Reynolds, John Hamilton
John Hamilton Reynolds 1794-1852
English poet, satirist, critic, and playwright.
Reynolds is best remembered as a close friend and correspondent of the Romantic poet John Keats, whose letters to Reynolds constitute a significant body of his poetic thought. At the time of their friendship, however, Reynolds was regarded as a poet with as much promise and talent as Keats himself. He published widely in literary periodicals, and his critical writings reveal a discriminating appreciation of poetry, particularly in his admiration for William Wordsworth at a time when the elder poet was not widely respected. While Reynolds became successful as a satirist later in his career, the poetic talent heralded by Lord Byron and Leigh Hunt remained unfulfilled.
Reynolds was born in Shrewsbury to George Reynolds and Charlotte Cox Reynolds. His father was a school teacher; his mother was related to the Hamilton family (from which Reynolds received his middle name), which included the Gothic writer William Beckford. Reynolds attended the Shrewsbury school where his father taught, then enrolled at St. Paul's in London when the family moved in 1806. He graduated from St. Paul's in 1810, completing his formal education. He took a junior clerkship in an insurance office, the Amicable Society for Perpetual Insurance, working there at least through 1816. In the meantime, he pursued his self-education by reading widely in classical and English literature and also began writing poetry. He was encouraged in his literary interests by his friend John F. M. Dovaston, a former student of Reynolds's father. Reynolds's first published poem, “Ode to Friendship, Inscribed to J. F. M. Dovaston of West Felton,” appeared in Gentleman's Magazine in 1812. He continued publishing poems and articles in such periodicals as Repository of Literature, Arts, and Sciences, Gentleman's Magazine, and Ladies' Museum, then released his first major work, the long poem Safie; An Eastern Tale, in 1814. Only twenty years old at the time, Reynolds received favorable notice from a number of critics and poets, including Lord Byron, whose work Reynolds had closely imitated. Later that year, he published The Eden of Imagination, this time imitating Wordsworth, who also encouraged the younger writer. He published these poems under the auspices of his friend John Martin, who also hired Reynolds as a poetry editor for the Inquirer. In 1815 Reynolds moved on to the Champion, where he was the literary and theater editor until 1817. Both journals provided Reynolds with a ready forum for his poetry, literary criticism, and theater reviews. With the publication of The Naiad: A Tale. With Other Poems in 1816, Reynolds took a step forward in his poetry by moving away from purely imitative efforts. Also during this period, Reynolds became associated with a literary circle formed around a family of young women in Devon. Mary, Sarah, and Thomasine Leigh often entertained Reynolds's friends Benjamin Bailey and James Rice, and Reynolds joined the group sometime in 1815. The friends warmly encouraged Reynolds as the true poet of the group, which spent hours together writing, copying verses, and discussing poetry. His friend Leigh Hunt also supported his writing and introduced him to another young poet Hunt greatly admired, the then unknown John Keats. Keats and Reynolds became fast friends, encouraging and challenging each other in their quest for literary recognition. In 1816, Reynolds took the bold step of leaving his clerkship to live solely by his writing. This endeavor was short lived, and by late 1817 Reynolds began practicing law when his friend Rice took him on as a partner in his father's firm. Biographers speculate that Reynolds's decision was motivated by his plans to marry Eliza Powell Drewe and the need to set up a household with a reliable income. Nevertheless, he continued writing and published Peter Bell, a parody of Wordsworth, in 1819; The Fancy in 1820; and The Garden of Florence and Other Poems, the fruit of his friendship with Keats, in 1821. He also wrote for several periodicals, including the Yellow Dwarf, London Magazine, Edinburgh Magazine, and the Edinburgh Review. After a lengthy engagement, he married Eliza Drewe in 1822, which led to a friendship and literary collaboration with her brother-in-law, Thomas Hood. Together the two wrote several comic and satirical pieces, signed and unsigned, the most popular of which was Odes and Addresses to Great People (1825). This was Reynolds's last publication in book form during his lifetime. He began writing non-literary prose for the magazine Athenaeum and produced a handful of theatrical scripts. Money was becoming a problem, as his attention to his primary career, the law, was sporadic at best, and tragedy struck in 1835 when his ten-year-old daughter Lucy died. He was bankrupt in 1838 but continued eking out a small income writing for Bentley's Miscellany, the New Monthly, and other magazines. In 1847, Reynolds gave up the law completely and subsequently moved to the Isle of Wight to work as an assistant clerk in a county court. Most biographical accounts suggest that at this point in his life Reynolds was depressed and drinking heavily, although he was not without friends and admirers to the end. He died in Newport on the Isle of Wight in 1852.
