Laforgue, Jules (Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)
Jules Laforgue 1860-1887
French poet, short story and sketch writer, essayist, and dramatist. For further information, see .
Jules Laforgue was an early experimenter in vers libre (free verse), a stylistic innovation that became popular in the second half of the nineteenth century and released poetry from the traditional conventions of meter and stanza. Like the early French Symbolists with whom he was associated, Laforgue advocated abandoning literary convention and maintained that art should be the expression of the subconscious mind. His work was read by only a small circle of French readers at the time of his death, but in subsequent years his reputation grew, even to the point that he became a major influence on many twentieth-century writers in English, including Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. Today both his prose and poetry are highly regarded and studied, but he is best known for the Derniers vers (1890), a volume of poems published after his death that firmly established his position as an initiator of free verse. The experimental rhythmic patterns, psychological realism, and evocative language of the Derniers vers provided the Symbolists with a model for their later development of free verse.
Laforgue was born at Montevideo, Uruguay. His father was a poor teacher from Gascony who in 1866 sent his family to Tarbes, France, where Jules and his brother É mile attended school. Although exceptionally intelligent, Laforgue was a mediocre student at the Lycée Tarbes. In 1876, he enrolled at the Lycée Fontanes in Paris where, although he liked the school, his work did not improve. Laforgue twice failed his baccalaureate exams, and never received a diploma. In 1880, while studying art and working as a part-time journalist in Paris, Laforgue met Gustave Kahn, a leader in the Symbolist movement, poet, and editor of the periodical Le vogue et le symboliste. Laforgue's association with Kahn, who became his mentor, as well as with Charles Henry and literary critic Paul Bourget, was the most crucial of his career. With Bourget's help, Laforgue obtained his first job as apprentice poetcritic to Charles Ephrussi, editor of the journal Gazette des beaux-arts, who taught Laforgue much about art and literature and encouraged him to write. Although he generally disliked Laforgue's early work, Bourget became Laforgue's personal literary critic during this period, helping him improve his style. In 1881, Laforgue accepted the position of French-reader and secretary to Empress Augusta of Prussia; for five years he traveled with the Empress and her entourage. Although he found the position boring and rigidly structured, Laforgue was nonetheless prolific during this time, completing and publishing two volumes of poetry—Les complaintes (1885) and L 'imitation de notredame la lune (1886)—and a verse drama titled Le concile féerique (1886). He left the Berlin court in 1886 when he married Leah Lee, a young English tutor. The couple moved to Paris, where a particularly harsh winter severely affected Laforgue's health. He wrote for Kahn's periodical Le vogue and tried unsuccessfully to find a publisher for his volume of short stories, the Moralités légendaires (1887). Supported by loans from Bourget and Ephrussi, money from anonymous donors, and payment by friends for articles that were never published, Laforgue continued to write until the opiates given him for his illness left him too weak to work or to eat. He died, at the age of twenty-seven, virtually unknown.
Le Sanglot de la terre (1902-3), a group of 29 posthumously published poems, exhibits the fundamental characteristics of Laforgue's poetry: his sense of irony and his disaffection or sense of alienation. According to critics, it also betrays most clearly the poet's influences, especially Charles Baudelaire and Walt Whitman, whose early experiments in free verse Laforgue translated into French. Laforgue's early work was also deeply influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer's pessimistic philosophy and Eduard von Hartmann's concept of the unconscious mind. In the Complaintes Laforgue fashioned a series of monologues based on conventional French character types and traditional street songs. His mixture of fine art with what was considered the "low" style of popular tradition challenged assumed notions of the separation between high culture and popular culture. The voices he adopted in the songs initiated Laforgue's use of personas (speaking through the voices of different characters in a poem, some not unlike the poet and some at a great distance from the poet); some scholars have compared this practice, which Laforgue developed in all of his following work, with Robert Browning's dramatic monologues. Among the most famous of the voices first heard in the Complaintes is Laforgue's version of Pierrot, the "clown" figure who would become one of Laforgue's best-known mouthpieces. The two works that most established Laforgue's reputation, however, were both published after his death: the Moralités légendaires only a few weeks after Laforgue's death and the Derniers vers in 1890. Each tale in the Moralités takes a legendary character with whom his readers would have been familiar, such as Hamlet or Salomé, and reworks the tale with a parodic air. The stories, which have earned as much attention from critics as has any of his poetry, demonstrate at once the writer's aptitude with language, characterization, and irony. The Derniers vers appears to be either one poem with an intricate, twelvepart structure or twelve closely-related poems; the matter remains open to debate since the work was put together from the poet's posthumous papers, without any directions or statement of intent. The work, which juxtaposes common objects and romantic ideals, shows the signs of Laforgue's continued work with monologue. The poems' most marked trait, however, is that they demonstrate the point Laforgue had reached in his experiments with free verse; most commentators agree that the volume presents the strongest example to date of free verse.
