Rhys, Jean (Vol. 124)
Jean Rhys 1890–1979
West Indian-born English novelist, short story writer, and autobiographer.
The following entry presents an overview of Rhys's career through 1990. For further information on Rhys's life and works, see CLC, Volumes 2, 4, 6, 14, 19, and 51.
With the publication of Wide Sargasso Sea (1966), a critically acclaimed reinterpretation of Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Jean Rhys suddenly emerged from more than two decades of obscurity. A noted Left Bank literary figure and author of four novels during the 1920s and 1930s, Rhys ceased to publish and disappeared from the public eye until her work was rediscovered in the late 1950s. Her highly regarded novels and short stories are distinguished for their spare, understated prose and complex psychological portraits of dispossessed though determined women who struggle unsuccessfully against poverty, loneliness, and humiliating dependencies on loveless men. Praised as a master stylist, Rhys is also identified as a powerful commentator on the exploitative social structures and sexual power dynamics that reduce women to despondency and self-abasement.
Born Ella Gwendolen Rhys Williams in Dominica, a British-held island in the West Indies, Rhys was the fourth of five children of Rhys Williams, a Welsh physician, and Minna Lockhart, a Dominican Creole who descended from a long line of slaveholding planters. The island's lush tropical environment, native culture, and racist colonial legacy, particularly that of her maternal ancestors, was deeply imprinted in Rhys's psyche during her formative years. A lonely and introspective child, she received her early education at a Catholic convent school, where she began to write poetry and, for a time, wished to become a nun. At age sixteen Rhys left Dominica for England to live with her aunt in Cambridge and studied at the Academy of Dramatic Art beginning in 1908. When her father's death in 1910 deprived her of financial means, she refused to return to Dominica, opting instead to support herself as a chorus line girl and demimondaine. During the same year, she began an affair with Lancelot Smith, a well-stationed, middle-aged Englishman whose rejection in 1912, the first of several significant romantic betrayals in her life, caused Rhys to plunge into suicidal despair and a series of self-destructive liaisons. In 1919 Rhys married her first husband, John Lenglet, a Dutch writer, singer, and artist who, unknown to Rhys, doubled as a French intelligence agent and black market financier. The couple moved from Holland to Vienna, Paris, and Budapest during the early 1920s and had two children; only the second, daughter Maryvonne, survived infancy. Returning to Paris in 1924, Rhys was introduced to Ford Madox Ford, who adopted her as his protégé and exposed her to the expatriate literary circles of Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway. Her first published work, an excerpt from the story "Suzy Tells" (renamed "Triple Sec"), appeared in the December 1924 issue of Ford's journal Transatlantic Review. When Lenglet was arrested and imprisoned for fraud, Rhys moved in with Ford and his girlfriend Stella Bowen, with whom she became enmeshed in an exploitative menage a trois. Rhys's sketches from the 1920s were collected and published as Left Bank and Other Stories (1927) with an enthusiastic introduction by Ford. Rhys then moved to Amsterdam with her newly released husband, though they separated before the publication of her first novel, Postures (1928), republished as Quartet the next year. Rhys left for London and moved in with literary agent Leslie Tilden Smith, whom she married in 1934. Though producing three additional novels during the 1930s, her most productive years, Rhys suffered increasingly from severe depression and alcoholism, causing her to cease writing after the publication of Good Morning, Midnight (1939). Following Smith's death in 1945, Rhys remarried his cousin, Max Hamer, and steadily declined in obscurity. She was briefly imprisoned in 1949 for attacking a neighbor in a drunken rage, and the next year Hamer was incarcerated for illegal financial dealings. However, interest in Rhys's writing was suddenly revived after actress Selma Vaz Dias contacted her to arrange an BBC radio adaptation of Good Morning, Midnight, which aired in 1957. With a new contract from Deutsch editor Francis Wyndham, Rhys returned to an early draft for the novel Wide Sargasso Sea, which she took six years to complete. Her efforts were rewarded with a W. H. Smith Award, Heinemann Award, and Arts Council of Great Britain Award for Writers in 1967. Rhys continued to write and publish new works until her death in 1979 at age eighty-four, including short stories in Tigers are Better-Looking (1968) and Sleep It Off, Lady (1976), and the three autobiographic sketches of My Day (1975). Her unfinished autobiography was posthumously published as Smile Please (1979).
