Clare, John (Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)
John Clare 1793-1864
English poet and prose writer. See also John Clare Poetry Criticism.
While there is no consensus among critics as to the relationship between his poetry and that of his predecessors and contemporaries, Clare is regarded by many critics as one of the foremost English nature poets. Inspired by the countryside in which he grew up, Clare wrote poetry filled with vivid and exact descriptions of rural life and scenery. Though he published only four books during his lifetime—Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery (1820); The Village Minstrel, and Other Poems (1821); The Shepherd's Calendar; With Village Stories, and Other Poems (1827); and The Rural Muse (1835)—Clare produced a body of work that has continued to be collected by numerous editors well into the latter half of the twentieth century. Much of the history of Clare criticism has been dominated by two varying approaches: while some commentators define his importance with reference to the tradition of eighteenth-century descriptive verse, others emphasize the Romantic qualities of his poetry. Modern scholars have also focused on the voices and styles of his “pre-asylum” verse as well as his “asylum” writings—which he composed during his more than twenty years of confinement in an insane asylum—and have argued the relative merits of each.
The son of Parker and Ann Stimson Clare, both impoverished farm laborers, Clare was born on July 13, 1793, in the rural village of Helpston, Northamptonshire, England, approximately eighty miles north of London. Because he had to work on the farm to help support his family, Clare attended school only three months a year, and his formal education ended when he was fourteen. He later studied at a night school and continued his education informally with other young men in the area. Although access to books was not easy, Clare read widely, including Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Izaak Walton's The Compleat Angler, both of which he counted among his favorites. As great an influence as these works were on Clare, though, the works of eighteenth-century descriptive poet James Thomson, particularly Thomson's Seasons, were even more so. Seasons, which Clare purchased when he was thirteen, inspired him to write his own poetry and strongly shaped his method of presenting the English countryside in his verses. Soon thereafter, to further support his family, Clare obtained employment at a local inn; there he met and fell in love with Mary Joyce, the daughter of a wealthy farmer. Although Mary's father quickly broke off the relationship because of her suitor's inferior social status, the memory of his first love never left Clare, and she became the subject of many of his love poems.
In 1818, Clare attempted to publish a volume of poems by subscription; though this attempt failed, the effort led him to meet Edward Drury, a local bookseller and cousin of John Taylor, the London publisher of John Keats and William Hazlitt. After reading Clare's poetry, Taylor agreed to publish his work without first soliciting subscriptions—the result was Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, which was a popular success. Some of the more enthusiastic reviews contained pleas for financial support for Clare, and he found himself the recipient of a small annuity, which allowed him in 1820 to marry Martha Turner, whom he had met sometime earlier. Clare's next two volumes of poetry, however, did not enjoy the same success. By the time The Village Minstrel was published, the demand for rural verse had subsided and the book sold poorly. His third collection, The Shepherd's Calendar, was met with the same cool response as The Village Minstrel.
During this period, Clare was struggling to support his growing family on his annuity and sporadic income from gardening and fieldwork. In 1832, a benevolent patron, Lord Fitzwilliam, provided Clare's family with a larger home in Northborough, but this departure from the countryside of Helpston caused Clare a great deal of grief, which became the subject of two poems, “Decay” and “The Flitting.” Clare's fourth volume of poetry, The Rural Muse, was published in 1835 and, like his previous two books, was a failure. By this time, Clare's mental health had deteriorated; he began to experience delusions that he was the poet Lord Byron or the famous boxer Jack Randall, and that Mary Joyce was his first wife, while Martha Turner was his second. In 1837, he was confined to a private asylum in Essex, from which he escaped after four years. He returned to Northborough for five months, during which time he completed two long poems with titles borrowed from Lord Byron: “Don Juan” and “Child Harold.” Though his physical health improved, his delusions persisted, and in 1841 he was taken to the Northampton General County Lunatic Asylum. While there he wrote incessantly, but only a few of the poems he produced appeared in contemporary journals and newspapers. He died in relative obscurity at the Northampton Asylum in 1864, twenty-three years after his incarceration.