Laforgue's participation, however tangential, in the Symbolist movement and his verse experimentation constituted the initial impetus for critical attention. Commentators trying to determine the shape and character of Symbolism discussed Laforgue's proximity to it, usually deciding that he was clearly included in the aesthetic influences of early Symbolism and, in turn, had a considerable influence on later Symbolists, but that he was nonetheless at a distance from the formal social circles and artistic principles of the school. His relationship to this avant-garde depends largely on his commitment to developing new literary forms to express a new sensibility, as both George Turnell and Malcolm Cowley have argued. Turnell specifically characterizes Laforgue as an urban poet whose innovative verse captured the human experience as rural economy and population shifted to the cities in the nineteenth century. Laforgue's early death has continued to provide the impetus for a major debate in Laforgue criticism, since it remains a matter of speculation how the poet's work would have changed as he grew older. Consequently, some critics have surmised that what Laforgue's writings represent is the product of an immature artistic genius. The large body of scholarship focusing on Laforgue's influence on other poets often addresses how his own later work might have compared with the works of those influenced by him. Close readings of Laforgue's poetry and prose have concerned themselves largely with the exact meaning of certain elements in the poet's work. The different voices that Laforgue refined through the Complaintes have prompted comparisons to Victorian "dramatic monologues," with some critics arguing that Laforgue deserves credit for introducing the dramatic monologue into French literature, and others terming them "interior monologues." E. J. Stormon has claimed that the poet merely "twists his face into various stylized expressions." There are also extensive discussions of both Laforgue's Hamlet and his Pierrot, as well as of more abstract elements, such as his notion of the Unconscious and his images of women. More recently, critics have focused less exclusively on Laforgue's major works. The early novel Stéphane Vassiliew (first published in 1946) and the unpublished play Tessa have attracted attention, and appreciation of Laforgue's stature as an aesthetic critic in his own right has grown.
Les complaintes (poetry) 1885
Le concile féerique (verse drama) 1886
L'imitation de notre-dame la lune ["Locutions de Pierrots I, II, III" (partial translation), 1926, published in journal Double Dealer] (poetry) 1886 Moralités légendaires [Moral Tales] (short stories) 1887
Les derniers vers de Jules Laforgue (poetry) 1890
*Oeuvres complètes (poetry, verse drama, short stories, essays, and letters) 1902-03
Oeuvres complètes (poetry, verse drama, short stories, journals, essays, letters, and sketches) 1922-30 Lettres à un ami: 1880-1886 (letters) 1941
Stéphane Vassiliew (novel) 1946
Selected Writings of Jules Laforgue (poetry, short stories, essays, letters, and sketches) 1956
Poems of Jules Laforgue (poetry) 1958
*This work includes Le sanglot de la terre, Pierrot fumiste, and Melanges posthumes.
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SOURCE: "Two Unknown Poets," in Impressions and Opinions, Brentano's, n.d., pp. 95-102.
[In the late nineteenth century, Laforgue was still largely unknown to English and American readers; in the essay excerpted below, Moore seeks to expand the poet's reputation by articulating his own appreciation.]