Rhys's trademark fiction is noted for its controlled detachment, shifting perspective, surreal episodes, laconic tone, and vivid psychological profiles of outcasted women. A typical Rhys heroine is a passive, emotionally fragile woman on the verge of homelessness and destitution who clings desperately to a façade of respectability and her ever failing feminine charms. Though not strictly autobiographic, much of Rhys's fiction draws directly from events and circumstances in her own life—particularly her Caribbean upbringing, her precarious existence on the fringes of London and Parisian society, and unhappy relationships with various men. The Left Bank and Other Stories consists of impressionistic fragments and vignettes that describe bohemian life in Paris during the 1920s, introducing the distinct style, themes, and victimized female prototypes of her subsequent fiction. The story "La Grosse Fifi," for example, relates the demise of an aging, self-conscious woman who is murdered by the young gigolo she selflessly supports. Quartet is a fictionalized version of Rhys's relationship with Ford during the mid-1920s; the original title, Postures, was used at the publisher's insistence to prevent against a libel suit. Set in Paris, the novel revolves around protagonist Marya Zelli, a former chorus girl who is helpless and alone after her reckless husband, Stephen, is jailed. Befriended by H. J. and Lois Heidler, a middle-aged couple who offer comfort and security, Marya soon becomes entangled in a manipulative love triangle that reveals the predatory nature of her male host and the self-serving passivity of his wife. Through recurring metaphors and dreamlike imagery that contrast with the narrative's realism, Rhys evokes an atmosphere of entrapment and disorientation that corresponds to Marya's psychic decline and attendant issues of moral ambiguity. Even more pessimistic than Quartet, After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie chronicles the dissolution of Julia Martin, an abandoned, profligate woman whose daily survival depends upon the reluctant generosity of friends and former lovers. Rejected by the title character, Julia leaves Paris for London, where she visits her sister Norah and enters into a failed relationship with Mr. Horsfield, Norah's role as the dutiful caretaker for their dying mother is contrasted with Julia's reckless drinking and promiscuity. Returning to Paris, Julia finally confronts Mr. Mackenzie, whose condescension and cruelty toward her reflects the contemptible status of women in patriarchal society. Through distancing techniques and shifting narratorial perspectives, Rhys examines the imposture and self-deception that dominate relations between the sexes. Voyage in the Dark, derived from Rhys's early notebooks, traces the emotional deterioration of protagonist Anna Morgan, a naïve, Dominican chorus girl who finds temporary security in an affair with an older Englishman named Walter. When Anna is cast off by Walter, she descends into a vagabond existence and prostitution, resulting in a life-threatening abortion. The first person narrative relates Anna's cycle of despair and delirium though memory sequences and imagery that juxtapose the vibrant environment of her tropical childhood with the cold desolation of England. Good Morning, Midnight features Sasha Jansen, a composite of Rhys's previous protagonists, though older and further bereft. Set in Paris on the eve the Second World War, the novel follows Sasha's efforts to recuperate from the death of her infant child and a failed marriage. She is pursued by a charming gigolo, René, whom she spurns, and finally succumbs to an ambiguous sexual encounter with her neighbor. As in earlier novels, Rhys blurs the division between hallucination and reality, past and present, through the interplay of memory, self-conscious meditation, and imagistic description of the external world. Unlike the contemporary European settings of her previous novels, Wide Sargasso Sea, an interpretative prequel to Brontë's Jane Eyre, is set almost entirely in the West Indies during the mid-nineteenth-century. Through alternating first person perspectives, the complex narrative recounts the traumatic Caribbean childhood of Antoinette Mason and her marriage to an unnamed Englishman whose repressive temperament further weakens her fragile mental state. Their strained relationship is reflected in the foreboding tropical atmosphere, voodoo curses, and the pervasive threat of violent reprisal by the island's newly emancipated slaves. In the last section of the novel, Antoinette accompanies her husband to England, where it is revealed that he is Edward Rochester, Jane Eyre's beloved, and that Antoinette represents Bertha, Rochester's mad first wife who is secretly locked in the attic.
