Isaacs, Jorge Ricardo
Jorge Ricardo Isaacs 1837-1895
Colombian poet, novelist, nonfiction writer, and politician.
Isaacs is chiefly remembered for his tragic, romantic novel, María (1867), which is still widely read in Hispanic America. Isaacs was also a prolific poet, though his poetry has not received the same critical attention as María. In his nonfiction prose, Isaacs tended to espouse strong political positions. A liberal who believed in the separation of church and state, Isaacs took on such contentious issues as the treatment of Indians by Catholic missionaries. However, few of Isaacs's polemical writings remain in print.
Isaacs was born in Cali, Colombia, in 1837, the son of a Jamaican man of Jewish descent and a Catholic, Colombian woman. Isaacs's father owned numerous ranches and a sugar-processing mill. Though educated in Bogotá, Isaacs did not graduate from high school. In 1856, after a brief stint in the army, Isaacs married Felisa González Umaña. He soon returned to the military, and there began writing his poetry. In 1861, Issacs left the military to run the family ranches and businesses, but he failed at this endeavor and by 1864 was forced to sell the ranches. Isaacs first achieved literary fame in 1864 with the publication of his poetry by the literary group "El Mosaico." He next worked as a construction inspector. This job required that he live in the jungles along the Pacific coast, away from his wife. There, he began writing his novel, María. Illness eventually led Isaacs to return to his family, and in 1866, Isaacs entered politics as the Cauca Valley's conservative representative. He soon switched to the liberal party, a move that coincided with his joining the Freemasons. This move gained Isaacs many political enemies, many of whom made much of Isaacs's Jewish ancestry in an attempt to discredit him. By 1870, however, Isaacs landed the prestigious post of consul to Chile. Returning to Colombia in 1873, Isaacs attempted ranching once more but once again failed. In 1875, having declared bankruptcy, Isaacs attempted to justify his business practices in A Mis Amigos y a los Commerciantes del Cauca (1875; To My Friends and the Businessmen of the Cauca Valley). Issacs was the subject of heavy criticism, both for his financial dealings and his continued liberal politics. His next occupation, as general superintendent of public schools, was interrupted by civil war. Isaacs fought for the liberal government and by 1877 resumed teaching. For the next few years, Isaacs held a number of government positions, and among other causes, worked for Indian rights. For a few months in 1880, Isaacs declared himself president of the state of Antioquia until forced to resign. As a result, Isaacs was driven from the national congress and denounced as a revolutionary. That same year, he wrote a pamphlet, La Revolución Radical en Antioquia (1880; The Radical Revolution in Antioquia) in defense of his actions. In the next few years, Isaacs continued writing poetry and treatises and intermittently received government positions. He was again embroiled in his country's political upheaval in 1885 when he joined the revolution against the government. Escaping any serious repercussions, Isaacs received a government contract to mine coal deposits along the Atlantic coast. This venture, as Isaacs's other business attempts, yielded no profit in his lifetime. In 1893, Isaacs planned to write a trilogy of historical novels that, in the words of Donald McGrady, "were to glorify the heroism of those who had freed Colombia from the tyranny of Spain, to show the lack of political expertise of these liberators, and to denounce the powers of darkness (namely the Roman Catholic Church)." Isaacs died in 1895 before completing more than a fragment of just one of these novels, Camilo (1937).
Although Isaacs's poetry and nonfiction offer insight into his life and times, Isaacs's masterpiece was his one finished novel, Maria. John Rosenberg calls María "a prototype of the Latin American romantic novel" and notes that Isaacs "invites us to read tearfully." The young narrator of the tale, Efraín, recounts his love for and separation from the beautiful María. Maria's eventual death, before Efraín can return to her, emphasizes the tragedy of the story. Donald McGrady writes that the sentimental nature of the novel "came as a breath of fresh air in a period suffocated by materialism and the spirit of Positivism." In María, Issacs explores the depths of human emotion and virtually ignores the political upheaval of his own time. María is also read as a partly autobiographical novel. María shared the Jewish ancestry of her creator, and the setting for the novel was inspired by one of Isaacs's childhood homes, "El Paraíso." Although neither explicitly historical or political, María does provide a view of mid-nineteenth century Colombia with Efraín accurately describing the landscape as he journeys through the jungles of Colombia. The interpolated story of Nay and Sinar, two African slaves, provided a glimpse of current racial stereotypes and the reality of South American slavery. Many of Isaacs's other works were more overtly political. Several of his poems deal with the Colombian civil wars. In his nonfiction prose, particularly La Revolución Radical en Antioquia, Isaacs explained his own political motivations. Other work was intensely personal: many of Isaacs's poems were dedicated to his wife and others describe possible extramarital affairs.
