Oates, Joyce Carol (Vol. 15)
Oates, Joyce Carol 1938–
Oates is an American novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, critic, and editor. She is an extremely prolific writer, whose fiction and nonfiction has been published in books as well as popular and scholarly journals. Her short stories reveal the full range of her artistry, for in that genre Oates seems to be in the greatest control of her material. Her fictional world is violent and tragic, her characters, disturbed and unhappy, are often victims of their social milieu and emotional weaknesses. Oates was the recipient of the National Book Award in 1970 for Them and has twice received the O. Henry Award. (See also CLC, Vols. 1,2,3,6,9,11, and Contemporary Authors, Vols. 5-8, rev. ed.)
The Gothic world which Joyce Carol Oates has projected in her novels and short stories is one that is shaped by irrationality, extreme emotions, and violence. Oates's female characters, in particular, are born into a hostile world that fails to nurture them. Rejecting the lives of their unhappy mothers, they long to forge a more meaningful existence for themselves. However, few life options seem available to Oates's women. Most seek fulfillment through sexual relationships, or marriage and motherhood; but sexual relationships in Oates's fiction usually end disastrously, and wives and mothers fail to be affirmed by the traditional female roles they have chosen. Like the women whose lives Phyllis Chesler has documented in Women and Madness, Oates's female characters often experience acute psychological malaise because of their powerlessness, and many ultimately become suicidal or psychotic. (p. 17)
The life choices made by Oates's female protagonists reflect both a desire on their part to live a more satisfying life than that of their mothers, and an inability to create alternate, more meaningful roles for themselves. Oates's prototypical young female protagonist sets forth from her family home in quest of a new life. Like Natasha in Expensive People, she runs away from her home, seeking a "rebirth and rebaptizing."… (pp. 17-18)
Poverty is one of the factors that contributes to the unhappiness of [some...
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In our age of "born-again" Christianity, of neofascism under the banner of biblical truth,… it is not surprising that Joyce Carol Oates's ninth novel, Son of the Morning—which deals with an "inspired" evangelical preacher named Nathanael Vickery—should be her most ironic work of fiction to date, and perhaps her most broodingly serious. Like her earlier masterpiece, Wonderland …, it attempts no less than a thorough analysis of our culture; while Wonderland approaches contemporary American life through its intellect, its scientific and technological ambitions, Son of the Morning examines the phenomenon of America's newly awakened religious impulses, especially in their more peculiar manifestations.
The novel opens with a series of powerful scenes which embody the characteristic Oatesian vision of rapacious nature: a pack of wild dogs … is trapped and killed; a young girl is brutally raped on her way home from church (and thus is Nathanael Vickery conceived). Punctuating these events, which are narrated in third person, are interpolated monologues—actually prayers, addressed to an inscrutable God—which show an older, failed Nathanael interpreting his own life with peculiar diffidence … and brooding constantly on the fact of his despair. This technique keeps the ironic theme of the novel in constant view, even as the story proper charts Nathanael's development from a strange child haunted by...
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[In Son of the Morning] Nathanael Vickery is an evangelist who believes that he is visited by Christ, even chosen by God to be one with His Son in a miraculous second coming…. Oates has never shied away from important matters of the day. Though she can become much too elaborate in statements about her fiction, I believe she feels a direct responsibility to her readers to perform as a worthy recorder of the times. What sustains Oates's novels is not her journalistic coverage of migrant workers, Detroit ghettos, the crazed world of revivalism, but her own belief that these subjects must be realized as fiction. At her best she creates whole segments of American life with wonderful fidelity like the small-town childhood of Nathanael Vickery…. Joyce Carol Oates has always been a good child psychologist, and we can see in her portrait of the boy Nathanael his wild imagination coupled with a limited human response and an intellectual impoverishment that will produce the asexual Christ figure, the proud religious man who challenges the power of God.