Since the resurrection of Rhys's literary career in the late 1960s, critical reevaluation of her fiction has focused primarily on Wide Sargasso Sea. Generally regarded as her most significant work, Wide Sargasso Sea is praised for its haunting tropical setting, facile appropriation of Brontë's plot and characters, insightful critique of Western imperialism, and stark evocation of psychological isolation. The novel has also received comparison to the work of Ann Radcliffe, Edgar Allen Poe, and William Faulkner for its gothic tone. Rhys's four prewar novels, though well received upon their original publication, have only recently begun to attract serious critical scrutiny. As with Wide Sargasso Sea, they are praised for their penetrating studies of female alienation, technical virtuosity, bitter irony, and multilevel themes surrounding male-female relationships and the construction of female self-identity. Though often overlooked as an innovative modernist writer, many critics note similarities between Rhys's terse, direct style and that of Hemingway. Commentators frequently draw attention to Rhys's disturbing treatment of victimized women and the social significance of their suffering and acquiescence. While some critics dismiss her heroines as self-pitying and sentimental, most appreciate their depth and emotional complexity. Feminist scholars in particular find in Rhys's fiction a prescient elucidation of female persecution and anxiety in a male-dominated society. As Rosalind Miles notes, "Through the power of her analysis, Jean Rhys was one of the few women writers able to make explicit the link between the sex war and the class struggle." Despite the highly personal nature of her fiction, Smile Please, Rhys's unfinished autobiography, received unfavorable reviews for failing to provide greater insight into the author's life.
The Left Bank and Other Stories (short stories) 1927
Postures [republished as Quartet, 1929] (novel) 1928
After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie (novel) 1931
Voyage in the Dark (novel) 1934
Good Morning, Midnight (novel) 1939
Wide Sargasso Sea (novel) 1966
Tigers Are Better-Looking (short stories) 1968
My Day: Three Pieces (prose) 1975
Sleep it Off, Lady (short stories) 1976
Smile Please: An Unfinished Autobiography (autobiography) 1979
The Collected Short Stories (short stories) 1987
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SOURCE: "Wide Sargasso Sea and the Gothic Mode," in World Literature Written in English, Vol. 15, No. 1, April, 1976, pp. 229-45.
[In the following essay, Luengo discusses gothic themes and motifs in Wide Sargasso Sea, especially the significance of landscape, the occult, and the characterization of victim and villain. "In the final analysis," writes Luengo, "Wide Sargasso Sea must be read as a novel about anxiety."]
Critics have so far failed to place Wide Sargasso Sea within its proper literary context, the Gothic mode of fiction. This is not to say that it should be considered a Gothic novel in the traditional and strictest sense of the term. More than time separates its author from the late eighteenth century world of such quintessentially Gothic novelists as Ann Radcliffe and "Monk" Lewis. Nowhere as sentimental as Radcliffe, much less sensationalistic than Lewis, Rhys moves much deeper than either into the unstable mental world of her characters, much as Charlotte and Emily Brontë were to do when they helped to transform the tired clichés and conventions of the Gothic into powerful tools for exploring the turbid depths of the human spirit.
One might perhaps hazard the term "neo-Gothic" to describe novels such as Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, Wide Sargasso Sea and the numerous American writers of fiction from Charles Brockden Brown...
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SOURCE: "Of Heroines and Victims: Jean Rhys and Jane Eyre," in Massachusetts Review, Vol. XVII, No. 3, Autumn, 1976, pp. 540-52.