Before the publication of María, Issacs was hailed as a budding poet. However, by 1877, as Donald McGrady notes, the president of Argentina was so disenchanted "that he called a meeting of his cabinet to consider the disparity between María and Isaacs' poetry." Following the opinion of Argentina's president, most critics confine their analysis to Isaacs's novel. María was an unmitigated success in its own time. Pirated editions of the novel appeared throughout Latin America and Spain during Isaacs's lifetime. Recently, critics have explored the significance of this novel beyond its romantic origins. The structure of the novel, as well as its depiction of women and of African slaves, has received a fair amount of attention. Critics have also noted that the tragedy of the novel moves beyond its depiction of Maria's death. Sylvia Molloy reads the novel as the "Spanish American model for the timeless topos of paradise lost," and Sharon Magnarelli argues in The Lost Rib that "Efraín writes to recapture this past, to reconquer this paradise."
Poesías [Poems] (poetry) 1864
María (novel) 1867
A Mis Amigos y a los Commerciantes del Cauca [To My Friends and the Businessmen of the Cauca Valley] (manifesto) 1875
La Revolución Radical en Antioquia [The Radical Revolution in Antioquia] (manifesto) 1880
Saulo (unfinished epic poem) 1881
Estudio Sobre las Tribus Indígenas del Estado del Magdalena, antes Provincia de Santa Marta [A Study of the Native Tribes of the State of Magdalena, Formerly the Province of Santa Marta] (nonfiction) 1884
Camilo (unfinished novel of unfinished three-novel series) 1937
Poesías [Poems] (poetry) 1967
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SOURCE: "Isaacs' Poetry," in Jorge Isaacs, Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1972, pp. 33-58.
[In the following excerpt, McGrady offers a survey of Isaacs's poetry.]
Jorge Isaacs' poetry is much inferior to the high quality of his novel María, but is of sufficient merit to place him among Colombia's secondary poets. His poetry is, above all, a faithful reflection of his life. Precisely herein resides its chief importance: it throws additional light on the inward thoughts of the man who wrote Maria. For example, Isaacs' lyrical verses disclose his deep-rooted sensuality—a quality shared by the male protagonist of María, although the latter tries to obscure this aspect of his personality. Another trait evident in Isaacs' poetry, but which has been dissimulated somewhat in his novelistic double, is his spitefulness—his tendency to harbor a grudge, feeding his malice, rather than endeavoring to abate it.
Isaacs' poetry is not profound; it contains no hidden meanings or recondite symbols. Only an occasional image adorns the prosaic narratives and descriptions. It has been observed1 that Isaacs' verses are as limpid as the crystalline waters of the rivers that abound in his work. Isaacs was primarily interested in the content of his verses, not in the form.2 Therefore, the task of the...
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SOURCE: "Black Character: Toward a Dialectical Presentation in Three South American Novels," in Voices from Under: Black Narrative in Latin America and the Caribbean, edited by William Luis, Greenwood Press, 1984, pp. 181-200.
[In the following excerpt, Beane discusses the African characters in Isaacs's Maria.]
Fiction in which Blacks and Mulattoes are main characters "deals not with eternal essences or ideal forms of life, but with life lived in particular conditions."1 Black characters and black character—a way of being—in Hispanic-American fiction reflect traits drawn from a social reality. Any discussion of black characters in literature must bear in mind that literary creation results from a complex interplay between historical and socioeconomic factors and imagination. The latter is the source of "all sorts of images of non-Western peoples and worlds which have flourished in our culture . . . images derived not from observation, experience and perceptible reality but from a psychological urge . . . that creates its own realities which are fully different from political realities."2
As literary subjects, Blacks and Mulattoes are charged with extraliterary associations. Slavery and oppression in the eighteenth century created stereotyped images, many of which appear in fiction.3 Early portrayals were ostensibly sympathetic; later ones are less so....
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SOURCE: "The Love Story: Reading the Writing in Jorge Isaacs's María," in The Lost Rib: Female Characters in the Spanish-American Novel, Bucknell University Press, 1985, pp. 19-37.
[In the following excerpt, Magnarelli offers a feminist reading of Isaacs's María and analyzes the representation of the novel's title character.] Published in 1867 by Jorge Isaacs (Colombia, 1837-95), Mara is one of the earliest Spanish-American novels still widely read today. Generally relished by adolescents, María has been successively highly esteemed and discredited because of its maudlin romanticism. Numerous critics have demonstrated its close affiliation with European romanticism, and many have considered it but a poor copy of French works such as Atala and Paul et Virginie.1 Nevertheless, some of the most important aspects of the text, especially those related to the title female, have been neglected. In the following pages, I shall examine María in terms of the dramatized narrative process and its portrayal of women. To date, scholars have focused principally on the story, analyzing it either as a reflection of Isaacs's own life or in terms of its rather insipid and terribly commonplace love story.2 What has all too often been overlooked (and what is both most interesting and most important) are the facts that, first, Maria is...
