John Webster 1580(?)–1634(?)
Often ranked second only to Shakespeare among Jacobean tragedians, Webster is the author of two major works, The White Devil (1612) and The Duchess of Malfi (1614), which are more frequently revived on stage than any plays of the period other than Shakespeare's. Webster's tragedies, while praised for their poetic language by some commentators, have also been attacked as being excessively grim and even horrifying: his plays present a world in chaos, ruled by passionate sensuality and seemingly devoid of morality and human feeling. In performance, however, Webster's highly charged verse often imbues his characters with a unique dignity and power. Contemporary critics have emphasized the distinctly "modern" qualities of his worldview, praising in particular the depth and complexity of his female characters.
No portraits of Webster are known to exist, and for over three hundred years little was known about his life. He was born in London around 1580, the eldest son of a prosperous coachmaker and member of the prestigious guild, the Merchant Taylors' Company. Given his father's status, Webster was probably educated at the highly respected Merchant Taylors' School around 1587. Noting the prominence of legal concerns in Webster's dramas, scholars speculate that he may have also had some legal training. A "John Webster" was enrolled at the Middle Temple—the equivalent of a law school—in 1598, but it is not certain that this was the playwright. Records indicate that, like his father, Webster was a respected member of the community. It is also known that he married Sara Peniall around 1605 and that they raised a large family. Upon his father's death Webster assumed the elder Webster's membership in the Merchant Taylors' Company. Scholars usually date Webster's own death around 1634, the year that Thomas Heywood referred to him in the past tense in his Hierarchie of the Blessed Angels.
Webster's career in the theater began with collaborative work for Philip Henslowe, a man perhaps best
known as the proprietor of London's Rose Theatre. Henslowe's Diary, which provides an invaluable view of English drama of the time, records in May 1602 that he paid Webster, Anthony Munday, Michael Drayton, Thomas Middleton, and Thomas Dekker for the now lost Caesar's Fall; or, The Two Shapes. In October 1602 Henslowe paid Webster, Dekker, Heywood, Henry Chettle, and Wentworth Smith for a play called Lady Jane. This work no longer survives and is considered by scholars to be an early version of Sir Thomas Wyat (1602), a history play by various hands. Also in October, Webster and Heywood were advanced money for a play called Christmas Comes But Once a Year. Although he appears to have had no further connections with Henslowe, Webster continued to collaborate on dramatic works, and towards the end of 1604 he and Dekker wrote Westward Ho, a scandalous city comedy of middle-class London life. This satire spurred John Marston, George Chapman, and Ben Jonson to respond with the even more scandalous Eastward Ho (1605). Dekker and Webster returned with Northward Ho in 1605, which many critics consider to be the better of the two Dekker-Webster comedies. Though there are there are no works attributed to Webster between 1605 and 1612, his prefatory remarks to The White Devil suggest that this was not an inactive period for him, and that he was engaged in a painstaking effort to create a dramatic masterpiece: "To those who report I was a long time in finishing this tragedy, I confess I do not write with a goose-quill, winged with two feathers."
Many scholars regard The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi as Webster's greatest dramatic accomplishments, with the dramatist's concerted effort at developing a tragic vision conceived in the former and fully realized in the latter. Both plays reflect the characteristic darkness and profound consciousness of evil that characterized the Jacobean period, an age that questioned the preceding Elizabethan era's belief that all social, political, and even spiritual relations were defined in an unchanging hierarchy. The suggestion that chaos lies beyond such order—glimpsed in Elizabethan dramas such as Shakespeare's King Lear—become increasingly explicit in Jacobean drama. In particular, English society grew steadily more concerned with Machiavellianism following the publication of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince (1513), which described politics as an amoral and ruthless striving to acquire and maintain power. The spread of such ideas contributed to the deterioration of faith in traditional values and fostered a general anxiety associated with societal disarray—the fear being that following the breakdown of order, people would drift aimlessly through a meaningless world.