Clare's first book, Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, includes a wide range of poetic themes, forms, and styles. Many of the poems are indicative of the direction his poetry was to take, introducing autobiographical elements and personal concerns such as the preservation of nature and the right of even the “uneducated” to have a poetic sensibility. The book met with a great deal of popular success, going through four editions and selling three thousand copies in its first year. The poems in The Village Minstrel also engage a variety of styles and subjects, but the general theme governing the book is the value of country sports and customs, with changes to the landscape and the economy as a result of the enclosure of previously common lands providing a complementary theme. The plight of the gypsies commands attention too, as it does in much of Clare's work. The sonnets of this volume demonstrate that Clare's experimentation in the form was already leading him toward his own distinctive style. Among the conventional addresses to personified abstractions such as Poverty, Hope, or Life, are scattered more concrete descriptive verses. “Summer Tints,” for example, comprises only one sentence, as do many of Clare's later, more accomplished sonnets. Inspired by Edmund Spenser, Clare's third collection, The Shepherd's Calendar, is a series of poems celebrating the months of the year. This picture of rural life relies on the rhythm of agricultural labor and the progress of the seasons. The reader's interest is sustained by the wealth of detail and by the variety of literary devices used to convey it. Each month displays its own structure: some are more narrative than others, some are apostrophes, others pictures of a typical day's activities in the month. Each has its own form of verse, too. Although many of them employ couplets, several—notably “February,” “April,” “November,” and “December”—have more intricate rhyme schemes and clearly defined stanzas.
The last of his works to be published during his lifetime, The Rural Muse is a collection of songs and what Clare called ballads (though as William Howard, writing in The Dictionary of Literary Biography, has pointed out, these are really narrative songs which did not attempt to imitate the traditional ballad); eighty-five sonnets; and several longer autobiographical poems. While institutionalized, Clare continued to write in a prolific manner, though only a few of his works were published in contemporary journals and newspapers. Most notable among these writings is the Lord Byron-influenced poem “Child Harold,” which consists of seventy-seven nine-line stanzas which are at times descriptive and at other times contemplative, interspersed with twenty-five lyrical outbursts variously labeled as songs or ballads. The subject broached in the opening line—“Real poets must be truly honest men”—is explored in the stanzas.
Clare's work received, and continues to receive, a wide range of critical responses. The publication of Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery was met with popular success, but mixed reviews. John Taylor, Clare's publisher, wrote the introduction to Poems, emphasizing the poverty-stricken conditions under which most of the poems had been written, and many modern critics argue that this played a large part in determining the immediate critical response to the book. Many contemporary reviewers were patronizing, criticizing Clare's grammatical inaccuracies and provincial expressions. John Gibson Lockhart, writing in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, while not overtly critical of Poems, expressed some doubt as to Clare's poetic “genius,” claiming that the “Northamptonshire peasant” had been the subject of some “enormous puffing” with regard to this reputation. Some reviewers, however, were so enthusiastic regarding Clare's work that they petitioned readers for financial support for him. Released just a year later, The Village Minstrel met with even fewer positive reviews. Ignoring advice from Taylor that he “elevate his views” in order to appeal to a wider audience, Clare continued to write about village and farming life, often utilizing the dialect of the region. Many critics found fault with his stylistic innovations. In the November 1, 1821, issue of The Monthly Magazine (London), a reviewer cited a number of criticisms, including Clare's “perpetually visible” lack of education, that led the reviewer to judge The Village Minstrel as, “at the utmost, a place above mediocrity.”
