Bellay, Joachim Du
Joachim Du Bellay c. 1522-1560
French poet and critic.
Du Bellay's contributions to French poetry and literature are both numerous and significant. His Le Deffence et Illustration de le Langue Françoyse, (1549) set the groundwork for French as a language of literature and poetry in a time when there was very little of either in the vernacular. His poems were among the first of their kind in the written language of French, and though his works were largely overshadowed by those of his more widely-acclaimed contemporary, Pierre de Ronsard, Du Bellay holds a significant place in French verse.
Joachim Du Bellay was born in the Anjou province of France, in the Château of La Turmeliėre, the third son of Jean Du Bellay, a farmer of moderate repute. Little is known of Du Bellay's childhood, though in his works he expressed nostalgia for his days spent in the French countryside. His parents are said to have died when he was nine years old, leaving him under the guardianship of his older brother, René. As a youth, he was not prepared for a career in the same manner as his cousins, and it was clear that his education was neglected by his family. It is speculated that one of the local priests schooled him sufficiently in Latin to allow for his further education. He enrolled at the University of Poitiers circa 1542, where he studied law. Around 1543, he traveled to Paris, where he met Pierre De Ronsard, who would later become his good friend and fellow poet. Around 1544, he enrolled at the Collėge du Coqueret, where he studied under Jean Dorat, one of the eminent scholars of classical Greek and Roman studies in his day, and under whose tutelage he developed a love and ability for poetry. It was at the Collėge that Du Bellay, Ronsard, and several other scholars and would-be poets formed Le Plėiade, a collective based on the principles of Humanism of the day, using Du Bellay's Deffence et Illustration as their manifesto arguing for the composition of poetry in French.
From 1553 to 1558, Du Bellay served as a secretary to his cousin, Cardinal Jean Du Bellay, who worked for the Vatican in Rome. He was at first excited to travel to what was then arguably the most modern city in all of Europe, but became disillusioned when confronted with both the decadence of then-modern Roman life and the intrigues of those under Papal employ. In 1558, Du Bellay returned to Paris, where he published both Les Regrets, and Les Antiquitez de Rome in 1558. Du Bellay died in 1560 at his home in Paris.
One of the most influential works from Du Bellay's repertoire was written on the argument that the written language of French had no true documented poetry of its own. Le Deffence et Illustration de le Langue Françoyse, a response to a pamphlet entitled Art Poetique Françoys, written by Thomas Sebillet one year earlier, argued that French was not a barbarous language, and that it was only less rich than Latin or Greek because scholars of the day paid so little attention to it, and that it could someday be equally rich. He also argued for a complete overhauling of the genres of poetry as they were then known, calling for a return to the use of more classical forms, as opposed to those more popular at the time. In his work, he called on French poets to experiment with the language, to create new words, and to resurrect words fallen from fashion.
1549 also saw Du Bellay's publication of L'Olive, the first collection of love sonnets ever written in the French language. Many of these poems were borrowed from classical writers such as Horace or Virgil, while others were entirely of his own design. The poems speak of the dual nature of love as expressed by the classical poet Petrarch. This particular volume of Du Bellay's works is believed to be in honor of a certain lady, whom he describes as a lovely golden-haired woman. However, the historical identity of this object of his sonnets is entirely open to speculation, and many scholars believe her to be an invention of Du Bellay's. In 1550, Du Bellay appended the book, adding thirteen new odes, with such themes as the fickle nature of fortune and pastoral scenes of springtime.
In 1558, after his return from five years of employment as a secretary to his cousin in Rome, Du Bellay published two books based on his experiences and impressions of the city, the Vatican, and Roman life. Les Regrets is partly a work of satire based on his reaction to the corruption of Rome and the Vatican, and partly an expression of the duality between his homesickness for France and dissatisfaction with Rome, and his fascination with a city which was then the seat of culture and modern thought in Europe. Du Bellay seems to have appropriated the title of this book from Tristia by Ovid, in which the poet speaks of regret in being exiled from Rome. The borrowing of the title was a deliberate one, as Du Bellay saw a parallel between Ovid's exile from the city and his own exile to the same. Many of the poems of Les Regrets focus on the political events of Rome in general and the Vatican in particular, providing the reader with coverage of such occurrences as the changing of Popes. Du Bellay apparently intended for this book to be humorous in nature, though throughout much of it, he expresses his unhappiness with the role into which he was forced under the Cardinal's employ, which he viewed as that of a glorified house servant. Du Bellay's second book published in 1558 was Les Antiquitez De Rome. While Les Regrets focused largely on a modern Rome, Les Antiquitez mainly concerned itself with the image of the classical city. In the book, he expresses both his marvel and his dismay at the duality between the grandeur of ancient Rome and the tawdriness and decadence of that of his day.
