake to distinguish too sharply between the influence of a writer's outlook and the influence of his style or, as I should prefer to call it, his method. In the case of Laforgue, however, some sort of distinction between the two is necessary. I think the point can be illustrated by a comparison between Mr. Pound and Mr. Eliot. It seems to me that Laforgue's influence on Mr. Pound has been almost exclusively of the first, and his most lasting influence on Mr. Eliot of the second kind. It is Mr. Pound's limitation that his best work is sometimes no more than the mature expression of Laforgue's outlook—the mature expression of an outlook that was...
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SOURCE: "A Record of Many Voices: The Complaintes of Jules Laforgue," in The Western Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Spring, 1956, pp. 219-27.
[In the following essay, Smith comments on Les complaintes, Laforgue 's first published collection of poetry, highlighting the poet's innovative use of language in the work.]
Les complaintes, the first volume published by Jules Laforgue during his brief life, expressed immediately and firmly a poetic personality with which succeeding generations would have to deal. The poems in the Complaintes are so very different from those of Le Sanglot de la Terre that one would think at first that they were the work of another poet. But the change is not so extraordinary as it seems; it is merely a shift in tone. The poet treats the same major themes but in a minor key, the macrocosm is reduced to microcosm: the instrument is smaller, but capable nevertheless of vibrant echoes. The pale, serious young organist in the loft is replaced by the nimble, playful, sentimental organ-grinder on the street corner. The cosmic is dealt with in terms of the ordinary and everyday. When the volume was virtually complete, Laforgue wrote to his sister that he had given up his ideal of philosophical poetry: "I find it stupid to speak in a booming voice and adopt a platform manner. Today when I am more sceptical and don't get so easily carried away and moreover control my...
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SOURCE: "Jules Laforgue's Symbolist Language: Stylistic Anarchy and Aesthetic Coherence," in Nottingham French Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, November, 1976, pp. 1-11.
[In the following essay, King examines Laforgue's attempt to make a new language for poetic expression.]
Of the three principal poetic "movements" of nineteenth-century French literature romanticism, parnassianism and symbolism—the last was the most revolutionary in its exploration of the possibilities of language. Whereas romanticism inaugurated a new poetic sensibility, symbolism produced a new form of poetic expression. Though Mallarmé is most identified with the symbolist revolution, other poets, and most notably Laforgue, exemplified the contradictory and multi-directional nature of a venture which created a language alternating between acceptance and rejection of traditional norms, and between a language of transparent communication and anarchic obscurity.
No contemporary critic of symbolist writing in general, and Laforgue in particular, whether sympathetic or hostile, was able to ignore the problem presented by the deviant use of language. Laforgue's friend, Léo Trézenik, declared in a review that "Laforgue est un sphinx … pour les énigmes duquel peu d'Oedipes sont nés encore." Another critic insisted that "le livre de M. Laforgue demeure parfaitement inintelligible," whilst another more sympathetic reviewer of...
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SOURCE: "Dernier vers, " in Jules Laforgue, The Athlone Press, 1977, pp. 57-74.
[In the following essay, Collie studies the stylistic and thematic aspects of Laforgue's Dernier vers.]
Having published the boldly inventive volume Les Complaintes in 1885 and the modish L'Imitation de Notre-Dame la Lune in 1886, Laforgue remarkably went on, the next year, to fashion for himself an entirely new type of poem which appeared posthumously as Derniers Vers. Laforgue was the first poet to write free-verse in France. By this it is not meant that he was literally the first person to write unmetrical poems with lines of varying lengths, but that he was the first poet to do so successfully. The Derniers Vers can be seen either as a natural part of Laforgue's development, as the poems to which his experimental writing of the years in Germany was naturally leading, or they can be seen as neither superior nor inferior to Les Complaintes, but just very different both from a technical and a thematic point of view. In either case, they represent a considerable achievement and constitute a landmark in the history of French poetry, inasmuch as, from this point on, writers and readers were progressively less disturbed and alarmed by the idea of unmetrical verse.
During the spring of 1886, while still a member of the...
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SOURCE: "Self-mockery: Laforgue," in Stages of Self: The Dramatic Monologues of Laforgue, Valéry & Mallarmé, Ohio University Press, 1990, pp. 51-91.