Reynolds best known poetic works are derivative of the canonical poets of his age. Chief among these is Peter Bell, a parody of a poem by Wordsworth. As a lyric poet, Reynolds was indebted to Wordsworth, and his comic mockery of the greater author demonstrates that he was not an unthinking or uncritical admirer. His parody exaggerated the least appealing aspects of Wordsworth's poetry, particularly his expressions of self-satisfaction and his romanticizing of the lower classes. Peter Bell was a tremendous success for Reynolds when it was first published and continues to be his most widely read work. His other satirical works, particularly The Fancy and Odes and Addresses, also won the favor of contemporary audiences, but their subjects—obscure figures in London society and sports—are generally too topical to allow modern readers to enjoy them. A number of critics and scholars have advocated that greater attention be given to Reynolds's serious poetry, which has been overshadowed by his association with his close friend Keats and by his imitations of Wordsworth. His strongest collections are The Eden of the Imagination, which owed much to Wordsworth's An Evening Walk, and The Garden of Florence. The latter collection features one of Reynolds's best serious poems, “Devon,” a reflection on his time among the Rice-Bailey-Leigh circle. The Garden of Florence also contains “The Romance of Youth,” a poem written during his intense collaboration with Keats, marking the high point of Reynolds's ambitions to be a serious poet. A prolific periodical contributor, Reynolds did not make a lasting name for himself as a prose writer, although he proved to be an astute and witty literary critic. Two 1816 essays from the Champion stand out: “The Pilgrimage of Living Poets to the Stream of Castaly” and “Boswell's Visit.” Reynolds also wrote a series of fictitious letters on current events for London Magazine from 1820 to 1824. The letters of “Edward Herbert” were extremely popular in their time, even if, like most journalistic writing, they now hold little interest for any but the most serious scholars. Reynolds's personal correspondence remains his most significant contribution to literature, not for its own intrinsic merit but for Reynolds's ability to illuminate the lives of Keats and other writers of the time.
Early reviews of Reynolds's works predict the position he would eventually occupy in literary history: a poet of great potential that was never realized. Critics of Safie and The Naiad were quick to point out Reynolds's failures of imagination and poetic craft, but they did so while encouraging the poet to improve upon his faults and publish again. With some exceptions, modern critics have focused primarily on the Keats connection. One of Reynolds's first twentieth-century champions was George L. Marsh, who also edited a collected edition of Reynolds's works. Marsh identified several unsigned periodical contributions as those of Reynolds, and through his research was able to pull together several details of Reynolds's biography. His assessment of Reynolds's career suggests that although Reynolds was inconsistent as a poet, the body of criticism, satire, and poetry he produced have earned him a literary ranking higher than that of merely “Keats's close friend.” In the second half of the twentieth century, the scholar Leonidas M. Jones published multiple studies heralding the importance of Reynolds in the study of early nineteenth-century literature. Jones completed the work of Marsh, releasing a full biography of Reynolds as well as a collection of Reynolds's letters, further detailing the portrait of Reynolds as a central figure in the literary scene of his time. Both Jones and John Barnard have also argued that although Keats was perhaps the greater talent, the influence and encouragement of Reynolds was a factor in Keats's artistic development. Despite the assertions of Marsh and Jones that Reynolds deserves to be more highly esteemed for his own works, comparatively little scholarship exists that does not emphasize either Reynolds's artistic ties to Wordsworth or his friendship with Keats, and his correspondence continues to receive at least as much attention as his best literary writings.