The influence of this pessimistic worldview is evident in Webster's first independent work, The White Devil. Based on Italian historical events, the tragedy relates a complex tale of love, murder, and revenge, centering on the adulterous passion between the Duke of Brachiano and Vittoria Corombona, who plot the murders of their spouses. To avenge their sister's death, Brachiano's brothers-in-law subsequently assassinate the Duke and his mistress. At the center of this corrupt world is Flamineo, Vittoria's brother and secretary to Brachiano. Completely amoral and unscrupulous, he willingly performs any service necessary to satisfy his employer's passions, including murder and procuring his sister for Brachiano, while also functioning as a chorus figure in the play, cynically commenting on the action. Vittoria is a unique Jacobean heroine: although thoroughly corrupt, she is nonetheless sympathetic. Strong-willed and independent, she chooses to live in accordance with her own desires and eloquently acquits herself during the course of the play. As D.C. Gunby has observed, "Vittoria is a white devil, but she is also a brilliant and resourceful woman, beautiful, courageous and highly intelligent, and we cannot help responding to her with some sympathy and warmth." While acknowledging the poignancy of Webster's presentation of Vittoria, who struggles—albeit unsuccessfully—to control her own life, some critics maintain that the absence of any positive, truly moral figure makes the world presented in the play of one unrelieved bleakness. Like The White Devil, The Duchess of Malfi is based on Italian history. Against the wishes of her brothers, the widowed Duchess secretly marries beneath her position, to her servant Antonio. Suspicious of their sister's activities, the brothers—the fanatical Ferdinand and the scheming Cardinal—plant a spy, Bosola, in the Duchess's household. A character similar to Flamineo in The White Devil, Bosola is even more complex, vacillating between delight and a sense of degradation in his sinister role. When Bosola exposes the truth of the Duchess's marriage, her brothers ruthlessly harass her, drive her from her home, and eventually imprison and murder her. Scholars agree that the Duchess herself is one of the greatest tragic heroines of the period. Her attitude of Christian resignation in the face of her brothers' vicious cruelty and sexual obsession with her imbues her with a profound dignity, and the depiction of her murder is commonly judged as one of the most moving scenes in all Jacobean drama.
Scholars note a significant decline in Webster's dramaturgy following the composition of The Duchess of Malfi. Most agree that his next play, the tragicomic Devil's Law-Case (published in 1623) is the most difficult of Webster's works to assess, as its nearly incoherent plot involves a large number of shocking and absurd schemes, which preclude dramatic unity. Webster also contributed thirty-two character sketches to the sixth edition of Thomas Overbury's New and Choice Characters, of Several Authors (1615), and continued to collaborate on plays. Appius and Virginia, perhaps written with Heywood around 1634, is a Roman tragedy about the corrupt judge Appius who seeks to possess Virginia, the daughter of a famous general. Although admired by nineteenth-century critics for its classical simplicity of construction, this drama is not highly regarded by contemporary scholars. Other plays attributed either wholly or partially to Webster include the lost works The Guise and The Late Murder of the Son upon the Mother. He is also believed to have collaborated with Middleton on Anything for a Quiet Life (c. 1621) and with Rowley on A Cure for a Cuckhold (c. 1624-25).
Over the centuries Webster's critical reputation has fluctuated. From his own time to the present, some critics have praised the poetic brilliance of his tragic vision, while others have scorned his plays as confused and excessively violent. Webster's creative focus and self-confidence, however, did not allow his detractors' comments to dissuade him from his work. In his prefatory comments in The White Devil, for example, Webster expresses his dismay at the play's poor reception after its first performance, and attributes this to a failure not on his part, but on the part of the audience. To his peers, Webster was a slow, careful writer who "borrowed" lines from his fellow playwrights (not uncommon during the Jacobean era) and used them to create powerful scenes. While the great number of printings and revivals of Webster's plays during the seventeenth century attests to their continued popularity, in the eighteenth century his reputation was eclipsed by a growing interest in Shakespeare. Webster was known mainly to bibliographers and scholars who considered his plays scarcely more than period pieces, fine examples of the drama of the past with little to offer contemporary audiences. In 1808, however, Charles Lamb renewed interest in Webster's plays with an enthusiastic appreciation of them in his Specimens of English Dramatic Poets Who Lived about the Time of Shakespeare. The noted critic William Hazlitt subsequently commented that The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi "come the nearest to Shakespeare of any thing we have upon record." The first collected edition of Webster's works appeared in 1830, and the first nineteenth-century production of The Duchess of Malfi took place twenty years later. With this staging began a new phase of criticism: response to the play as acted. Critics of this period were sharply divided on the merit of Webster's works, with one group celebrating the poetic power of Webster's tragic vision, while the other attacked what they saw as absurd improbabilities, gross excesses, and episodic structures in the tragedies. William Archer, a member of the second group, argued that "Webster was not, in the special sense of the word, a great dramatist, but was a real great poet who wrote haphazard dramatic or melodramatic romances for an eagerly receptive but semi-barbarous public." In the twentieth century, debate continues regarding Webster's moral outlook, with critics who view it as fundamentally pessimistic outnumbering those who assert that the plays reveal a profound belief that personal integrity can be maintained in a chaotic universe. Evaluations of Webster's artistry have revealed an intricate relationship between dramatic structure, characterization, and imagery in his plays. Examining Webster's use of language, Clifford Leech observed that "Webster excels in the sudden flash, in the intuitive but often unsustained perception. At times he startles us by what may be called the 'Shakespearian' use of the common word."