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SOURCE: "The Problem of Unity in Fiction: Narrator and Self in María," in MLN, Vol. 101, No. 2, March, 1986, pp. 342-53.
[In the following essay, Williams surveys earlier criticism of Isaacs's María and discusses narrative unity and fragmentation in the novel.]
The assumptions underlying critical thought on Jorge Isaacs' classic novel María (1867) have been quite traditional. During much of the twentieth century studies were limited to the sources of the book, comparisons or influences of European models or thematic and biographical investigations.1 A moribund line of thought maintained that its numerous deviations from the principal story line undermined its effectiveness as a coherent novel.2 A more recent reading by Seymour Menton has meticulously diagrammed relationships that demonstrate the book's unity.3 The least traditional of these analyses is John S. Brushwood's explicitly Barthesian exposition of codes of character definition.4 The present study will consider briefly both the assumptions embodied in critical thought on María and attempt to propose a new reading through the consideration of the function of the narrator and the self in the novel.
The fundamental assumption underlying the readings by Anderson Imbert and Menton is the desire and necessity for unity. As Hispanists writing in...
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SOURCE: "Childhood and Exile: The Cuban Paradise of the Countess of Merlin," in At Face Value: Autobiographical Writing in Spanish America, Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 79-96.
[In the following excerpt, Molloy shows how Isaacs romanticizes the family in María.]
Successive generations of readers have hailed Jorge Isaacs' novel as one of the highlights—perhaps the most brilliant—of nineteenth-century Spanish American fiction. Critics unanimously agree: María, they believe, arrived in a most timely way to legitimate a specific literary discourse, that of Romanticism. Most of those critics, however, have stopped short at this conclusion, unwilling to explore the reason for Maria's phenomenal success or to discover, precisely, what the novel gave legitimacy to. Thus the enormous impact of the novel has been reduced to the fact that it was a well-told story of ill-fated love, more or less in the tradition of Benjamin Constant, made all the more poignant of course by the foreseeable death of the heroine. As a result of this reduction, the general criterion to judge Maria has been invariably lachrymose: tears are shed and those tears in some way ratify the novel's excellence. No one has stopped to consider other possible implications of this mournful stance, nor to inquire further into the reasons for María's favorable reception. For...
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SOURCE: "From Sentimentalism to Romanticism: Rereading María" in The Latin American Literary Review, Vol. XXII, No. 43, January-June, 1994, pp. 5-18.
[In the following essay, Rosenberg discusses the narrative structure of Isaacs's María.]
Jorge Isaacs's María is frequently found in the same category as Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac: it is a novel to be read by the young and naive not yet disillusioned by the skepticism of experience. The fainting spells and tears in the tale of tragic and innocent love move the young reader after the model of Paolo and Francesca, all the while irritating cynics by evoking a past that in their maturity they are forced to admit never existed. As Sylvia Molloy notes, the traditional reading of Isaacs's text is that of "una novela lacrimógena en la cual se pretende reviviry compartir con el lector, la pérdida de un primer amor" (36). Nonhispanists have long maligned Hispanic Romanticism as a perversion of authentic romantic sentiment. María occupies the difficult position of being a prototype of the Latin American romantic novel and containing at the same time the most exaggerated sentimentality of all the "serious" literature in the Hispanic world. It is a text whose traditional or "romantic" readings have helped vilify Hispanic Romanticism as a whole. Ironically modern skeptical approaches, such as the one offered here, not...
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Brown, Donald F. "Chateaubriand and the Story of Feliciana in Jorge Isaacs' María" Modern Language Notes 62, No. 5 (May 1947): 326-29.
Brown argues that the story of Nay and Sinar in María was directly influenced by Chateaubriand's Atala.
Brushwood, John S. "Codes of Character Definition: Jorge Isaacs's María" In Genteel Barbarism: Experiments in Analysis of Nineteenth-Century Spanish-American Novels, pp. 82-106. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.
Interprets a series of passages from María by applying the theory of Roland Barthes.
Jackson, Shirley M. "Fact from Fiction: Another Look at Slavery in Three Spanish-American Novels." In Blacks in Hispanic Literature: Critical Essays, edited by Miriam DeCosta, pp.83-89. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1977.
Discusses the depictions of Spanish-American slavery in Isaacs's María, Cirilo Villaverde's Cecilia Valdés, and Gertrudis de Avellaneda's Sab.
Magnarelli, Sharon. "María and History." Hispanic Review 49, No. 2 (Spring 1981): 209-217.
Magnarelli argues that Efraín, the narrator of María, adopts the...
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