Contemporary critics have not reached any consensus regarding Clare's place in literary history. Many, while praising Clare's penetrating descriptions of nature, have noted that his poetry is devoid of the intellectual element that characterizes the works of John Keats and William Wordsworth. Others, however, have pointed to the diversity of literary voices in his works as well his deep concern for and love and understanding of the rural environment as evidence of his poetic skill and intellect. James C. McKusick, for example, calling Clare the first ecologically conscious writer in English literary history, has claimed that “[t]aken together, [Clare's] works convey a detailed knowledge of the local flora and fauna, an acute awareness of the interrelatedness of all life-forms, and a sense of outrage at the destruction of the natural environment.” Critics Eric Robinson and David Powell have echoed this emphasis on Clare's acute familiarity with and advocacy of the local environment and those inhabiting it—those whose very livelihoods were inextricably tied to the land: “Since Piers Plowman there has hardly been an authoritative voice in English literature to speak for the ploughmen, the threshers, the hedgers, shepherds, woodmen and horse-keepers until Clare began to write.” Another modern scholar, Lynn Pearce, has studied the many, varied voices of Clare's “Child Harold,” identifying the styles and tones of the contemptuous and defiant “Byronic aristocrat,” the naïve and simple “peasant exile,” and the divinely authoritative “Biblical” voice, among others. Other twentieth-century critics have argued that, despite the suggestion of many earlier reviewers, Clare was more than a simple observer of his surroundings; instead, they have pointed out, he constructed a complex relationship in his poetry between his real-life experience and his perception of these experiences, his recollections of past events, and his use of language and grammar.
Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery (poetry) 1820
The Village Minstrel, and Other Poems. 2 vols. (poetry) 1821
The Shepherd's Calendar; With Village Stories, and Other Poems (poetry and short stories) 1827
The Rural Muse (poetry) 1835
Poems (poetry) 1908
John Clare: Poems Chiefly from Manuscript (poetry) 1920
Madrigals and Chronicles: Being Newly Found Poems Written by John Clare (poetry) 1924
*Sketches in the Life of John Clare, Written by Himself (autobiography and sketches) 1931
The Poems of John Clare. 2 vols. (poetry) 1935
Poems of John Clare's Madness (poetry) 1949
The Letters of John Clare (letters) 1951
The Prose of John Clare (autobiography, journal, and essays) 1951
The Later Poems of John Clare (poetry) 1964
Clare: Selected Poems and Prose (poetry and sketches) 1966
The Midsummer Cushion (poetry) 1978
†The Midsummer Cushion (poetry) 1979
John Clare's Autobiographical Writings (autobiography) 1983
The Natural History Prose Writings of John Clare (essays) 1983
The Letters of John Clare...
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SOURCE: “Conventions and Their Subversion in John Clare's ‘An Invite to Eternity’,” in Criticism, Vol. XXIV, No. 1, Winter, 1982, pp. 1-15.
[In the following essay, Strickland argues that Clare's “An Invite to Eternity” (probably written in the mid-1840s) is indicative of the power of Clare's “asylum” writings and of the manner in which Clare utilized convention for powerful effect.]
In recent years several critics have re-examined the nature-poetry of John Clare in relation to the eighteenth-century topographical tradition and its Romantic revisions.1 This has helped to clarify the context of the better part of the “peasant poet's” corpus. But if Thomson and Cowper ranked among Clare's favorite poets, his favorite play was Macbeth, which he claims to have read “about 20 times,”2 and this predilection, along with his years of ballad-collecting, perhaps bears more strongly on the preternatural poems of his twenty-three year confinement in St. Andrew's County Lunatic Asylum. Despite the valuable upsurge of critical interest in the descriptive poetry, the later visionary works remain for many of us Clare's most notable achievements. We may be intrigued by the first but haunted by the second, this reflecting our response to the very different poetic personae of the self-tutored “village minstrel” and the obsessed madman. Ultimately both are perhaps as...
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SOURCE: “The Shepherd's Calendar” in ‘A Real World and Doubting Mind’: A Critical Study of the Poetry of John Clare, Hull University Press, 1985, pp. 34-68.
[In the following essay, Chilcott presents a close study of the structure of The Shepherd's Calendar.]