Both lauded and maligned for centuries, the dramatic art of John Webster remains difficult to assess. While undeniably horrifying (T.S. Eliot once characterized the dramatist as a man "possessed by death"), his depictions of people struggling to make sense of their lives in an apparently meaningless world reveal a curiously modern sensibility. Margaret Loftus Ranald, for example, commented on Webster's "surprising" modernity regarding his treatment of feminine characters: "He is not afraid to portray women of power, whether evil … dignified and tragic … or manipulative," who "choose to take risks and in so doing they broaden the female horizons of the Jacobean era, while at the same time undermining norms of established behavior." The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi retain a vitality that continues to appeal to actors, audiences, and critics. That Webster's best works are still performed, read, and debated is perhaps the finest testament to his standing as a dramatist.
†Caesar's Fall; or, The Two Shapes [with Thomas Dekker, Michael Drayton, Thomas Middleton, and Anthony Munday] (drama) 1602
†Christmas Comes But Once A Year [with Chettle, Dekker, and Heywood] (drama) 1602
The Famous History of Sir Thomas Wyat. With the Coronation of Queen Mary, and the coming in of King Philip [with Chettle, Dekker, Heywood, and Smith] (drama) 1602
†Lady Jane [with Dekker, Henry Chettle, Thomas Heywood, and Wentworth Smith] (drama) 1602
Westward Ho [with Dekker] (drama) 1604
Northward Ho [with Dekker] (drama) 1605
The White Devil (drama) 1612
The Duchess Of Malfi (drama) 1614
†The Guise [date unknown]
The Devil's Law-Case (drama) c.1619-22
Anything for a Quiet Life [with Middleton and perhaps Webster] (drama) c.1621
†The Late Murder of the Son upon the Mother; or, Keep the Widow Waking [with Dekker, John Ford, and William Rowley] (drama) 1624
A Cure for a Cuckold [with Rowley] (drama) c.1624-25
Appius and Virginia: A Tragedy (drama) 1634
Other Major Works
Introduction to John Marston's The Malcontent 1604
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SOURCE: "The Case of John Webster," in Scrutiny, Vol. XVI, No. 1, March, 1949, pp. 38-43.
[In the excerpt below, Jack maintains that there is no correspondence between the moral axioms of "degree"—the hierarchical ordering of nature and society—and the Machiavellian life presented in Webster's drama. This disassociation, the critic maintains, is the dramatist's fundamental flaw.]
Distintegration characterizes the view of life which inspired Webster's best-known plays. It is perfectly true, as Dr. Tillyard remarks [in The Elizabethan World Picture], that Webster, like the rest of his age, inherited 'the Elizabethan world-picture'; but in his work we see that world-picture falling in ruins. When Dr. Tillyard goes on to say that Webster's characters belong 'to a world of violent crime and violent change, of sin, blood and repentance, yet to a world loyal to a theological scheme', and adds: 'indeed all the violence of Elizabethan drama has nothing to do with a dissolution of moral standards: on the contrary, it can afford to indulge itself just because those standards were so powerful', he is overlooking the highly significant differences between Elizabethan drama and Jacobean drama, and uttering a dangerous half-truth. No doubt there is a definite 'theological scheme' behind Webster, in the sense that it was familiar to his audience and himself, and could therefore be drawn on for imagery; but...
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SOURCE: "Webster as a Dramatic Poet," in John Webster: A Critical Study, The Hogarth Press, 1951, pp. 90-119.
[In the following excerpt, Leech examines how the behavioral inconsistencies and motivational inadequacies of Webster's characters appear to adversely affect "the scene-unit and …momentary dramatic effect" of the dramatist's collaborative efforts. The critic contrasts Webster's later works with the more consistent composition of The Duchess of Malfi and The White Devil and concludes that although uneven, his "unequal masterpieces" are redeemed in performance.]
In A Cure for a Cuckold, written about 1625, Webster presents us with a strange piece of motivation. The play opens with the wedding of Bonvile and Annabel, but the first characters we meet are Lessingham and Clare. Lessingham has long loved Clare, though his wooing has been without reward. Now he presses her to be kinder, and she promises to send him a message indicating how he may succeed. When it comes, it reads:
Prove all thy friends, finde out the best and nearest,
Kill for my sake that Friend that loves thee dearest.