It is Nathanael's career that makes Son of the Morning falter: too many sermons so much like the Sunday morning fare on television, too much mind-boggling prattle about salvation and the power of prayer, too much monotonous intensity. Oh, for some economy on Oates's part, because it's well worth our knowing about the enormous self-serving energy of a cult leader like Nathanael...
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Joyce Carol Oates's imagination runs to violent extremes [in "Women Whose Lives Are Food, Men Whose Lives Are Money"]: a pack of snarling wild dogs; or the monologue of a dead woman dragged out of a river; a man having a heart attack; or, in one of the book's stronger poems, a flooding river tearing the dead out of the cemetery earth in a soggy dark resurrection. Violence is not so much the subject of those poems as it is their element. A groundswell of violent images carries the reader, and often dazzles him, until the poems seem like segments of a stream of language; a stream whose direction is often unclear, and when it is clear is often not as interesting as the flow itself…. [In the poem "Guilt" the] scene is vivid, yet austere. The cumulative pulsing of images resembles the icy flow of the stream itself. Yet the poem does not fulfill the strength of these lines, for when Miss Oates begins to moralize the scene she becomes curiously thin, even banal…. [Her questions aren't trivial,] but Miss Oates doesn't put them in a way that articulates the poem. Instead, she circles them in a mixture of abstractions and impressionistic images, with occasional thrusts of statement ("that is nature / that is only natural") that are too commonplace to serve for thinking. This falling away from the strength of the language to the theme characterizes much of the book.
The best of Miss Oates's poems create a feeling of controlled delirium,...
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A. G. Mojtabai
["Unholy Loves"] opens with a welcoming party, a scene of jealous, strained, fairly poisoned attentiveness, the characteristic swarming of small academics around a Great Name. In his 71st year, the British poet Albert St. Dennis has come to Woodslee College as Distinguished Professor of Poetry. (p. 9)
At once a flickering, erratic presence and a profound central absence, St. Dennis serves well as a ruthless exposer of those around him. His evasions madden and embolden the Woodslee faculty, his indifference calls forth their unholy loves.
Character delineations in this novel are often severely slanted, the satire heavy, scathing at times, for Joyce Carol Oates's touch is not delicate, and her vision of the world has never been a beneficent one. Bellum omnium, rather, a world of predators, a scene of doomed compulsion.
A powerful vision—and yet, for me, there are moments when it falters or begins to pall, and this happens even, or especially, when the author's prose seems most vehement. (pp. 9, 30)
The author's voice and language give rise to some uneasiness. Although the focus of narration shifts from person to person and, with each person, from mood to mood, there's a tendency toward a single voice with a rushing, boiling, slightly breathless delivery throughout. I could not help wishing for a more supple modulation, a more variable cadence…. There are times, too, when...
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Unholy Loves is a mockingly overheated title announcing the novel's satiric fascination with the passions of Academe. Passion—or perhaps choler—is what attends the faculty of Humanities at Woodslee College when aged Albert St. Dennis takes up residence as Distinguished Professor of Poetry. That he will not be what he seems … allows Oates to dramatize her game of appearance and reality and to play it with the envious faculty as well. She plays it expertly. Unholy Loves is brilliant revenge comedy.
The novel's major assets—a veteran's fidelity to scene and character, frequent shifts in narrative from person to person which adds surprise and freshness, a dead-center ear for the rhythms of conversation heard at endless faculty parties … eloquently contribute to her familiar theme of a predatory world. At the center, there are several memorable characters besides St. Dennis, whose indifference to the collective and separate faculty ego triggers off their unholy passions…. Oates is not gentle with these figures; we are always aware that, despite their surface charm and glib concern for others, there throbs a heart carved from Darwin. That identification and empathy are yet so easily stirred is finally a tribute to Oates's great persuasion.
Edward Guereschi, "Fiction: 'Unholy Loves'," in Best Sellers (copyright © 1980 Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation), Vol. 39,...
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