Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan (1814 - 1873)
JOSEPH SHERIDAN LE FANU (1814 - 1873)
(Also wrote under the pseudonyms Charles de Cresserons and Reverend Francis Purcell) Irish novelist, short story writer, poet, journalist, and editor.
Le Fanu is a major figure among Victorian-era authors of Gothic and supernatural fiction. Critics praise his short stories and novels for their suggestive and detailed descriptions of physical settings, powerful evocation of foreboding and dread, and convincing use of supernatural elements. In addition to Le Fanu's mastery of these Gothic conventions in his fiction, his works are also admired for their insightful characterizations and skilled use of narrative technique. Scholars have observed that Le Fanu's subtle examinations of the psychological life of his characters distinguish his works from those of earlier Gothic writers.
Born in Dublin, Le Fanu was the second of three children of a Protestant clergyman. He began writing poetry as a teenager and was privately educated by tutors until entering Trinity College, Dublin, in 1833. There Le Fanu studied law, although he never practiced; instead he launched a joint career in journalism and litera-ture. He contributed regularly to the Dublin University Magazine and gained recognition for his short stories and his ballads "Phaudrig Crohoore" and "Shamus O'Brien." Between 1838 and 1840 Le Fanu wrote short stories and poetry under the pseudonym Reverend Francis Purcell; these works were posthumously collected as The Purcell Papers (1880). In 1839 Le Fanu bought three Dublin periodicals and combined them to form the Evening Mail, a conservative publication in which many of his early works appeared. During this period he published two historical novels, The Cock and Anchor (1845) and The Fortunes of Colonel Torlogh O'Brien (1847), as well as his first collection of short stories, Ghost Stories and Tales of Mystery (1851). These early works were virtually ignored by both critics and the reading public. Le Fanu married Susanna Bennett in 1844, and they became a prominent couple in Dublin social and cultural circles. Le Fanu was considered a brilliant conversationalist and was a popular member of society until his wife's death in 1858. His anguish caused him to withdraw from his companions, who labeled him the "Invisible Prince." During this time Le Fanu produced the four novels for which he is best known: The House by the Churchyard (1863), Wylder's Hand (1864), Uncle Silas (1864), and Guy Deverell (1865). In addition, he became the editor of the Dublin University Magazine in 1859, and, in 1861, assumed its proprietorship as well. Le Fanu continued managing and editing the publication until a few months before his death in 1873.
In his earliest short stories, primarily those collected in Ghost Stories and Tales of Mystery and The Purcell Papers, Le Fanu only occasionally displayed the inventive use of the supernatural and psychological character studies that distinguish his most esteemed works. The five longer stories in the later collection In a Glass Darkly (1872) are widely acknowledged as his best work in the genre. In these stories Le Fanu combined many of the themes and techniques of traditional Gothic literature with those of modern psychological fiction. Le Fanu used the recurring character Dr. Martin Hesselius, a German physician specializing in mental disorders, to introduce each narrative as a case history illustrating both supernatural and psychological phenomena. This technique allowed Le Fanu to successfully link the stories and to explore the psychology of his characters. For example, in "Green Tea" Hesselius reports the case of Reverend Jennings, whose habit of drinking strong green tea causes him to see a small, black, talking monkey that torments him with its blasphemous chatter until he ultimately commits suicide. Critics have also expressed high praise for "Carmilla," in which Hesselius suggests a connection between the bloodlust of a female vampire and lesbian sexual desires. In these and others works of the supernatural, Le Fanu rarely depended on the stock devices of Gothic literature—such as isolated castles, forlorn landscapes, and maniacal villains—to further his eerie plots. Rather than relying on these clichéd tropes of prior fiction, he generally opted for subtlety and mystery, and routinely left incidents in his stories unexplained for the purpose of heightening suspense. Additionally, unlike much earlier horror fiction, there are no actual ghosts in Le Fanu's supernatural works; instead his characters are frequently haunted by phantasms that are solely the creations of their imaginations. Lastly, his stories generally feature a first person mode of narration designed to convey an individual's progressively developing experience of terror. This narrative technique, coupled with Le Fanu's realistic settings, skillfully imbued with a sense of menace, are thought to lend credibility to his supernatural stories and contribute to their dramatic impact.