The Eden of Imagination (poetry) 1814
Safie; An Eastern Tale (poetry) 1814
The Naiad: A Tale. With Other Poems (poetry) 1816
One, Two, Three, Four, Five; By Advertisement (play) 1819
Peter Bell. Lyrical Ballad [as W. W.] (satire) 1819
The Fancy (satire) 1820
The Garden of Florence and Other Poems (poetry) 1821
Gil Blas (play) 1822
The Youthful Days of Mr. Mathews (play) 1822
Odes and Addresses to Great People (satire) 1825
Miss Kelly's New Entertainment Entitled Dramatic Recollections (play) 1833
Confounded Foreigners (play) 1838
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SOURCE: Review of Safie; An Eastern Tale. Monthly Review 75 (September 1814): 60-5.
[In the following essay, the reviewer praises the talent Reynolds demonstrates in his first major work but faults the poet for too closely imitating Lord Byron.]
We believe that this is Mr. Reynolds's first appearance at our tribunal, and we congratulate him on that introduction being sanctioned by a dedication to Lord Byron, whose style and manner it appears to be his principal aim to copy. If with the style and expression the noble Lord's genius and power of thought could be successfully attained, no object could be more worthy of a young author's ambition: but it must never be forgotten that originality is of itself one primary constituent of genius, and that the most successful copy can never be equal to its original. The finishing may even be higher, the colouring brighter, the effect in every respect more laboured and complete: but the want of freedom and boldness will of itself give a character of inferiority. The very defects and inequalities of genius are essential to its existence, though a copyist would justly deem it wrong to adopt them. Unfortunately, however, some defects are so easily caught, that an imitation generally preserves more of the faults than the beauties of its prototype; and this is precisely the case with the little work before us. The style of declamation, the abrupt and...
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SOURCE: Review of The Naiad: A Tale. With Other Poems. British Critic 8 (October 1817): 415-20.
[In the following essay, the reviewer admires the story, imagination, and versification of The Naiad, but suggests that Reynolds falters by adopting Wordsworth as his model.]
This is really a pleasing little poem; the story of it is tastefully chosen, and told with lightness; the descriptions which it contains are given in a wild and fanciful manner, and in a versification which, though unequal, is upon the whole agreeably tuned. We could indeed wish that these merits were not so often thrown into the shade, by prettynesses, and simplenesses, and sillinesses, and all those other childish affectations, which the imitators of Mr. Wordsworth are so apt to suppose inseparable from the other qualities of his poetry; and, but that the present is, we imagine, our poet's first appearance before our tribunal, we should perhaps feel disposed to be less lenient than we intend to be. We should be sorry to discourage an author of promise, even though his merits may possibly be only of a subordinate quality; more especially when, as in the present instance, his faults are not inherent in his genius, but merely the accidental fruits of having injudiciously chosen his model. We do not mean to say, generally, that Mr. Wordsworth is an improper model of poetry; though unquestionably he will be found a very...
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SOURCE: Marsh, George L. Introduction to John Hamilton Reynolds: Poetry and Prose, pp. 9-48. London: Humphrey Milford, 1928.
[In the following excerpt, Marsh characterizes Reynolds as a writer whose taste in poetry exceeded his talent.]
The rocket-like career of John Hamilton Reynolds has in it much that is puzzling, or at best uncertain; much that is pathetic, verging on the tragic. Here is one who at nineteen attracted Byron's attention as a clever young disciple; who at twenty-two was bracketed with Shelley and Keats as one of the young men destined to carry forward the torch of English poetry, and became thenceforth one of the closest and most intimate friends and correspondents of Keats. Later, though he had become a solicitor, he was associated with Lamb, De Quincey, Hazlitt, Hood, and lesser lights on the staff of the most brilliant magazine of the day, and he continued intermittently to maintain relations with important literary men in a divided allegiance between law and literature. Yet, for reasons that we only partly know and partly guess, he failed to justify the promise of his youth and gradually dropped from notice, dying at fifty-eight—a disappointed, prematurely old man, after some years of exile in the Isle of Wight—an exile, it is to be feared, painfully resembling that of Burns at Dumfries.
Shrewsbury was his birthplace; September 9, 1794, the date; thus he was a...
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SOURCE: Morgan, Peter F. “John Hamilton Reynolds and Thomas Hood.” Keats-Shelley Journal 11 (winter 1962): 83-95.