[The] two young poets of whom I am going to speak have always attracted me. My sympathies were engaged by the strange and sad stories which surround them, and were confirmed by the personal talent manifested in all they wrote. Their names?—Arthur Rimbaud and Jules Laforgue, names for the first time printed in an English newspaper. But it is not infrequent for me to introduce French genius to the few among us who are willing to allow themselves to be interested in artistic work. It was I who introduced that adorable poet, Paul Verlaine, to English readers; it was I who wrote first about that ineffable book, A Rebours, the value of which has since been so copiously acknowledged. Possibly the same success will attend my present adventure, and in a season the plagiarist and his pursuers will make riot amid the tender beauties of Le Miracle des Roses, L'Imitation de Notre Dame la Lune, and Les Premieres Communions. Be this as it may, I concern myself with my sensations of these strange poets, whose talents and whose tragic ends have interested me so singularly. The poet that...
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SOURCE: "The French Symbolists," in Scribner's Magazine, Vol. XIII, No. 3, March, 1893, pp. 337-52.
[In this excerpt, Gorren places Laforgue in the context of other poets associated with Symbolism, commenting on both his similarities with and his differences from them.]
. . . [Love] of the barest rhythmic notation, and of that unseizable distinction that lurks in folk-songs and popular legends, tempted Jules Laforgue . . . —Jules Laforgue, charming and charmeur, who died at the age of twenty-seven, delicate, well-bred wizard who was like no one ever but himself.
He also tried the mixing of prose and verse. His verse was always of the sort that the Symbolists approve; its harmonies and its unity were "psychic rather than syllabic." He had all audacities as to feet and accent. His poetry indeed seems little else than rhythmic prose divided, typographically, into separate lines. His prose, on the other hand, has poetical cadences, returns upon itself that give the effect of a refrain, vague reminiscences of rhymes, and of those sub-rhymes, in a minor key, that are formed by assonances. In his prose tales, the unique Moralités Légendaires, he breaks into verse whenever the thought seems to sing itself into the lyric shape. Those two leading qualities, which the Symbolist work always, in some measure, possesses (or seeks to possess), an abiding sense of the...
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SOURCE: "The Poetry of Jules Laforgue," in Scrutiny: A Quarterly Review, Vol. V, No. 2, September, 1936, pp. 128-49.
[In the following essay, Turnell addresses many of the issues central to early-twentieth-century Laforgue studies: Baudelaire's influence on the poet's development; the poet's artistic immaturity at the time of his death; his stylistic relationship to Romanticism and Classicism; and his contribution to the creation of vers libre.]
The influence of Laforgue on modern poetry has been decisive. In the ordinary way it is a mistake to distinguish too sharply between the influence of a writer's outlook and the influence of his style or, as I should prefer to call it, his method. In the case of Laforgue, however, some sort of distinction between the two is necessary. I think the point can be illustrated by a comparison between Mr. Pound and Mr. Eliot. It seems to me that Laforgue's influence on Mr. Pound has been almost exclusively of the first, and his most lasting influence on Mr. Eliot of the second kind. It is Mr. Pound's limitation that his best work is sometimes no more than the mature expression of Laforgue's outlook—the mature expression of an outlook that was essentially immature in the sense of uncompleted, a term to which I shall try to give precision later. Now one of the most indubitable signs of Mr. Eliot's originality is that his development since Prufrock...
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SOURCE: "The World Is My Idea," in Jules Laforgue and the Ironic Inheritance, Oxford University Press, 1953, pp. 42-58.
[In the following excerpt, Ramsey—a leading Laforgue scholar—explores how the different philosophers then popular with Paris intellectuals shaped Laforgue's poetry. In particular, he traces Laforgue's familiarity with and use of the ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer and Eduard von Hartmann.]
There are two kinds of influence, as André Gide remarked: that felt by an individual and that undergone by a group. The influence of Schopenhauer in France during the 'seventies and 'eighties was of the second sort. This philosopher's subjective idealism, his belief that investigation of the external world could not lead to truth were readily seconded because they were intimately related to fundamental nineteenth-century attitudes. The Romantics had been nothing if not self-centered, even though a second stage in the work of many a poet—and pessimistic philosopher, too, for that matter—had been a program for social betterment. Along with the scientific faith that knowledge would give power over the physical universe there had coexisted, often in the mind of a single man—Alfred de Vigny, for instance—a despairing awareness that such power had no truth in it, that control over physical forces could not bring contact with reality. Schopenhauer was the most formidable of Western...
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SOURCE: "The Hamlet of Baudelaire, Mallarmé, and Laforgue," in Hamlet in France: From Voltaire to Laforgue, Librairie Droz, 1964, pp. 137-52.