Of Le Fanu's fourteen novels, The House by the Churchyard, Wylder's Hand, Uncle Silas and Guy Deverell are generally considered his finest. These works are characterized by the taut construction and psychological insight that inform the stories of In a Glass Darkly. While not a work of supernatural or even classically Gothic fiction, The House by the Churchyard is pervaded with a sense of chilling gloom, and is thought to represent an intermediate stage between Le Fanu's earlier historical novels and his later tales of mystery. The work also marks his first attempt at psychological analysis of character. Wylder's Hand is regarded as the most uncomplicated of Le Fanu's mysteries, and is sometimes referred to as his masterpiece. Featuring fewer characters than his previous novels, the work concentrates on establishing a fully realized psychological portrait of Wylder. The title figure of Uncle Silas, perhaps Le Fanu's best-known work, is an ominous figure who subtly calls upon the tradition of the murderous Gothic villain. Praised for its clear narrative and lucid structure, this novel is often regarded as the first psychological thriller. In it, Le Fanu deftly manipulates levels of suspense, gradually elevating the reader's anticipation and sense of horror as the brutal Silas intimidates his increasingly frightened niece and ward, Maud. Guy Deverell, the last of Le Fanu's critically acclaimed novels, is likewise noted for its mysterious atmosphere and finely delineated, realistic characterizations.
During his lifetime, Le Fanu's works were moderately successful, although they received scant critical attention. With the appearance of Uncle Silas, however, some reviewers complained that Le Fanu had exceeded the boundaries of Gothic mystery writing and charged him with sensationalism. Following Le Fanu's death, his reputation suffered a gradual decline as readers and critics lost interest in his realistic and psychological mode of Gothic narrative. In the 1920s, however, the prominent ghost-story writer M. R. James (see Further Reading) drew attention to Le Fanu by writing introductions to several reissued volumes of his out-of-print works. V. S. Pritchett (see Further Reading) and Elizabeth Bowen (see Further Reading) later wrote essays championing Le Fanu as one of Gothic literature's foremost figures. After the reassessments of Le Fanu made by these and other late twentieth-century scholars, interest in Le Fanu grew, with commentators identifying him as a significant transitional figure in the Gothic tradition whose use of psychological horror is considered a key contribution to the genre. Additionally, several of Le Fanu's major works, including the novel Uncle Silas and the short story "Carmilla," have also been singled out for reappraisal. While he is not generally well-known today as a novelist, Le Fanu continues to be noted as an innovative and masterful writer of psychological horror stories and as a pivotal figure in the history of supernatural fiction.
"Phaudrig Crohoore" (ballad) 1837; published in the journal Dublin University Magazine
The Cock and Anchor, Being a Chronicle of Old Dublin City. 3 vols. [as Charles de Cresserons] (novel) 1845; also published as The Cock and Anchor, 1895
The Fortunes of Colonel Torlogh O'Brien; A Tale of the Wars of King James [as Charles de Cresserons] (novel) 1847
"Shamus O'Brien" (ballad) 1850; published in the journal Dublin University Magazine
Ghost Stories and Tales of Mystery (short stories) 1851
The House by the Churchyard. 3 vols. (novel) 1863
Uncle Silas: A Tale of Bartram-Haugh. 3 vols. (novel) 1864
Wylder's Hand. 3 vols. [as Charles de Cresserons] (novel) 1864
Guy Deverell. 3 vols. (novel) 1865
All in the Dark. 2 vols. (novel) 1866
The Tenants of Malory: A Novel. 3 vols. (novel) 1867
Haunted Lives: A Novel. 3 vols. (novel) 1868
A Lost Name: A Novel. 3 vols. (novel) 1868
Checkmate. 3 vols. (novel) 1871
Chronicles of Golden Friars. 3 vols. (novel) 1871
The Rose and the Key. 3 vols. (novel) 1871
∗In a Glass Darkly. 3 vols. (short stories) 1872
Willing to Die. 3 vols. (novel) 1873
The Purcell Papers, with a Memoir by Alfred Perceval Graves. 3 vols. (short stories) 1880
The Watcher and Other Weird Stories (short stories)...
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SOURCE: Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan. "Carmilla." In Carmilla and 12 Other Classic Tales of Mystery, pp. 288-97. New York: Penguin, 1996.
The following excerpt is from chapter 4 of "Carmilla," a short story first published serially in the journal Dark Blue from December 1871 to March 1872.
Her Habits—A Saunter
I told you that I was charmed with her in most particulars.
There were some that did not please me so well.
She was above the middle height of women. I shall begin by describing her. She was slender, and wonderfully graceful. Except that her movements were languid—very languid—indeed, there was nothing in her appearance to indicate an invalid. Her complexion was rich and brilliant; her features were small and beautifully formed; her eyes large, dark, and lustrous; her hair was quite wonderful, I never saw hair so magnificently thick and long when it was down about her shoulders; I have often placed my hands under it, and laughed with wonder at its weight. It was exquisitely fine and soft, and in colour a rich very dark brown, with something of gold. I loved to let it down, tumbling with its own weight, as, in her room, she lay back in her chair talking in her sweet low voice, I used to fold and braid it, and spread it out and play with it. Heavens! If I had but known all!...