[In the following essay, Morgan discusses the literary collaboration of Reynolds with his brother-in-law Thomas Hood.]
In this paper I intend to give a chronological account of the relationship between Keats's friend, John Hamilton Reynolds, and Thomas Hood, bringing to light aspects of their careers not dealt with in previous studies.1
In June 1821, soon after becoming an assistant to Taylor and Hessey in editing their London Magazine, Hood became acquainted with Reynolds, who had for some time been a contributor to it. On 2 November Taylor wrote to John Clare, “I hope you will like our old Friend Peter in his new Capacity of Shewman of the City Lions as the Curiosities of this great Capital are called—There is another Peter who resembles him so much as to be sometimes taken for his Brother, his name is Incog. but you shall see him when you come.”2 “Our old Friend Peter” was “Peter Corcoran,” the author of The Fancy, that is, Reynolds, and “Incog.,” Hood, two of whose contributions in the November London, for example, were followed by this abbreviation; it appears that they were both contributing to the often facetious editorial “Lion's Head.”
The two attended the Magazine dinner on 6...
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SOURCE: Jones, Leonidas M. “Reynolds and Rice in Defence of Patmore.” Keats-Shelley Memorial Bulletin 21 (1970): 12-20.
[In the following essay, Jones relates the details of a legal case that illuminates both Reynolds's career as an attorney and the intense rivalries among the periodicals for which Reynolds often wrote.]
Charles Brown wrote to Keats on 21 December 1820: ‘I know you don't like John Scott, but he is doing a thing that tickles me to the heart's core, and you will like to hear of it, if you have any revenge in your composition. By some means (crooked enough I dare say) he has got possession of one of Blackwood's gang, who has turned King's evidence, and month after month he belabours them with the most damning facts that can be conceived;—if they are indeed facts, I know not how the rogues can stand up against them’.1
Brown's guesses were shrewd. Scott had in effect secured ‘possession of one of Blackwood's’ former regular contributors, Peter George Patmore, though there was nothing ‘crooked’ in engaging him. After a succession of protests in letters to Blackwood's against its scandalous abuse, Patmore had shifted his allegiance to the London Magazine and had grown so close to Scott that he planned to become assistant editor. Brown was also astute in anticipating that an editor of Blackwood's could not endure Scott's attacks....
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SOURCE: Jones, Leonidas M. Introduction to The Letters of John Hamilton Reynolds, pp. ix-xxxvi. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
[In the following excerpt, Jones presents an overview of Reynolds's literary career.]
JOHN HAMILTON REYNOLDS AND THE KEATS CIRCLE
John Hamilton Reynolds's father's family background entitled him to his place as a member of the Cockney school of English poetry. His great-grandfather, Thomas Reynolds, was a tanner of Tottenham, and his grandfather, Noble Reynolds, a barber of the same parish.1 His father, George, after attending Christ's Hospital from 1774 to 1779, taught school for most of his long life in London at the Lambeth Boys Parochial School, the Lambeth Female Asylum, and at Christ's Hospital, though from the early 1790s until about 1806 he left the city to teach at Shrewsbury School. Active in his profession, he was a specialist in the Bell system of education, who was once sent by Christ's Hospital to introduce the plan at Hertford School, and he published six school books,2 one of which the Edinburgh Review listed in the same announcement of new books as Keats's Endymion.3 In his family life, however, he was quiet and unassertive; Keats does not mention him even once during all the time he visited in his houses. His son delicately refrained from informing him when he interceded to try...
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SOURCE: Jones, Leonidas M. “Reynolds' ‘The Romance of Youth,’ Hazlitt, and Keats's The Fall of Hyperion.” English Language Notes 16, no. 4 (June 1979): 294-300.
[In the following essay, Jones compares poems by Reynolds and Keats, noting their similarities and arguing that Reynolds's work came first.]