[The following excerpt from Bailey's book treats the Symbolist fascination with Hamlet; she contends, through an analysis of "Hamlet" and other references to the figure in Laforgue's writings, that Laforgue identified with Hamlet.]
With the emergence of Symbolism, Hamlet may be said to have come into his own. Shakespeare's spiritually embattled hero, with his intuition of things undreamed-of in a corrupt and sordid world, found a congenial element in the climate of ideality that nurtured poetry in the last half of the century. The interpretations of Laforgue and Mallarmé, ironic in the one case, exalted in the other, reveal a sensitivity to Hamlet's scope and mystery rarely rivaled in the literature of Hamlet commentary. They took the Prince of Denmark out of the theater, in the strict sense of the term, to make of him a symbolic figure undefined by time or space, a potential hero, haunted by the specter of the absolute, harassed by cosmic doubt.
It was Hamlet's irreducible complexity and his frustration that endeared him to the poets. They saw in him their own reflections, or interpreted their "unique" individual attitudes and feelings in terms of what they conceived his to be. . . .
Laforgue took ironic...
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SOURCE: "Some Notes on T. S. Eliot and Jules Laforgue," in Essays in French Literature, Vol. 2, November, 1965, pp. 103-14.
[In the following essay, Stormon charts the apparent echoes of Laforgue in Eliot's verse. The critic sees an affinity between the two poets based mainly on Laforgue's "reaching after some vital hidden centre, " which Stormon equates with Eliot's objective correlative.]
In December 1908, Eliot, then aged twenty, discovered Arthur Symons' book, The Symbolist Movement in Literature, in the Library of the Harvard Union, and found himself excited by the quotations in it, particularly those from Laforgue. Shortly afterwards, he went to Schoenhof s foreign bookshop in Boston, and had the good fortune to light on the three volumes of the 1901-1903 edition of the Œuvres complètes de Jules Laforgue (Mercure de France). In Laforgue's verse he found a form of expression which helped him to say the kind of thing that he wanted to say himself, and a temperament akin to his own—two aspects, as he notes, of the same thing. Laforgue, he tells us, "was the first to teach me how to speak, to teach me the poetic possibilities of my own idiom of speech." It is important to realize that it was a distinctive English idiom that was in question, and that the outlook and attitudes that came to expression in it reveal growing differences from those of Laforgue, as well as some...
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SOURCE: "Poetic Knowledge," in The Symbolist Aesthetic in France, 1885-1895, second edition, Basil Blackwell, 1968, pp. 74-128.
[In the excerpt that follows, Lehmann places Laforgue's use of the terms rêve and the Unconscious in the context of how Symbolist poets in general understood certain abstract concepts.]
Rimbaud undoubtedly thought—and many others have done so too—that in a world of ever-increasing uniformity and restriction, dreams offered the only safe refuge for a poet anxious to expand his individuality and enjoy that measure of freedom which is necessary for the cultivation of metaphorical warts on the face. The attitude is understandable, but fallacious: firstly, because the strangeness of a dream is no guarantee that a poem written out of it will be good poetry; secondly, because not long afterwards it became plain that dreams are not quite as 'free' as he had hoped. Rimbaud's merits as a poet rest on something very different from his capacity to have strange dreams in greater number than anyone else, just as Van Gogh's greatness is something more than an insistence on yellow. The strange dreams and the yellows are not excluded from the greatness: they are used by it.
When we come to the minor dignitaries of the symbolist movement, to the generation of 1885-90, the term 'rêve', used in relation to the material and the nature of poetic vision,...
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SOURCE: "The Poet as Clown: Variations on a Theme in Nineteenth-Century French Poetry," in Orbis Litterarum, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1978, pp. 238-52.