In January 1820, less than a week after the appearance of Clare's first volume, Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, his publisher John Taylor wrote to him greatly approving his idea for a poem to be entitled ‘A Week in a Village’. In order to create an overall structure for the work, Taylor suggested that he might
divide the Week's Employments into the 7 Days, selecting such for each as might particularly apply to that Day, which is the Case with some of the Occupations;—that the remaining which might be pursued in any Day should be allotted so as to fill up the Time;—that the Sports, & Amusements should in like manner be apportioned out into the 7 Days;—and that one little appropriate Story should be involved in each Day's Description.—1
Although this particular plan was never realized, Taylor's proposal for a poem of considerable length was not forgotten, and over three years later, he wrote with a variation upon his earlier suggestion:
Talking the other Day with Hessey, it occurred to...
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SOURCE: “John Clare and the Sublime,” in Criticism, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, Spring, 1987, pp. 141-61.
[In the following essay, Strickland argues that Clare was “poetically more conservative” than his Romantic peers, noting the “absence of conventional trappings of the naturalistic sublime” in his poetry.]
As pitiful as the representation of John Clare in major anthologies is, the image of the poet has been further distorted by their emphasis on his mad-poems, the most fascinating, but neither the best nor most representative, of his works. Eric Robinson's and David Powell's recent Later Poems of John Clare1 is invaluable not only for its scholarly presentation of previously unpublished poems but for its clarification of the context of the visionary works. The edition established, against the sentimentalism of many critical observations, that Clare suffered a serious decline in poetic power with the onset of madness, particularly after the mid-1840s. It also makes clear the anomalous nature of the famous visionary lyrics, which appear in a radically different light grouped together on a few pages of an anthology rather than surrounded by eleven hundred pages of Clare's late verse, much of which continues in the retrospective vein of his earlier work and much of which is (or, in the case of songs without accompanying melodies, appears to be) doggerel.
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SOURCE: “John Clare's ‘Child Harold’: A Polyphonic Reading,” in Criticism, Vol. XXXI, No. 2, Spring, 1989, pp. 139-57.
[In the following essay, Pearce reads the “many voices” in Clare's “Child Harold” and analyzes the text “as a site of interaction between a number of independent voices and its subsequent resistance to closure.”]
Then he the tennant of the hall & Cot The princely palace too hath been his home & Gipsey's camp where friends would know him not In midst of wealth a beggar still to roam Parted from one whose heart was once his home
(“Child Harold”, Later Poems, 1, p. 62)
John Clare's “Child Harold” is a poem of many voices. One of the original manuscript versions (Northampton MS 6) is physically divided into a series of discrete stanza-song units by a system of line-divisions, and the above quotation indicates just some of the identities that the personal pronoun assumes in its picaresque wanderings after “the one whose heart was once his home.”1 The present article is an attempt to elucidate this contention by reading the poem against Bakhtin's notion of the polyphonic text as developed in his Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. This will include reference to the following aspects of the text: (1) as a site of interaction between a number of independent voices and its subsequent resistance to...
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SOURCE: “‘A language that is ever green’: The Ecological Vision of John Clare,” in University of Toronto Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 2, Winter, 1991, pp. 226-49.
[In the following essay, McKusick explores Clare's ecological consciousness. singling the poet out for his sensitivity toward nature and his vehement support for environmental preservation, and calling his oeuvre “a powerful and suggestive model for contemporary ecological writing.”]
John Clare described himself on the title page of his first collection of poems as a ‘Northamptonshire Peasant,’ a bold assertion of regional identity that situated his voice in an East Midland county that was becoming increasingly a zone of ecological conflict, marked by unequal struggle between the advocates of parliamentary enclosure and the forlorn adherents of the older, sustainable methods of open-field agriculture. The arguments advanced in favour of parliamentary enclosure during the early nineteenth century will sound familiar to late twentieth-century readers still subjected to the insidious rhetoric of Progress: it was claimed that the enclosure of common fields and ‘waste’ land would rationalize the existing patchwork of land-ownership and enhance the productivity of agriculture by providing an incentive for individual farmers to exploit their newly consolidated plots with maximum efficiency. Swamps and marshes would be drained, streams...
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SOURCE: “Farming on Foot: Tracking Georgic in Clare and Wordsworth,” in Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Vol. 34, No. 4, Winter, 1992, pp. 509-40.