Though Du Bellay's works have been seen as pedantic and often even plagiaristic by many, concessions are often made due to a near-void of any other works approaching those of his caliber in his land and age: among his works were the first sonnets to ever be written in his own native tongue, as well as some of the first odes. Le Deffence has been widely regarded by critics as a rough, often reckless attack on those poets of Du Bellay's day who insisted on the use of the then-favored Italian language, poetic stylings and structure. Barthélme Aneau, the first of many critics of this work, saw the book largely in a negative light, citing a hasty writing style and accusing Du Bellay of name-calling and overstatement. Largely, Aneau attacked what he believed to be a logical flaw in the book: Du Bellay's notion that the potential of the French language put it on par with Italian. Other critics, however, concede this supposed jump of logic with the fact that the Le Deffence won Du Bellay much favor and respect among his fellow poets, and it is also hailed as a timely work, appealing to many French patriots.
Likewise, Du Bellay's L'Olive has been seen on several occasions as being plagiaristic, and indeed, many of the sonnets therein appear to be word for word translations of works of obscure Italian poets, as evidenced by the studies of researchers. Critics also attack the many discrepancies between his theory—Du Bellay prefaced the anthology with a paragraph which was seemingly intended to clear his name as a thief of the words of his fellow poets—and the practice inherent in the poems contained therein. The work, however, is also praised by many critics for Du Bellay's seemingly effortless use of rhyme and meter, as well as the quality of his translations from Italian and Latin into French, and as a successful test of the beliefs and ideals to which he espoused based on Le Deffence, when applied to several of his own original works which also appear in the book. His appendage to L'Olive, was criticized by Jehan Proust as being full of recurring references to obscure bits of mythology and obtuse metaphors. Pierre De Ronsard, Du Bellay's own friend and fellow poet, commented that Du Bellay's works were excessively dependent on a knowledge of Greek and Latin.
Arguably the most well known and diversely studied among Du Bellay's works were the two books published upon his return to France after living in Rome with his cousin for five years. These are Les Regrets and Les Antiquitez De Rome. Les Regrets was written at a point in Du Bellay's life when he was critically acclaimed as a master of the sonnet, and it was this form which he chose for the book. Many critics have spoken on the relative lack of mythological references which seemed ubiquitous in his earlier works. Still others have praised what appeared to be a newly-found sense of confidence inherent in the book; no longer the acerbic upstart of Le Deffence nor the indignant plagiarist of L'Olive, but a more mature Du Bellay, with a clear idea of his words and his intentions for them in terms of self-expression. The lofty feel of the works in this book, coupled with a true sense of irony, satire and humor, has been remarked upon by several critics, as well as the merits of the work as a piece of social criticism. Les Antiquitez De Rome, the second work spawned by Du Bellay's time in Rome, was published just six weeks after the appearance of Les Regrets, and is lauded by critics on a nearly equal level to the former title, but for contrasting reasons: while Les Regrets speaks of the personal distaste of Du Bellay for the decadence of modern Roman life and his nostalgia for his homeland, the primary theme of Les Antiquitez seems to see a return to his penchant for mythology and the city in its classical days, as well as a return to the borrowing and citing of other poets. The work is viewed unfavorably by some critics for its often melodramatic tone, while others study it extensively to find the sources for Du Bellay's many historical references.
Le Deffence et Illustration de le Langue Françoyse (criticism) 1549
L'Olive (poetry) 1549
Les Regrets et autres oeuvres poétiques [The Regrets] (poetry) 1558
Premier livre des antiquités de Rome (poetry) 1558
Oeuvres françaises [edited by Guillaume Aubert and Jean Morel] (collected works) 1568
Ruins of Rome [translated by Edmund Spenser] (poetry) 1591
Oeuvres poétiques. [6 vols.; edited by Henri Chamard] (poetry) 1907-31
The Defence and Glorification of the French Language [translated by Elizabeth Smulders] (criticism) 1935
The Defence and Illustration of the French Language [translated by Gladys M. Turquet] (criticism) 1939
La deffence et illustration de la langue françoyse [edited by Henri Chamard] (criticism) 1997
A critical edition of the circumstantial verse of Joachim Du Bellay [edited by David Julian Hartley] (poetry) 2000
(The entire section is 118 words.)
