Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Joseph Heller was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. At the age of nineteen, he enlisted in the United States Army Air Force and was first trained as an armorer, later transferring to cadet school and graduating as a second lieutenant. Sent to Italy, he flew sixty missions as a bombardier. He was discharged as a first lieutenant.
After the war, Heller returned to the United States and resumed his education, attending the University of Southern California; he graduated from New York University in 1948. He married Shirley Held in 1945; they had two children. That marriage ended in divorce, and in 1987, Heller married Valerie Humphries. He received an M.A. degree from Columbia University in 1949 and spent the next year as a Fulbright scholar at Oxford University before teaching for two years at Pennsylvania State University.
Heller left the academic world in 1952 and spent the following decade working for Time and Look magazines as an editor and for McCall’s in the advertising department. During those years he sold some short fiction to Esquire and The Atlantic Monthly and began work on his first novel, Catch-22, which was published in 1961. While the novel did not receive unanimously favorable reviews, it was highly popular from its publication and retained its popularity for a long...
(The entire section is 577 words.)
Want to Read More?
Subscribe now to read the rest of this article. Plus get complete access to 30,000+ study guides!
Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Heller experimented with fictional and semifictional forms throughout his career. His gift for the wildly comic and grotesque, however, found its fullest expression in his first novel, and Catch-22 remains his major claim to a place in the front rank of contemporary novelists. Catch-22 exposed the absurdities of twentieth century warfare and bureaucracy through the use of black humor, and it was an immensely influential book throughout the turbulent 1960’s.
Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Joseph Heller was born in Brooklyn, New York, on May 1, 1923, the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants only recently arrived in the United States. His mother then barely spoke English; his father drove a delivery truck for a bakery until, when Heller was only five years old, he died unexpectedly during a routine ulcer operation. The denial of this death in particular and the bare fact of mortality in general were to color Heller’s later life and work. The youngest of three children, Heller spent his boyhood in the Coney Island section of Brooklyn, an enclave of lower-and middle-class Jewish families, in the shadow of the famed amusement park. Both his family and his teachers recognized Heller as a bright but bored student; he tinkered with writing short stories while still in high school.
In 1942, at the age of nineteen, Heller joined the U.S. Army Air Corps. He spent one of the war years flying sixty missions as a wing bombardier in a squadron of B-25’s stationed on Corsica in the Mediterranean. This proved to be the crucial year of his life; it provided him with the materials, and the bitterly sardonic attitude, out of which he forged his major work—Catch-22—as well as his three plays. Moreover, his sixty missions, many of them brutal and bloody (including the series of raids on Bologna that form the core of Catch-22), profoundly affected the attitude toward death that informs all of his work.
Demobilized in 1945, having achieved the rank of first lieutenant, Heller married fellow Brooklynite Shirley Held, with whom he had two children. Heller spent the next seven years within academe. Under the G.I. Bill, he attended college, first at the University of Southern California and then at New York University, where he received his bachelor of arts degree in 1948. Heller then traveled uptown to earn a master’s degree at Columbia University before receiving one of the first Fulbright scholarships to study at Oxford. He returned to the United States to teach English at Pennsylvania State University between 1950 and 1952.
During the remainder of the 1950’s, Heller was employed in the advertising...
(The entire section is 881 words.)
Joseph Heller was born into a family consisting of Russian Jewish immigrant parents and two children from Heller’s father’s first marriage. Heller’s father died when Heller was five, and although he claims not to have known of the significance of this event, critics speculate that this early trauma colors much of Heller’s work.
Although both of Heller’s parents were Jewish, there was little religion in the Heller household. His mother required him to wear his best clothes on Sunday, but Heller neither attended services regularly nor had a Bar Mitzvah. Despite living in a neighborhood populated mainly by Jewish and Italian immigrants, Heller enjoyed a childhood relatively free of religious or ethnic conflicts. He spent many hours among crowds near the boardwalk section of Coney Island, an environment that heightened his awareness of the fine line between the real and the illusory. Although he admits that his Coney Island experiences made him cynical, Heller describes his childhood environment as idyllic.
Heller’s career as a writer began in 1945, when he returned from World War II and began submitting short stories to magazines such as Story, Esquire, and the Atlantic. Heller obtained a bachelor’s degree from New York University, then earned a master’s degree from Columbia University, and finally...
(The entire section is 409 words.)
Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Joseph Heller is one of the most popular of those post-World War II writers whose fiction, first identified as black humor, later became known as “metafiction” (fiction that calls attention to its fictitious nature). Born and reared in Brooklyn, he attended City College of New York, where he later returned as a member of the faculty. Heller served in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II and used his wartime experiences as the basis for his first novel. After the war he lived in New York City and on Long Island.