Noting the marked similarity between Keats's encounter with Moneta in The Fall of Hyperion and Reynolds' poet's confrontation with the visionary female in “The Romance of Youth,” Robert Gittings suggested that Reynolds' passage was a rather tame and pale echo of the intense and poetically charged imagery of his great friend.1 Since “The Romance of Youth” was not published until May 1821, that is the normal inference which anyone would make faced by the apparently earlier composition of Keats's poem. But Gittings could not know of Clayton E. Hudnall's revelation in his excellent study of the Leigh Browne-Lockyer Collection that in January 1817 Reynolds copied into commonplace books Stanzas 30, 31, 35, 92, and 93 of “The Romance of Youth,” as well as two partial stanzas that were not published.2
Hudnall's revelation, combined with Reynolds' prose introduction to the published poem, shows that Reynolds had almost certainly completed his fragment before Keats began The Fall. Reynolds reports in his introduction that “The plan of this...
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SOURCE: Jones, Leonidas M. “The Champion—1816-1817.” In The Life of John Hamilton Reynolds, pp. 80-96. Hanover, Vt: University Press of New England, 1984.
[In the following essay, Jones highlights Reynolds's years as a literary critic writing for Champion.]
Before beginning an account of his friendship with Keats, it will be well to consider what Reynolds's prose in the Champion reveals about his reading, critical views, and intellect. When he joined the staff of the weekly newspaper in December 1815, he could read Latin and Italian, and he had taught himself a little Greek. His wide reading in English literature in the five years after he left St. Paul's School, done in the evenings after work between dinner and midnight, was systematic and thorough enough to prepare him to be an informed critic.
His knowledge of English literature began with Chaucer, whose most striking achievement, he believed, was vividness in describing external nature: “A leaf is described by him so clearly, that its crispness and glossy greenness come directly before the sight.”1 He valued especially Chaucer's ability to portray “internal feelings as connected with external nature”; instead of merely observing a landscape, the reader caught the mood and entered into the feelings of the author. Chaucer's most characteristic mood was happiness, and descriptions of the morning,...
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SOURCE: Barnard, John. “Keats's ‘Robin Hood’, John Hamilton Reynolds, and the ‘Old Poets.’” Proceedings of the British Academy 75 (1989): 181-200.
[In the following essay, Barnard discusses Keats's debt to Reynolds as evidenced by the former's Robin Hood poems.]
Much of this lecture will be taken up with an exposition of the important letter which Keats sent, with two accompanying poems, to John Hamilton Reynolds on Tuesday, 3 February 1818. Two larger points are involved. First, Keats's individual letters, even more perhaps than has been realized, need to be read in the fullest possible assembly of the texts, both prose and poetic, which generate them, and with attention to their effect on subsequent Keatsian texts. In the case of the letter to Reynolds this evidence happens to be particularly fully preserved. Second, Keats's own unsure taste, coupled with that of the poetry reading public's, was further enforced by the vulnerability of a youthful writer faced by the achievements of his older contemporaries. Keats's letters to Reynolds at this particular point in his development provided an insulated space for exploration and ‘private’ experiment. The letter to Reynolds is, like all of Keats's most important letters, a private locus in which different texts compete with one another. In that space Keats's own poetic texts already have an audience of one, but they can hardly...
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Marsh, George L. “The Writings of Keats's Friend Reynolds.” Studies in Philology 25, no. 4 (1928): 491-510.
Chronological lists of Reynolds publications, including uncollected poems and essays.
Jones, Leonidas M. The Life of John Hamilton Reynolds. Hanover, Vt.: University Press of New England, 1984, 371 p.
Provides a critical biography.
Clarke, Micael. “A Mystery Solved: Ainsworth's Criminal Romances Censured in Fraser's by J. Hamilton Reynolds, Not Thackeray.” Victorian Periodicals Review 23, no. 2 (summer 1990): 50-4.
Argues that an unsigned review of William Harrison Ainsworth's novel Jack Sheppard was written by Reynolds.
Clubbe, John. “The Reynolds-Dovaston Correspondence.” Keats-Shelley Journal 30 (1981): 152-81.
Reprints letters from a young Reynolds to his friend John Dovaston that reveal Reynold's early interests and thoughts on writing.
Gittings, Robert. “The Poetry of John Hamilton Reynolds.” Ariel 1, no. 4 (October 1970): 7-17.
Evaluates Reynolds's poetic career and suggests that a lack of self-confidence ultimately prevented the poet from fulfilling his early potential....
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