[In the following essay, Wallace compares Clare and William Wordsworth with regard to their individual renderings of rural/pastoral subjects in their poetry.]
In “The Landscape of Labor: Transformations of the Georgic,” John Murdoch comments on how changes in English landscapes, visual and literary, mark complex, shifting ideological uses of pastoral and georgic. By the mid-eighteenth century, Murdoch argues,
the absorption of the Georgic into the collective cultural consciousness, into a region almost beyond consciousness and therefore beyond question, requires that it should become practically invisible. … Its origins in political revolt require concealment; its dependence on hard, unremitting labor requires it as well. So various things happen: the Georgic is assimilated to the Pastoral, so that in literature and painting they are often almost indistinguishable.1
In painting, this means that “the labor of ploughing, harrowing, seeding, and mowing was entirely transposed into its material effects,” the elements of a cultivated landscape such as fields and herds and woods which “themselves have been subsumed into what we would call...
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SOURCE: “John Clare's London Journal: A Peasant Poet Encounters the Metropolis,” in The Wordsworth Circle, Vol. XXIII, No. 3, Summer, 1992, pp. 172-5.
[In the following essay, McKusick discusses Clare's reaction as a rural poet to London and its populace. (The critic's mentions of Clare's “London Journal” simply refer to the poet's own prose writings on his time in London.)]
Ever since Elizabethan times, when London became a center of commercial activity, the hectic pace of city life has been contrasted with the pastoral seclusion of the countryside. With the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century, London became the hub of a mercantile empire and the largest city in Europe, a population well over one million by 1800. No longer exempt from the pressures of urban life, the surrounding countryside was radically transformed by the inexhaustible demand for food and other resources, leading to capital-intensive agriculture, deep-pit coal mining, and the turnpikes, canals, and railways built to haul goods to market. Even the most remote English villages were affected: prices for agricultural commodities sharply increased during the Napoleonic wars, while the traditional methods of subsistence agriculture were disrupted by Parliamentary enclosure. John Clare, an agricultural laborer in the village of Helpston, eighty miles north of London, witnessing the adverse social and environmental effects...
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SOURCE: “John Clare and the Tyranny of Grammar,” in Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer, 1994, pp. 255-77.
[In the following essay, McKusick explores what John Taylor referred to as Clare's “evident ignorance of grammar” and its effect on his poetry and its critical reception.]
John Clare has traditionally been regarded, rather patronizingly, as an uneducated Peasant Poet, exhibiting remarkable talent in minor poetic genres, but remaining something of a naif in matters of linguistic scholarship. Certainly it is true that Clare had little formal schooling and was almost completely without knowledge of Latin or Greek, the “learned languages” that still constituted the distinctive badge of an educated gentleman in his day. Even his command of English was distinctly provincial and marked by frequent departures from the normative standard of educated Londoners. Clare's first biographer, Frederick Martin, alleged that “he entirely failed in learning grammar and spelling, remaining ignorant of the sister arts to the end of his days.”1 This traditional view of Clare was first promulgated by John Taylor, the editor and publisher of his first volume of poetry, Poems Descriptive of Rural Life (London 1820) “by John Clare, a Northamptonshire Peasant.” In his Introduction to this volume, Taylor describes Clare as “a day-labourer in husbandry, who has had no...
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SOURCE: “Writing Misreadings: Clare and the Real World,” in The Independent Spirit: John Clare and the Self-Taught Tradition, edited by John Goodridge, The John Clare Society and The Margaret Grainger Memorial Trust, 1994, pp. 125-38.
[In the following essay, Chirico argues that Clare's poetry is “informed by a complex and continuing theme: that of the troubled and unresolved relationship between precise, yet diverse and constantly changing, natural observations and their fixed and limited representation in poetry and memory.”]