[In the following essay, Porter examines Rhys's portrayal of alienated and dispossessed female protagonists and the interrelationship of Wide Sargasso Sea and Jane Eyre.]
Between 1927 and 1939 Jean Rhys published four novels and a collection of short stories. The novels all have in common a central figure who is an alienated woman and a modern setting, chiefly the years between the two world wars in Paris and London. Whether or not they are actually written in the first person, they adopt the point of view of their solitary heroines, of women who are more or less attractive and more or less mature, but who remain enigmatic and remote. Dependent on but invariably abandoned by men, they seem obscurely destined to drift from man to man and from one dingy hotel room to another. Although they come close to breakdown—this is most apparent in the fortyish Sasha Jansen of Good Morning, Midnight—the novels end characteristically with an abrupt gesture that stops the action short before breakdown can occur. Such, however, is not the case with Jean Rhys's latest heroine, the first wife of Charlotte Bronte's Rochester. In the remarkably new departure in her art that is Wide Sargasso Sea, which was first published in England in 1966, Jean Rhys follows her...
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SOURCE: "Mr. Rochester's First Marriage: Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys," in World Literature Written in English, Vol. 17, No. 1, April, 1978, pp. 342-57.
[In the following essay, Thomas examines the narrative structure and psychological dynamics of the relationship between Rochester and Antoinette in Wide Sargasso Sea.]
Antoinette Bertha Cosway Mason is the mad wife of Mr. Rochester, imprisoned in the attics of Thornfield Hall, cared for and guarded by Grace Poole. In Wide Sargasso Sea Jean Rhys tells her story, from her earliest memories of fear and loss as the Creole daughter of a former slave owner in Jamaica, to her final dream, after uncounted days and years in Thornfield Hall:
Now at last I know why I was brought here and what I have to do. There must have been a draught for the flame flickered and I thought it was out. But I shielded it with my hand and it burned up again to light me along the dark passage.
The book does not require a knowledge of Jane Eyre—a reader who had never heard of Charlotte Brontë or her work could find it a self-contained, haunting, tragic story. But it is nonetheless cross-referenced to Jane Eyre at many points, climaxing with the final lines which precede the catastrophe of fire at Thornfield Hall, the death of Bertha Mason and the blinding of Rochester. At the same...
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SOURCE: "Mirror and Mask: Colonial Motifs in the Novels of Jean Rhys," in World Literature Written in English, Vol. 17, No. 1, April, 1978, pp. 328-41.
[In the following essay, Tiffin discusses the portrayal of exploitative male-female relationships, distorted female self-identity, and imperialism in Rhys's fiction.]
Since Wally Look Lai's illuminating study of Wide Sargasso Sea, the importance of West Indian history and character in Jean Rhys's writing has been generally recognized, though both he and later critics such as Dennis Porter tend to regard Wide Sargasso Sea as a "new departure" rather than a culmination of moods and motifs. Rhys's fiction in its entirety, however, presents a complex picture of the mind of a people uniquely isolated by the vagaries of history and winning a grip on their "postage stamp of native soil" not, like Faulkner's Southerners, by revolutionary war but from the Sargasso Sea of an ambiguously divisive yet shackling colonial history.
All of Rhys's heroines, whether ostensibly English or actually Creole, share a recognizably colonial sensibility, and since this sensibility is the product of a relationship between at least two peoples and two places, it is generally expressed and explored in liaisons between individuals whose world views differ and who are bound in a destructive relationship involving dominance and dependence. In Palace of...
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SOURCE: "Jean Rhys on Insult and Injury," in Studies in the Literary Imagination, Vol. XI, No. 2, Fall, 1978, pp. 55-65.
[In the following essay, Baldanza provides analysis of the recurring themes, narrative strategies, and female protagonists in Rhys's fiction.]
