Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana Biography


(Critical Edition of Dramatic Literature)

Juana de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana was born November 12, 1651, in San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico. Southeast of Mexico City and within view of two of its most impressive volcanoes, Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuatl, this sleepy town produced one of Mexico’s greatest lyric poets. Juana’s baptism took place in the equally beautifully situated town of Amecameca.

Juana entered religious life at an early age and thus is best known by the name of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. She was a precocious child, learning to read at the age of three. She was born of a Spanish father and a Creole mother and registered on the rolls of the church as “a daughter of the Church” because her parents were not formally married.

A desire for learning nudged her early; she yearned to know Latin and, after twenty lessons, continued studying on her own so that she was later even able to write verses in Latin. She stopped eating cheese because it was said that it made one stupid. Living with her maternal grandparents, she eagerly read her grandfather’s library. In her eagerness to learn, she would cut off a few inches of her hair, and if she had not reached her learning goal by the time her hair regained its previous length, she cut it again. She believed that a head so devoid of learning should also be devoid of hair.

She begged her mother to let her go to Mexico City, dress as a boy, and enter the university. At eight, she did go to Mexico City to live with relatives. About the same time, she wrote a dramatic poem to the Eucharist. In the capital, this child prodigy caught the eye of the vicereine, the Marquesa de la Laguna, who brought her to live as her lady-in-waiting in the luxurious viceregal palace. Her wit and knowledge caused the viceroy to invite professors from the University of Mexico to examine her in various areas of knowledge; they marveled at her composure and learning. She was envied by the women and courted by the men because of her beauty and worldly wisdom.

In the seventeenth century, a woman had a choice of either marriage or the convent. Sor Juana announced herself completely disinterested in marriage. Fortunately for her, at that time in most sisterhoods, discipline was not severe and within the walls one could find many of the comforts...

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Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana Biography

(World Poets and Poetry)

Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana was born in November, 1648, in San Miguel Nepantla, some sixty kilometers southeast of Mexico City. She was the illegitimate child of a Spanish captain and a Creole mother. In the charming The Answer, she tells how she learned to read at the age of three and tagged along with one of her sisters to La Amiga, an elementary school, where she took her first formal lessons. She says that, at the age of eight, she begged her mother to let her cut her hair and dress like a boy so she could attend the university. That being denied her, she continued her self-education by reading the classics she found in her grandmother’s house. Around 1659, she was allowed to go to Mexico City and live with the family of one of her aunts. Although not enrolled in the university, Juana privately continued her studies, which included twenty lessons in Latin. Twenty was apparently sufficient, for subsequently she was able to write Latin poetry as well as anyone in the viceroyalty.

By 1664, Sor Juana was a member of the viceregal court and was the darling of the vicereine. She so impressed the viceroy, the marques de Mancera, with her knowledge, that he arranged for forty professors from the university to give her tests. Sor Juana passed them all, amazing the local elite. Her several years of court life must have been intense, emotional years. She was a beautiful woman and was doubtless wooed by gentlemen of some wealth and...

(The entire section is 450 words.)

Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana Biography

(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)
ph_0111202512-Cruz_Sor.jpg Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana was born in the small village of San Miguel Nepantla, New Spain (now in Mexico), probably in November, 1648. Although a biography by the Jesuit Diego Calleja lists the date as November 12, 1651, many scholars believe that a baptismal record from her parish dated December 2, 1648, is hers. Her parents, Pedro Manuel de Asbaje and Isabel Ramírez de Santillana, were not officially married, and her father left the household when she was very young. Her writings hardly mention him.

Juana Inés was one of six children, and she was reared by her maternal grandfather at his country home. His library fascinated her. By the age of three she learned to read and by six or seven expressed her desire to go to the university in Mexico City. At the age of eight she composed a dramatic poem to the Eucharist, using the poetic style of the seventeenth century. Her able mind allowed her to learn Latin on her own after only about twenty lessons. This established a pattern of independent learning that was to continue throughout her life.

When she was sixteen, Juana Inés went to the viceroy’s court as a lady in the service of the vicereine, Marquesa de Mancera. The two apparently became good friends; they shared a love of the intellectual life. A young woman of Juana Inés’s social position had no opportunity for marriage, however, and she had no wish to marry. Her desire to continue studying helped persuade her to enter a convent. In 1667, she entered the Convent of the Discalced Carmelites, but the order was too severe for her. A year later, she found her place in the Order of Saint Jerome and on February 24, 1669, officially became Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (krews).

The regulations of her religious order were not especially strict, although...

(The entire section is 740 words.)

Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana Biography

(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)
ph_0111206536-Cruz.jpg Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Sor (Sister) Juana Inés de la Cruz (krews), born Juana Inés Ramírez de Asbaje, was a child prodigy who learned to read at the age of three and during her life had an insatiable thirst for knowledge. She learned Latin for access to its literature. She early discovered her poetic ability and wrote both humorous and serious verse while serving as lady-in-waiting to the Marquesa de Mancera, wife of the viceroy of Mexico.{$S[A]Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor;Cruz, Sor Juana Inés de la}{$S[A]Inés de la Cruz, Sor Juana;Cruz, Sor Juana Inés de la}{$S[A]De la Cruz, Sor Juana Inés[DelaCruz, Sor Juana Inés];Cruz, Sor Juana Inés de la}{$S[A]Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana, Juana Inés de;Cruz, Sor Juana Inés de la}

In pursuit of an intellectual life, she first joined the Barefoot Carmelites, but when their rigid discipline proved too strict, she entered the convent of San Jerónimo in 1669. Her cell, with her enormous private library of four thousand volumes, became a gathering place for the intellectuals of Mexico.

Because of the charm and intellectual brilliance of her writing, she was called México’s Tenth Muse. In poetry, she imitated the Spaniards Luis de Góngora and Francisco Gómez de Quevado y Villegas, who strongly influenced her age. She wrote in a variety of styles, including sixty-five sonnets, the poetic form most popular in the Baroque period in which she lived. About a third of them deal with love, perhaps from her own...

(The entire section is 430 words.)