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SOURCE: Rolleston, T. W. "Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu." Irish Fireside 1, no. 9 (26 February 1887): 133.
In the following excerpt, Rolleston offers a laudatory estimation of Le Fanu's skill as an author of sensation novels, noting particularly The House by the Churchyard.
Le Fanu was a poet as well as a novelist, and he was a poet as a novelist. Unfortunately his powers, though great, were limited, or rather he chose to exercise them too much in one particular groove. In taking up a novel of Le Fanu's we enter a region of mystery and terror, the region whose secrets such writers as Wilkie Collins, the late Hugh Conway, and too many others, have devoted themselves to bringing to light. But Le Fanu is incomparably superior to any of these. Where, in the best of them, do we find his wit, his learning, his sense of beauty, his passion, his mastery of language, his creative power? His characters in his best books are real human beings, in whom we can take interest apart from the tale in which they figure….
Of all [Le Fanu's] works The House by the Churchyard seems to us to exhibit the richest and most varied power. For intensity of excitement nothing can match Uncle Silas. And yet in Uncle Silas one feels that Le Fanu has adopted a métier, and narrowed the sphere of his art. He defended this novel in express terms against...
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SOURCE: Sage, Victor. "Gothic and Romance: Retribution and Reconciliation." In Le Fanu's Gothic: The Rhetoric of Darkness, pp. 29-40. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
In the following essay, Sage illustrates how Le Fanu departs from the typical Gothic formula in his historical romances.
When we come to the two historical romances which Le Fanu wrote in the 1840s, the rhetorical situation is somewhat different from that of The Purcell Papers. The evidentiary mode—the home of dark epiphany—has to go, and plot—the plot of History—must take its place. It was not really possible in the 1840s to write a historical romance that had a 'national' character, without responding to the work of Scott.1 To emulate Scott, you had to find a way of doing the opposite of what Le Fanu had done so brilliantly in The Purcell Papers: you had to imply that two or more different traditions were one. The whole sweep of Waverley, the panorama created by its rhetorical fiction of 'centrality', suggests that if you look at history from a certain vantage-point, it all makes sense and leads into the present. And that meant introducing some kind of fictional détente, some notion of negotiation, even perhaps of mutual recognition, between hostile, or traditionally opposed, parties, within the parameters of a single language or, at least, a...
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CAROL A. SENF (ESSAY DATE 1987)
SOURCE: Senf, Carol A. "Women and Power in 'Carmilla.'" Gothic New Series 2 (1987): 25-33.
In the following essay, Senf considers the characterization of women as both victims and victimizers in "Carmilla."
Although Joseph Sheridan LeFanu (1814–1873) wrote eighteen books and numerous short stories, he is remembered today primarily as a writer of Gothic tales, such as Uncle Silas and "Carmilla." In "Carmilla," the most overtly supernatural of these Gothic tales, the title character is actually a centuries old vampire, who—unlike Charlotte Brontë's Bertha Mason or George Eliot's Bulstrode, characters who resemble the vampire—literally returns from the grave and sustains her unnatural existence by drinking human blood. Despite the presence of the supernatural in "Carmilla," however, LeFanu uses the vampire motif primarily to focus on the condition of women's lives during the time that he wrote. Revealing that women are neither the angels often portrayed in sentimental Victorian fiction, household management manuals, and periodical literature nor the devils of either Gothic novels or sensation novels, "Carmilla" demonstrates that women's lives are complex and varied. Sometimes victims of outright exploitation, women are also powerful victimizers as well....
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McCormack, W. J. Sheridan Le Fanu and Victorian Ireland. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980, 310 p.
An extensively detailed biography of Le Fanu.
Achilles, Jochen. "Fantasy as Psychological Necessity: Sheridan Le Fanu's Fiction." In Gothick Origins and Innova-tions, edited by Allan Lloyd Smith and Victor Sage, pp. 150-68. Atlanta, Ga. and Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994.
Elucidates Le Fanu's use of Gothic motifs to produce psychological effects in his supernatural novels and short fiction.
Andriano, Joseph. "'Our Dual Existence': Loving and Dying in Le Fanu's 'Carmilla.'" In Our Ladies of Darkness: Feminine Daemonology in Male Gothic Fiction, pp. 98-105. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993.
Argues that the vampire in "Carmilla" is not a symbol of sterile lesbianism, but rather an iconic representation of death.
Barclay, Glen St. John. "Vampires and Ladies: Sheridan Le Fanu." In his Anatomy of Horror: The Masters of Occult Fiction, pp. 22-38. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978.
Concentrates on motifs of vampirism and lesbianism in Le Fanu's short stories....
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