Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Juan Carlos Onetti (oh-NEHT-tee) was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1909, the second of three children. He grew up in a stable, middle-class family, and he remembered his childhood as a happy one. His father, Carlos Onetti, was a customs official, and his mother, Borges de Onetti, was a descendant of wealthy Brazilian landowners. In 1930, he married his cousin, María Amalia Onetti, and left for Buenos Aires, Argentina. His first job in Buenos Aires was that of a salesman for a firm selling calculators. In 1933, he published his first short story, “Avenida de Mayo-Diagonal-Avenida de Mayo” (“May Avenue-Diagonal-May Avenue”) in La Prensa of Buenos Aires. While he was making some headway in his literary career, however, his personal life was not going well. After the breakup of his first marriage, he returned to Montevideo. He remarried; his second wife was María Julia Onetti, the sister of his first wife.
In 1939 he helped to found and became chief editor of Marcha, which went on to become one of the most prestigious cultural weeklies in Latin America. Under the enlightened direction of luminaries such as Emir Rodríguez Monegal, Angel Rama, and Jorge Ruffinelli, its cultural section established Uruguay as a cultural center in the Third World. In December, 1939, Onetti published The Pit. This novella constituted a break with the previous conventions of the genre. It is narrated by a middle-aged man who is disillusioned with life. He lives in squalor and loneliness, separated from his wife, and his isolation is made all the worse by his sense that his country, Uruguay, lacks a cultural tradition able to sustain the individual spiritually. The novel offers a jaundiced view of the fragmentation of life in a modern urban environment; it may well be seen as a projection of Onetti’s own experience of city life. In 1941, Onetti moved back to Buenos Aires (where he was to remain until 1954) and began working for the British news agency Reuters. He subsequently went on to become editor of various periodicals. In 1941, his novel Tierra de nadie (no man’s land) was published by the prestigious publishing house Losada of Buenos Aires. Like his previous work, this novel focuses on the disjointed, and ultimately aimless, lives of people struggling to find some dignity for themselves in a hostile urban environment.
Onetti’s second marriage also broke up, and in 1945, he was married for the third time, this time to Elizabeth María Pekelhering. In 1950, he published his masterpiece, A Brief Life, which won him international fame. Like most of his fiction, it expresses in poignant fashion the spiritual anguish of life in the modern city. The following year, his wife gave birth to a daughter, Isabel María. In 1953,...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Juan Carlos Onetti was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, on July 1, 1909, the son of a customs official. Onetti did not complete high school or attend a university; he earned a living in his early years by taking on a number of menial jobs. In 1930, he married his cousin and left for Buenos Aires to accept a job as a salesman of calculators. In the late 1930’s his first marriage broke up, and he married his wife’s sister.
Onetti published his first short story in 1933, and in 1939 he helped found, and became chief editor of, Marcha, which developed into an influential cultural weekly in Latin America. After the publication of El pozo (1939; The Pit, 1991) he began working for the British news agency Reuters and edited several periodicals. His best-known novel La vida breve (1950; A Brief Life, 1976) established him as a significant literary figure in Latin America.
In 1973, when the civilian government in Uruguay was overthrown by the military, Marcha was closed down and many journal archives were burned; historical research was forbidden, and many European and U.S. writers were banned. Because Onetti was a judge for a literary prize awarded to a work critical of the military regime, he was put in prison, soon to be released because of public outcry and poor health. Later after he was refused permission to leave Uruguay to receive an award, he escaped to live in Madrid, Spain, where he stayed in exile until his death in 1994.
Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Juan Carlos Onetti was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, on July 1, 1909. His father, Carlos Onetti, whom Onetti characterized as a “gentleman,” was a functionary of Montevideo’s customs office. On more than one occasion, Onetti noted that the family name was O’Netty before being corrupted to its present form, a suggestion that would point to early Irish ancestry. Onetti was always cryptic about his ancestors, however, intimating only that his great-grandfather was the personal secretary of General Fructuoso Rivera, who fought in the nineteenth century against Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Argentine dictator’s territorial pretensions in Uruguay. His mother, Honoria Borges, was of Brazilian stock, and Onetti says only that she was a “slaveholding lady from the south of Brazil.”
Onetti was the second of three children; he had an older brother, Raul, and a younger sister, Raquel. He remembered his childhood as a happy one, during which the family moved often, at least four times in his early school days. Onetti was a high school dropout—in part, he said, because he could not receive a passing grade in drawing. As an adolescent, he worked at a number of odd jobs—doorman, automobile-tire salesman, waiter, ticket taker at a stadium, and watchman at a grain elevator.
At the age of fourteen, Onetti discovered the works of Knut Hamsun, which he read avidly and tried, with adolescent fervor, to emulate. Onetti’s first known venture into literature and publishing came in 1928. He was nineteen then and living in Villa Colón, not far from Montevideo. With two friends, Juan Andrés Carril and Luis Antonio Urta, he founded a journal, La tijera de Colón. Seven issues of the journal were published between March, 1928, and February, 1929, including Onetti’s first five short stories. In 1929, Onetti tried, unsuccessfully, to travel to the Soviet Union “to witness a Socialist system in the making.” A year later, he was married for the first time, to a cousin, María Amalia, and moved with her to Buenos Aires. He remained there for four years, during which he worked for a while as an adding-machine salesman—he did not sell a single machine. His son, Jorge, who also became a novelist, was born in 1931.
Onetti wrote the first version of The Pit in 1932, a version that was lost. The following year, he published what was once believed to have been his first short story, “Avenida de Mayo—Diagonal—Avenida de Mayo” in the Buenos Aires daily La...
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