Catch-22 gave a new term to the English language and new meaning to the existentialist term “absurd” as it applies to war fiction. The novel has no narrative structure. Its chapters, each taking its name from one of the characters, do not follow in any kind of logical or temporal sequence. The characters themselves are given odd or comic names (Milo Minderbinder, Chief White Half-Oat, Major Major Major) and often act on (apparently) ridiculous views of the world. The central character, Yossarian, is determined to “live forever or die in the attempt,” and his best friend, Dunbar, continually seeks boredom, on the theory that time passes more slowly when you are bored and that a bored person therefore lives longer. Yossarian is continually frustrated, as his commanding officer uses a “catch-22” to increase the number of missions his men must fly before they can be rotated home.
Much of the distinctive quality of Catch-22 comes from its innovative combination of the comic and the horrible. While earlier writers of war fiction had occasionally included humorous incidents in their novels, none had used such outrageous humor. Heller’s characters find themselves in one ridiculous situation after another. At the same time, the more ghastly aspects of war are presented in all of their horror: A young man bleeds to death in a bomber while his friends fail to realize he is seriously wounded; a plane, buzzing a group of the pilot’s friends on a beach, is caught in a downdraft, and the propeller kills one of the men in grisly fashion.
On the strength of the success of Catch-22 Heller spent considerable time during the 1960’s doing film and television script work. His efforts included the James Bond film Casino Royale, which was uncredited, Dirty Dingus Magee, and episodes of the 1960’s television series McHale’s Navy (for which he wrote under the pen name Max Orange). He also labored over dramatic adaptations of Catch-22 that never succeeded and put considerable effort into his play We Bombed in New Haven, which takes the moral dilemmas of Catch-22 several steps further but was not a critical success....
(The entire section is 1164 words.)
Joseph Heller was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1923 and grew up in Coney Island. This oceanside town had a large population of Russian Jewish immigrants, including Heller's parents, and was known for its amusement park. Heller's biting sense of humor may have been influenced by growing up in this somewhat surrealistic, carnival like neighborhood.
After his 1941 high school graduation, Heller worked in an insurance office for a short time. The next year, 1942, he enlisted in the Army Air Corps, and in 1944, the year in which Catch-22 is set, Heller was stationed on the island of Corsica (located in the Mediterranean Sea, off the coasts of France and Italy). There he was a bombardier who flew sixty combat missions, earning an Air Medal and a Presidential Unit citation. After the war ended in 1945, Heller married Shirley Held and went to college, eventually earning a B.A. in English from New York University and an M.A. from Columbia University. He then attended Oxford University in England as a Fulbright Scholar for a year, then moved to Pennsylvania, where he taught English at Pennsylvania State University for two years. Heller then changed careers, working as an advertising copywriter from 1952 to 1961 at such popular magazines as Time, Look, and McCall's. These jobs influenced his 1974 novel Something Happened. While working as a copywriter, Heller wrote short stories and television and film screenplays, and began writing Catch-22.
The first chapter of Catch-22 was originally published in an anthology in 1955, and the entire work was published in 1961. After the novel's great success, Heller quit his copywriting job and concentrated on writing. In December 1981, he contracted a rare disease of the nervous system, which he wrote about in his book No Laughing Matter (1986) with his friend Speed Vogel. Heller has written other novels, many of which employ the plot of an individual battling against a powerful institution such as the military, government, or a corporation. These works capture Heller's basic pessimism about the power of the individual to fight society's corruption. Heller has also written a play, We Bombed in New Haven, about a group of actors who are supposed to play an Air Force squadron in an unnamed war, but who question their roles in the play. Heller also adapted Catch-22 for the stage, but critics consider the book much better than the play. To date, none of the author's writings have achieved the acclaim or success of Catch-22, which is still considered a modern classic for its black humor and absurd portrayal of war. Heller continues to write, and lives in New York.
IntroductionAnyone who has ever been stuck between a rock and a hard place knows what a Catch-22 is. We have Joseph Heller to thank for that phrase because it is taken from his famous novel of the same name. Heller thought of the first sentence of Catch-22 while sitting at home one day. He finished the first chapter within a week, and the first chapter was published as “Catch-18” in an issue of New World writing. Heller intended for the work to be a novella, but he ended up having enough material for it to become a full novel. Catch-22 received mixed reviews and did not become a success until 1962 (a year after it was first published), when it resonated deeply with young people during the Vietnam War. The book went on to sell over 10 million copies in the United States alone.
- The title was changed from Catch-18 to Catch-22 so that the book would not be confused with another novel at the time, Mila 18.
- The U.S. Air Force Academy still uses Catch-22 to “help prospective officers recognize the dehumanizing aspects of bureaucracy.”
- Heller wrote No Laughing Matter about his struggle with Guillian-Barre Syndrome, a disease that causes muscle weakness and paralysis.
- There was some controversy in 1998 over the similarities between Catch-22 and a British novel called The Sky Is a Lonely Place (published in the United States as Face of a Hero). Heller denied any previous knowledge of the author of that book or his work.
- Catch-22 is listed as seventh on Modern Library’s list of the top 100 novels of the twentieth century.