SOURCE: Griffin, Robert. “From Poetic Theory to Practice,” and “Les Antiquitez de Rome.” In Coronation Of The Poet: Joachim Du Bellay's Debt To The Trivium pp. 67-111; 115-137. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969.
[In the first essay below, Griffin illustrates Du Bellay's contributions to the structure of French poetry. In the second, he conducts a detailed exploration of Du Bellay's Les Antiquitez De Rome.]
FROM POETIC THEORY TO PRACTICE
ART AND NATURE
It has often been observed that the contribution of the Deffence et Illustration can be measured as much by the enthusiastic attitude of its author as by the substance of its poetic doctrine. We have seen that this doctrine can be reduced largely to the main points of classical Latin rhetoric and poetic in both theory and practice. Under the guise of Corybantic madness that supposedly besets the poet and through the impulse of the desire for immortality, traditional precepts of rhetoric and poetic were accorded the status of a surpassing art. From the outset Du Bellay realized that, despite the handsome trappings of the theories of poetic inspiration, his art or artifice implied hard work and mastery of technique. In the Illustration he clearly outlined the required ascesis in an often quoted passage which he borrowed from Speroni and...
(The entire section is 29657 words.)
SOURCE: Keating, L Clark. “To Defend and make Illustrious …,” “The Return to Paris: Les Regrets,” and “Les Antiquitez de Rome.” In Joachim Du Bellay pp. 9-18; 70-97, New York: Twayne 1971.
[In the first of the following three essays, Keating explores the events surrounding Du Bellay's composition of Le Deffence Et Illustration De La Langue Françoyse, as well as its impact upon the writing of French poetry. In the second and third, he offers background and influences regarding two collections of poetry by Du Bellay, based upon his impressions of Rome.]
TO DEFEND AND MAKE ILLUSTRIOUS …
It is a pity that we have no record of the day-by-day conversations of Dorat with his students. Yet we have in their lives and works evidence that he fired them with enthusiasm for the ancient poets, Greek and Roman. We know too that they read much Italian poetry and, with varying degrees of pleasure or dismay, such French verse as they could find to peruse. We know that there was a growing conviction among them that they were destined to lead the way to a reform in poetry. They were bent upon success for themselves and upon distinction for the literature of their country. And with the daily inspiration provided them by Dorat's analysis of texts, and from his intelligent commentary on forms and techniques, they began to feel that in a short time they would be...
(The entire section is 16849 words.)
SOURCE: Della Neva, Jo Ann. “Illustrating the Deffence: Imitation And Poetic Perfection In Du Bellay's Olive.” The French Review: Journal Of The American Association Of Teachers Of French 61, no. 1 (1987): 38-49.
[In the essay which follows, Della Neva explores the possible influences upon two of Du Bellay's works]
As literary historians have often pointed out, two of Joachim Du Bellay's earliest important works were, in fact, published simultaneously. His Deffence et illustration de la langue françoyse, [Hereafter referred to as DI] the theoretical work destined to become the chief poetic manifesto of the Pléiade, and his first edition of the Olive, [Hereafter referred to as O] a 50-sonnet petrarchist sequence, were published under the same privilège in 1549.1 One year later, Du Bellay published a second, expanded version of the Olive, this one containing 115 sonnets in the Petrarchan manner. In his preface to this second Olive, Du Bellay explains why he wrote his first poems:
Considerant encores nostre langue estre bien loing de sa perfection, … je voulu bien y faire quelque essay de ce peu d'esprit que la Nature m'a donné. Voulant donques enrichir nostre vulgaire d'une nouvelle, ou plustost ancienne renouvelée poësie, je m'adonnay à l'immitation des anciens Latins...
(The entire section is 5088 words.)
SOURCE: MacPhail, Eric. “Nationalism and Italianism In The Work of Joachim Du Bellay” Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature 39 (1990-1991): 47-53
[In the essay below, MacPhail casts several of Du Bellay's works in the light of the political climate of Renaissance-era Europe.]