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SOURCE: "The 'Impure Art' of John Webster," in The Review of English Studies, Vol. IX, No. 35, August, 1958, pp. 253-67.
[In the following excerpt, Ekeblad closely examines Webster's dramatic technique in The Duchess of Malfi, focusing on his method of mixing unrealistic...
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SOURCE: An introduction to The Duchess of Malfi by John Webster, edited by John Russell Brown, 1623. Reprint by Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964, pp. xvii-lix.
[In the following excerpt, Brown discusses The Duchess of Malfi's structure, language, dramatic characterization, and moral perspective.]
"I hold it, in these kind of Poems with that of Horace: Sapientia prima, stultitia caruisse; to bee free from those vices, which proceed from ignorance; of which I take it, this Play will ingeniously acquit it selfe."
Webster's introduction to The Devil's Law Case will serve for his earlier tragedy. The Duchess is skilfully and meticulously contrived; like a Pygmalion's image, it has been almost killed by being cherished too much.
Artfully the characters have been made to reflect upon each other. Julia with the cardinal and Delio in Act II and with Bosola in Act V, where she is the 'great woman of pleasure' who would court a man 'in the street', invites comparison with the duchess who also loves in private and woos for herself. Julia then dies with a resolution which denies second thoughts, a contrast to Antonio, Ferdinand, Bosola, closer to the cardinal; and these contrasts are pointed by dying speeches. If Julia were omitted from the play, none of the...
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SOURCE: "Webster," in Jacobean Dramatic Perspectives, The University Press of Virginia, 1972, pp. 97-111.
[Here, Kirsch explains that though Webster's two famous tragedies share similar subject matter, methods, and devices, The Duchess of Malfi distinguishes itself from The White Devil as it combines these things "to form a unified play which provides us with at least an approach to a cohesive experience rather than with a...
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SOURCE: "The World Within," in The World's Perspective: John Webster and the Jacobean Drama, Rutgers University Press, 1983, pp. 189-200.
[In the following excerpt, Bliss examines Webster's "unheroic" protagonists, focusing on their relationship to society and comparing them with the more traditional, heroic protagonists depicted in the tragedies of Shakespeare and Chapman. He comments: "Webster is an important, yet still transitional figure in drama's waning concern with the public consequences of those private relations that mold both the protagonist and the society he influences."]
Webster himself invited comparison with his most famous contemporaries, and if I have not strictly followed the list that prefaces The White Devil, I hope this attempt to read Webster in his chosen context has helped clarify his involvement in some of the most exciting dramatic developments of his period. Old-fashioned neither in form nor content, both Webster's moral attitudes and his experimental dramaturgy grow out of the social, philosophic, and artistic concerns that dominated his best contemporaries' work. His apprenticeship, if not his maturity, was served in the explosive first decade of the seventeenth century, a period of intense, competitive interaction between public and private theaters as well as between individual dramatists; his later, unaided work draws on such generic experimentation and its...
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SOURCE: "The White Devil and the Aesthetics of Chaos," in Skull Beneath the Skin: The Achievement of John Webster, Southern Illinois University Press, 1986, pp. 254-95.
[In the following excerpt, Forker details how Webster's intermingling of several dramatic conventions (particularly Shakespearean) in The White Devil "produced a hybrid genre that not only allowed love to be pitted against death in the most violent and terrifying fashion but could be made to promote unsettling doubts about the validity and safety of romantic emotion itself"]
It has been customary to classify Webster's two Italian tragedies as revenge plays. Certainly they possess many of the expected features—smouldering hatreds, intricate stratagems that recoil upon their inventors, sensational cruelty, courtly depravity, madness (real, feigned, or both), a tone of cynical bitterness and gloom, and, perhaps most importantly, an obsession with mortality. T. S. Eliot [in his poem "Whispers of Immortality"] evokes our popular image of Webster as a dramatist who "was much possessed by death / And saw the skull beneath the skin." But both plays are equally tragedies of love, plays about romantic passion struggling to create and maintain its world of emotional intensity and sexual fulfillment in the face of hypocrisy, malice, brutality, and Machiavellian power. Webster's special contribution to the development of tragic...
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SOURCE: "Tragedy," in Women and Gender in Renaissance Tragedy: A Study of King Lear, Othello, The Duchess of Malfi, and The White Devil, Humanities Press International, Inc., 1989, pp. 49-73.
