John Ball Biography

Biography (History of the World: The Middle Ages)

Article abstract: The rebel John Ball, who described himself as “Sometime Saint Mary priest of York and now of Colchester,” was one of the leaders of the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381.

Early Life

The outline of John Ball’s life is blurred by the lack of historical records and complicated by the apparent existence of another John Ball. The John Ball of the Peasants’ Revolt was probably born in the village of Peldon, in Essex, in 1331, and became parochial chaplain at St. James’s Church, East Hill, in Colchester, a position comparable to an appointment today as an assistant curate. The other John Ball served as rector of St. James, and his separate identity is confirmed by church records that report his death in 1394, more than a decade after the rebel John Ball was hanged, drawn, and quartered for his role in the Peasants’ Revolt. An unbiased account of Ball’s life is impossible to find in the chroniclers of his time, for even the most talented of them, the Frenchman Jean Froissart, was an upper-class historian who approached the Peasants’ Revolt as a “pestillensse” and Ball as an evil madman.

Parochial chaplains were drawn from the peasantry and for that reason could be expected to sympathize with the distressed subjects to whom they ministered. Although John Ball’s preachings reveal some parallels to the doctrines of John Wyclif and the Lollards, no conclusive evidence links Lollardy to Ball’s peasant movement. The best evidence of Ball’s thought comes in the six widely read letters that he wrote in code to the Essex peasants. The messages are oblique and allegorical, with such moralizing as “Now the clergy for wealth work themselves woe. God give us redress, for now is the time!” These letters reveal the unmistakable influence of William Langland’s long allegorical poem The Vision of Piers Plowman (1377), which is interpreted by most scholars as a key to the meaning and social context of Ball’s exhortations to his followers. Whether these letters were distributed by a revolutionary people’s organization known as “Magna Societas,” or “The Great Society,” is not clear, as historians differ on whether such a disciplined, well-structured group existed.

Ball’s success as a preacher led to his being called before the archbishop of Canterbury in 1366 to answer charges of preaching error and scandal. As a result, all people were warned to shun his sermons or face excommunication. Not long after this brush with authority, Ball was excommunicated for preaching in the diocese of Norwich and, on King Edward III’s order, arrested and imprisoned in Essex. Barred from preaching his Christian communism after his release, Ball spoke against corruption in the church and the greed of the wealthy classes, finding audiences in marketplaces, churchyards, and roadside gatherings. He is commonly identified with the popular rhyme, “When Adam delved and Eve span/ Who was then the gentleman?” (“When Adam dug the earth and Eve spun the cloth, where then were class distinctions?”) Threatened by the effectiveness of Ball’s eloquence and moral earnestness in arousing the people, the archbishop of Canterbury, Simon of Sudbury, had him imprisoned at Maidstone just before the revolt broke out.

Life’s Work

The English economy was suffering, partly because of the cost of war in France, and taxes were already oppressive when in November, 1380, a new poll tax was imposed on everyone fifteen or older. Mass protests ensued, and when tax collectors appeared in Kent in June, 1381, a mob assaulted the dungeons at Rochester and freed the prisoners. A former soldier, Wat Tyler, was named the rebels’ leader, and in less than a week he had earned the allegiance of about twenty thousand men from Kent and rescued John Ball from Maidstone prison. After Tyler and Ball, the most important rebel leader was Jack Straw, who may have been the rector of Fobbing in Essex. Tyler’s leadership genius and Ball’s inspirational presence combined to attract more followers. Perhaps as many as fifty thousand men eventually joined the movement. The sudden success of the rebellion, with citizens joining from many regions, supports the argument for a well-established Great Society. Exactly when John Ball wrote his letters cannot be determined, but they probably went out soon after his release from Maidstone.

The throng marched toward London and arrived on June 12 at Blackheath, where they told messengers from the fourteen-year-old King Richard II that they would not go home until they had parleyed with the king. The next morning, Ball celebrated Mass on Blackheath Common and preached a moving sermon pleading for social equality. According to Froissart, the sermon began:

“Ah, ye good people, the matters goeth not well to pass in England, nor shall do till everything be common, and there be no villeins or gentlemen, but that we may be all united together, and that the lords be no greater masters than we be. What have we deserved, or why should we be kept thus in servage? We be all come from one father and one mother,...

(The entire section is 2102 words.)

John Ball Biography (Masterpieces of Fiction, Detective and Mystery Edition)

John Dudley Ball, Jr., was born in Schenectady, New York, on July 8, 1911, to John Dudley, Sr., a research scientist, and Alena L. Wiles Ball. He attended Carroll College in Waukesha, Wisconsin, earning his bachelor’s degree in 1934. After becoming a commercial pilot for Pan American World Airways, he joined the United States Army Air Transport Command at the outbreak of World War II, serving as a flight instructor and a member of a flight crew until 1946. Following his service, Ball pursued a career as a music critic and annotator, first as a writer of liner notes for Columbia Masterworks Records (1946-1949) and music editor for the Brooklyn Eagle (1946-1950) and then as a columnist for the New York World-Telegram. Ball also worked as a music commentator for WOL, a radio station in Washington, D.C. During this time he published his first books, on the record industry and early recordings of classical music. Later, Ball worked in advertising and for various public relations enterprises.

In 1958, he joined the Institute of the Aerospace Sciences (IAS) as public relations director, a post he held until 1961, when IAS was absorbed by the larger American Rocket Society. At that point Ball joined DMS News Service, a publishing company in Beverly Hills, where he was employed as editor in chief until 1963. He served as writer, chairman, and editor in chief for the University of California Mystery Library Program. During the mid-1970’s Ball also became a sworn deputy sheriff in Los Angeles County and a volunteer associate of the City of Pasadena Police Department.

The year 1958 marked Ball’s return to book publication. Since then he wrote or edited more than thirty books, including fourteen mystery novels, winning the Edgar Allan Poe Award (1966) and the Crime Writers’ Association’s Gold Dagger Award (1966), both for In the Heat of the Night (1965). In addition, Ball wrote some four hundred articles on aviation, music, astronomy, and travel. He died October 15, 1988, in Encino, California.