In a thoughtful and perhaps long overdue article, ‘The Complexity of John Clare’—recently published in John Clare: A Bicentenary Celebration—Kelsey Thornton, while still (rightly) referring to John Barrell's The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of Place as ‘the best piece of writing about Clare’, takes issue with some major points in Barrell's argument, principally his reluctance to acknowledge Clare's use of symbolism. My own position certainly owes a lot to Barrell, and I think therefore that I am approaching my subject from a different starting point—but Kelsey Thornton does deal with the two main strands of my argument: firstly, that ‘for Clare a landscape is not fully realised until it finds expression in or some association with poetry’. Secondly, that ‘Clare's consistency is built on a thoroughgoing notion...
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SOURCE: An introduction to John Clare by Himself, edited by Eric Robinson and David Powell, The Mid Northumberland Arts Group and Carcanet Press, 1996, pp. vii-xxiv.
[In the following excerpt, Robinson and Powell present an overview of Clare's life and works.]
From his birth in Helpston in 1793 to his death in Northampton in 1864, except for four visits to London, some months in Epping Forest and his years in the Northampton General Lunatic Asylum, John Clare never travelled more than a few miles from his native village. He lived at first under the same roof as his parents in Helpston, moved to another cottage in Northborough only a few miles away in 1832, and then from 1841 spent the remainder of his life in Northampton.
Clare's life-story is told against the background of a particular landscape with its fens, its heaths, its sheep-pastures and its villages and market-towns. (It is significant that Clare uses the word ‘town’ to denote any settlement, however small.) He talks of Will-o’-the-wisps (or Jenny burnt-arses), of ghosts and poachers, of spires peeping over stiles, of bird-haunted thickets, of lonely farms, and of the threshers, gleaners and weeders in his native fields. The skies of the Fens always overshadowed him, and there is no writer from whom one gets a better sense of an unbroken horizon or of the scarlet flames of sunset and sunrise. In...
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SOURCE: “Postmodernism, Romanticism, and John Clare” in Lessons of Romanticism: A Critical Companion, edited by Thomas Pfau and Robert F. Gleckner, Duke University Press, 1998, pp. 157-70.
[In the following essay, Kelley uses Clare's work to argue that postmodernism “foregrounds the sense of extremity and strangeness that haunts Romanticism.”]
My remarks in this essay shuttle between two recent works of fiction and the writing of John Clare to suggest how postmodernism—as theory as well as fictional practice—reiterates and thereby foregrounds the sense of extremity and strangeness that haunts Romanticism. Put more contentiously, this essay considers how postmodernism—when it is not a late-blooming species of modernism—revisits Romanticism with something like the ferocious yet dry intensity of John Clare, both sane and mad. What I mean by such claims follows from my understanding of modernism as alienated consciousness, eager to break with its antecedents in order to rid itself of the mess of history and culture.1 If this account of modernism sounds a little like Walter Benjamin's reading of Klee's “Angel” as an apocalyptic observer who looks backward on the ruins of civilization and calls what he sees history,2 it is because Benjamin's theory of history is the critical angel who guards and joins both isms.
As recent theorists have noted, this...
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Dawson, P. M. S. “John Clare.” Literature of the Romantic Period: A Bibliographical Guide, edited by Michael O’Neill, pp. 167-80. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Extensive listing of the major textual editions, biographies, and critical studies in Clare scholarship.
Lucas, John. John Clare. Plymouth, U.K.: Northcote House Publishers Ltd., 1994, 86 p.
Brief biography detailing Clare's life and works.
Storey, Edward. A Right to Song: The Life of John Clare. London: Methuen, 1982, 330 p.
Intensive study with twenty-three chapters devoted to individual aspects of Clare's life.
Barker, Jonathan. “The Songs of Our Land Are Like Ancient Landmarks.” Agenda 22, Nos. 3 & 4 (Autumn-Winter, 1984-85): 78-89.
Reviews three contemporary collections of Clare's works.
Barrell, John. The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of Place, 1730-1840: An Approach to the Poetry of John Clare. London: Cambridge at the University Press, 1972, 244 p.
An authoritative volume focusing on Clare's pre-asylum poetry within the context of the enclosure of Helpston.
Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque...
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