[In the excerpt below, Callaghan contends that traditional "masculinist" criticism has erroneously focused on the dramatist's "defective dramaturgy" rather than "regarding Webster's play as a demonstration of certain flaws in the critical construction of tragedy," particularly those associated with the roles for women.]
The critical preoccupations surrounding Webster's plays have been those of structural coherence, and moral vision (or lack of it). John Russell Brown writes in a critical commentary on The White Devil [in his 1979 edition of Webster's work]: 'By borrowing some structural devices from chronicle plays, Webster was bound to lose something of the concentration which is often considered a hallmark of tragedy; but apparently this was not considered a fault in his eyes, for these devices are repeated in The Duchess of Malfi.' Webster, Brown goes on to argue, 'presents a series of related and contrasted figures, not a single hero'; hence John Russell Brown's argument for 'loss of concentration'. Criticism, however, has also shown a marked tendency to regard the centrality of the female protagonist in itself as a structural flaw. So, for Gunnar Boklund [as expressed in his The Sources...
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SOURCE: "Winding and Indirect: Nonlinear Development," in A Winter's Snake: Dramatic Forms in the Tragedies of John Webster, The University of Georgia Press, 1989, pp. 1-28.
[Below, Luckyj explores how Webster's repetition of large dramatic action sequences in The White Devil and in The Duchess of Malfi "allows [each] play's simple linear progression to be de-emphasized and its central experience explored and intensified, " providing at the climactic center of each tragedy, "a clear and sustained dramatic experience [that] incarnates the play's central paradox."]
[Bernard] Beckerman [in his Shakespeare at the Globe, 1599-1609, 1962] points out that the "climax" of a Shakespearean play is usually a sustained sequence of repeated, intensified episodes; in Coriolanus, for example, Coriolanus's struggle with the tribunes occurs not once but twice. In Othello, the triumph of Othello and Desdemona over the obstacle of parental opposition in the first act is replayed in their survival of the storm in the second act. The basic pattern of the first two acts is then repeated in the third act: twice Iago and Roderigo rouse the citizens with the bell; twice Othello is confronted with an important challenge. The first time, Othello and Desdemona stand united against an angry and jealous father; the second time, however, distrust and suspicion grow not between parent and child but...
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SOURCE "The Duchess of Malfi," in Webster and Ford, Macmillan Press, Ltd., 1995, pp. 52-71.
[In the following excerpt, Wymer, in the light of modern adaptations of The Duchess of Malfi, analyzes Webster's characterizations, psychology of the dramatic situations, and treatment of suffering and death within the play.]
Webster's second tragedy repeats and reworks many of the situations, themes, characters, images and even individual lines from The White Devil. Once more we find ourselves in a sixteenth-century Italian court where the ruthlessness of great men and the corrupt authority of the Catholic church—a linkage vividly dramatised by the Cardinal's exchange of his ecclesiastical robes for armour—combine to crush any possibilities of healthy or honest existence. Once more there is the close scrutiny of how men and women meet their deaths, as if only in their final extremity can their value be truly known. The similarities between the two plays are such that many critical generalisations about Webster fail to make any real distinction between his two masterpieces. Yet any analysis should begin by acknowledging the much greater emotional range of The Duchess of Malfi, a difference largely brought about by the introduction of a protagonist with whom the audience can more easily sympathise. The explosive cynicism and violence of The White Devil is still present but is...
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Allison, Alexander W. "Ethical Themes in The Duchess of Malfi." Studies in English Literature 4, No. 2 (Spring 1964): 263-73.
Examines the designs of the plot structure and patterns of character relationships in The Duchess of Malfi, within a larger ethical scope in order to clarify several of the play's misunderstood ethical themes.
Brooke, Nicholas. "The White Devil" and "The Duchess of Malfi." In Horrid Laughter in Jacobean Tragedy, pp. 28-47, 48-69. London: Open Books Publishing Ltd., 1979.
Examines how Webster's use of various modes of laughter in The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi clearly conveys the pain and violence that the plays present in both a moral and social context.
Camoin, François André. "Webster." In The Revenge Convention in Tourner, Webster, and Middleton, edited by Dr. James Hogg, pp. 64-91. Salzburg: Institut Für Englische Sprache und Literatur Universität Salsburg, 1972.
Analyzes Webster's non-traditional, yet innovative use of the revenge convention in The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi.
Champion, Larry S. "Webster—The White Devil, The Duchess of Malfi." In Tragic Patterns in Jacobean and...
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