[In the following excerpt, Howe undertakes a stylistic analysis of Laforgue 's poetry that focuses on its dramatic qualities.]
i) From unicity to multiplicity
Quand j'organise une descente en Moi,
J'en conviens, je trouve là, attablée,
Une société un peu bien mêlée,
Et que je n'ai point vue à mes octrois.
Such is the experience of the speaker of Laforgue's poem "Ballade." "JE est un autre," Rimbaud had written some fifteen years earlier, in the context of his critical remarks about Romantic poetry; Laforgue shares this sense of the "otherness" of the self, insisting indeed on the presence of a multiplicity of "others." According to Warren Ramsey, Laforgue had learned from the philosopher Hartmann "to think of the human individual as an aggregate, a sum of many individuals." Such a viewpoint must clearly affect the nature of the poetic "I," tending to invalidate the notion of the single, unified persona typical of Browning's early dramatic monologues, and of the lyric "I" associated with Romantic poetry. Yet Laforgue had begun writing in a highly Romantic vein: the speaker of the poems collected under the title Le Sanglot de la terre, but...
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SOURCE: "Jules Laforgue: Constructing the Text," in Orbis Litterarum, Vol. 46, No. 5, 1991, pp. 276-93.
[In the following essay, McCann explains the creation of meaning in Laforgue 's poetry as a process characterized by intertextuality and the changeable nature of language.]
Many readers may share James Hiddleston's bafflement when faced with Laforgue's writing:
Calembours, jeux de mots, barbarismes, anacoluthes, non-sens, babil, intertextes saccagés, comment sortir de ce tournoiement chaotique de signifiants apparemment coupés pour toujours de leurs signifiés?
Hiddleston here outlines the main difficulties confronting the reader who tries to establish the meaning of Laforgue's verse. But there is a problem with what Hiddleston proposes as the central principle underlying these semantic difficulties: what are 'signifiants apparemment coupés … de leurs signifiés? Surely a 'signifiant' presupposes a linkage to a 'signifié' or 'signifiés'? This point seems to be conceded by Hiddleston when he uses 'apparemment', which implies that the 'signifiants' are only apparently cut off from their 'signifiés'—as though in reality they are still safely attached.
This permits Hiddleston to argue [in Laforgue aujourd'hui, 1988, edited by James Hiddleston] that sense is still possible. For him, Laforgue's...
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SOURCE: "Les Complaints: 'Les refrains des rues'," in Jules Laforgue and Poetic Innovation, Clarendon Press, 1993, pp. 30-49.
[In the following essay, Holmes investigates the interplay of style, theme, and poetic technique in Laforgue 's Les complaintes.]
THE IDEA OF THE COMPLAINTE
'Les vers pompeux sont embêtants', wrote André Gill, and by 1882 Laforgue agreed with him. Having distanced himself from the poets whom he had at first imitated, he found for his [second] volume a quite different model. It was surprisingly remote: the plaintive and burlesque complainte of the sixteenth century, but Laforgue coupled this with later folk-songs, down to the doggerel jingles of his day, a combination of traditional popular proverb and 'refrains des rues' of the contemporary world. The model was useful to him chiefly in two ways. Since the complainte was a popular genre, intended to be spoken or sung, Laforgue was released from traditional elevated verse, and solemn self-absorption became technically impossible. The tone adopted by the complainte, although it was an antiquated form, established a 'modern' down-to-earth familiarity and realism, which forced him to attempt to implant the immediacy of the oral into the written. Secondly, his complainte was a 'rewriting', a variant on an earlier text. He was forced also to deviate from his model: that...
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Arkell, David. Looking for Laforgue: An Informal Biography. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1979, 248 p.
Anecdotal approach to Laforgue's life and literary accomplishments.
Ramsey, Warren. Jules Laforgue and the Ironic Inheritance. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953, 302 p.
The first critical biography of Laforgue in English.
Benamou, Michel. "Jules Laforgue." In Wallace Stevens and the Symbolist Imagination, pp. 25-44. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972.
Traces affinities between the poetry of Laforgue and that of Wallace Stevens.
Collie, Michael. Laforgue. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1963, 120 p.
Critical biography of Laforgue that emphasizes his literary development within social and psychological contexts.
Cowley, Malcolm. "Laforgue in America: A Testimony." The Sewanee Review LXXI, No. 1 (Winter 1963): 62-74.
Investigates Laforgue's influence on early twentieth-century American writers, especially Hart Crane, T. S. Eliot, and Ezra Pound.
Cutler, Maxine G. "Prosaic Language in...
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