[In the essay excerpted below, King offers a detailed history and interpretation of the clown figure in French literature, concluding with a study of Laforgue's Pierrot, who is "both the frivolous dilettante and Christ-like prophet-victim. "]
Banville's "Le Saut du tremplin," Baudelaire's "Le Vieux Saltimbanque," Verlaine's "Le Clown," Mallarmé's "Le Pitre châtié" and Laforgue's "Pierrots" all seek to suggest a modern, post-romantic image of the artist as a mocked and mocking performer. The full implications of this image, which could need a far more extensive treatment than is possible here, are sometimes profoundly psychological, with the poet's compulsion both to flaunt and to conceal the self, sometimes aesthetic, with a desire to glorify and question the nature and function of art, and always metaphysical, in the exploration of the delicate relationship between life and art, reality and illusion.
This "self-portrait as a clown" has become a standard allegory of the artist in twentieth-century painting, with, for example, the Harlequin figure of Picasso's At the Lapin Agile (1905), Georges Rouault's innumerable sad and wounded Pierrots and clowns, and Bernard Buffet's series of 1955, etc. In a sense such paintings are readily...
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SOURCE: "Repeated Forms in Laforgue," in Nottingham French Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, October, 1985, pp. 41-54.
[In the following essay, Howe conducts a close study of Laforgue's verse, substantiating her assertion that the poet uses cliché and convention to forge his unconventional poetic forms.]
"Mais tu ne peux que te répéter, ô honte!" exclaims the speaker of "Simple agonie" (Derniers vers, VI), referring to himself. This statement applies to all Laforgue's characters, who, whether consciously or otherwise, merely act out the roles in which society has cast them. Playing a part, in life as on the stage, equates to repeating a script, consisting in this case of the ready-made, banal phrases people utter every day—phrases learnt from others and which can scarcely claim, therefore, to represent the genuine self-expression of the speaker. A sense of frustration and weariness caused by observation of the conventional nature of people's behaviour and language is evident throughout Laforgue's poetry from the Complaintes to the Derniers vers. At the same time his own deliberate quotation of stereotyped expressions becomes, paradoxically, a strategy of originality, a means of parodying both Romantic rhetoric and bourgeois eloquence: a technique which other post-Romantic writers, such as Flaubert and Lautréamont, also adapted to their own ends.
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SOURCE: "Towards the Derniers Vers: 'Trouver une langue'," in Jules Laforgue and Poetic Innovation, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1993, pp. 95-120.
[In the following excerpt, Holmes examines some of the elements that moved Laforgue toward free verse. She considers the influence of Impressionist aesthetics and looks at how Laforgue's poetic prose in Moralités légendaires allowed him to experiment more boldly in Derniers Vers.]
The Derniers Vers was the first volume in French to be composed entirely in free verse, and it owes some of its fame to this fact. The poems were not published as a volume until after Laforgue's death, but eleven of the twelve appeared during his lifetime, ten in pairs in Kahn's La Vogue, and one in Téodor de Wyzewa's Revue indépendante.... In free verse he was a leader, but he was nevertheless influenced by a number of factors that determined the particular direction he followed. . . .
IMPRESSIONISM AND THE MORALITÉS LÉGENDAIRES
A poet does not react merely to the work of other poets. His style may develop and change as a result of his interest in other art-forms or of his writing in other genres. Both these factors were present in Laforgue's case. Throughout the time when he was moving towards his final poetic style he was also composing short stories, to which he attached considerable...
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Arkell, David. Looking for Laforgue: An Informal Biography. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1979, 248 p.
A major biography of Laforgue in English. Imparts biographical detail in casual tone and reprints many letters and other documents concerning Laforgue's life.
Collie, Michael. "An Evaluation." In Jules Laforgue, pp. 90-112. London: Athlone Press, 1977.
Attempts to define Laforgue's worldview, emphasizing in particular the poet's notions of the body, desire, and women.
Cowley, Malcolm. "Laforgue in America: A Testimony." In his And I Worked at the Writer's Trade: Chapters of Literary History, 1918-1978, pp. 69-81. New York: Viking Press, 1978.
Explores, largely through personal memory, Laforgue's influence on early twentieth-century American writers.
Eliot, T. S. "The Nineteenth Century: Summary and Comparison" and "Laforgue and Corbière in Our Time." In his The Varieties of Metaphysical Poetry, pp. 207-28 and 281-98. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1993.
Originally delivered as lectures in 1926 and 1933, the essays define Laforgue as a modern receptacle of seventeenth-century metaphysical poetry, placing him between that tradition and Eliot's own age....
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