We ordinarily associate nationalism with the political and cultural upheavals of the nineteenth century and indeed the first attested use of the term in French is from a text of 1798 written in the aftermath of the Revolution. Apparently it was l'Abbé Barruel who coined the term “nationalisme” as a pejorative designation for the secular ideology of the Revolution, which he denounced as a degeneration of Christian ethics: “Le nationalisme prit la place de l'amour général. … Alors, il fut permis de mépriser les étrangers, de les tromper et de les offenser. Cette vertu fut appelée patriotisme” (Girardet 7; Nationalism took the place of charity. … Then it was permitted to disdain foreigners, to deceive and offend them. This virtue was named patriotism). From the point of view of lexicography, then, Renaissance nationalism is an anachronism. However, the Renaissance does present an interesting analogy to the Revolution in its secular, patriotic challenge to the international religious culture of Medieval Christendom. Certainly, one of the motive forces of the French Renaissance was a patriotic challenge to...
(The entire section is 4205 words.)
SOURCE: Schwartz, Jerome. “The Poet In Bivio: Du Bellay's Spiritual Itinerary in Les Regrets.” In Lapidary Inscriptions: Renaissance Essays For Donald A. Stone, Jr. edited by Barbara C. Bowen and Jerry C. Nash, pp. 61-71, Lexington, KY: French Forum, 1994.
[In this essay, Schwartz studies the allegorical and mythical aspects of two of Du Bellay's works.]
Critical response to the Regrets has typically been praise of the small number of masterpieces in the collection, emphasis on the elegiac and satirical poems and neglect of the final 60 sonnets of praise for the French monarchy. A characteristic assessment is Thomas M. Greene's remark that, compared with the greatness of the Antiquitez de Rome, Du Bellay's “aspiration in the Regrets will fall short of poetry's noblest and most proper goals; they rise no higher than a versified journal.”1 Such a negative evaluation of the Regrets fails to account adequately for the mythic and allegorical dimensions of the sequence, which is not merely a heterogeneous grouping of elegiac, satirical and encomiastic verse, but one which also narrates the spiritual itinerary of the poetic persona. Apart from its external form as “journal,” this collection is no less a “web of ironies” than the Antiquitez.2 As Albert Py has written, the paradox of the Regrets is that it sings the...
(The entire section is 4857 words.)
SOURCE: Bizer, Mark. “Letters from Home: The Epistolary Aspects of Joachim Du Bellay's Les Regrets.” Renaissance Quarterly 52 (1999): 140-175.
[In the essay which follows, Bizer argues that Du Bellay's Les Regrets is a product of humanist tradition.]
Les Regrets, a collection of sonnets composed by the poet Joachim Du Bellay during a four-year stay in Rome from 1553 to 1557, while he served as secretary and intendant to his second cousin, Cardinal Jean Du Bellay, gives expression to a paradox. It constitutes a poetry of exile, in which Du Bellay mercilessly dissects Roman society and yearns to return to his native France. At the same time, however, Rome was home for a humanist such as Du Bellay; for once in the eternal city, he had in a sense returned to his intellectual and cultural heritage, although it was fragmented, incomplete, and in ruins. This simultaneous estrangement and familiarity is played out in the space of the collection's sonnets, most of which explicitly address, indeed name, friends in Italy and in France. It is my intention to show that these names, far from merely being poetic word play or dedicatory gestures, indicate that Les Regrets was conceived as verse epistles whose content was specifically intended for different individuals. While isolated examples of sonnets whose contents are specifically oriented toward their addressees have been...
(The entire section is 18139 words.)
Cooper, Richard. “Poetry In Ruins: The Literary Context of Du Bellay's Cycles on Rome” Renaissance Studies: Journal of the Society of Renaissance Studies 3, no. 2 (1989): 156-166.
Examines the works written by Du Bellay in Rome, and compares them to the literature of Classical Rome.
Macadoo, Jane. “Du Bellay's Hymne de la Surdité: Or, the Puzzle of the Third Ossicle.” Renaissance Studies: Journal for the Society of Renaissance Studies 8, no.2 (1994): 198-204.
Explores satirical elements of Du Bellay's Hymne de la Surdité.
Persels, Jeffery C. “Charting Poetic Identity in Exile: Entering Du Bellay's Regrets.” Romance Notes 23, no. 2 (spring, 1988): 195-202.
Addresses the prefatory poems of Les Regrets.
Additional coverage of Du Bellay's life and career is contained in the following sources published by the Gale Group: Guide to French Literature, Beginnings to 1789; and Reference Guide to World Literature.
(The entire section is 135 words.)