In discussing the seeming monotony of tone in the work of many distinguished literary figures, Alberto Moravia remarked that most major writers have only one string to their lute, so that the fundamental question ought not to be one of the variety of their effects, but of the complexity and intensity with which they do what they do well. Although few readers outside coteries would call Jean Rhys a major writer, Moravia's remark is nevertheless quite apposite to her fiction. Miss Rhys works, in terms of both theme and technique, in a severely limited range—but, since another essay in this collection discusses her Impressionist methods, I shall concentrate on her thematic complexity and intensity and shall try to avoid, insofar as possible, analysis of technique.
The "archetypal" career of the Rhys protagonist—which can be pieced together from glimpses of variously named characters at various phases of similar lives in her five novels and three collections of short stories—closely resembles the few scraps of biographical information now available about the author, though we have no warrant for a reverse extrapolation from...
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SOURCE: "Jean Rhys: Life's Unfinished Form," in Chicago Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Spring, 1981, pp. 68-74.
[In the following review, Pool offers negative analysis of Smile Please, citing flaws in the book's lack of structure and Rhys's unreflective content.]
"Smile please," the man said. "Not quite so serious."
He'd dodged out from behind the dark cloth. He had a yellow black face and pimples on his chin.
I looked down at my white dress, the one I had got for my birthday, and my legs and the white socks coming half way up my legs, and the black shiny shoes with the strap over the instep.
"Now," the man said.
I tried but my arm shot up of its own accord.
"Oh what a pity, she moved."
"You must keep still," my mother said, frowning.
Those who are familiar with the work of Jean Rhys will recognize in this opening passage of her autobiography the defining characteristics and world view of the central character of her fiction. Repeatedly, Rhys's heroine—a vulnerable, intelligent, perceptive, helpless woman—is told what to do, tries to do it, fails, and is looked upon with a combination of...
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SOURCE: "Jean Rhys," in Partisan Review, Vol. XLIX, No. 1, 1982, pp. 92-100.
[In the following essay, Bamber provides an overview of Rhys's fiction, literary career, and critical reception.]
Jean Rhys, who died in 1978 at age eighty-four, lived long enough to ride the wheel of literary fashion full circle. Taken up by Ford Madox Ford in the twenties, she was completely forgotten two decades later. In 1958 a British radio producer advertised for news of her whereabouts; Rhys herself answered the ad from Devon and subsequently resumed her literary career. Since the publication of Wide Sargasso Sea in 1966, there has been a steady growth of interest in her stories and novels. One by one all her books of the twenties and thirties have been reissued and enthusiastically reviewed; the final accolade came several years ago when A. Alvarez, writing in the New York Times, called her "the best living English novelist." Recently, articles of literary criticism have begun to appear on Rhys. Her readers seem confident that the job of evaluation is over and that her books may be treated as classics.
It would be interesting to know Rhys's own attitude towards her second wave of literary success. It was clearly gratifying to her at some level; under its influence she wrote the later stories published in the New Yorker and collected in Sleep It Off, Lady (1976). But Rhys was...
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SOURCE: "The Art and Economics of Destitution in Jean Rhys's After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie," in Studies in the Novel, Vol. XVI, No. 2, Summer, 1984, pp. 215-27.
[In the following essay, Davidson offers analysis of the characters, narrative structure, and thematic concerns of After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie.]
Jean Rhys published her first four novels to little notice in the 1920s and 1930s and then passed into a long oblivion but one that she survived to see herself proclaimed in 1974 as "quite simply, the best living English novelist." However, as Elizabeth Abel subsequently observed, a belated recognition of Rhys's genius as a writer does not itself do full justice to that genius, and, "despite her exceptional technical skill and the relevance of her subject matter to the women's movement," her fiction "has [still] received little critical attention." Moreover, Rhys is commonly viewed, in Todd Bender's wording, as "the author of one masterpiece [and] four less interesting novels." Wide Sargasso Sea, the acknowledged masterpiece and Rhys's fifth and final novel, has, of course, received the preponderance of critical attention. Bender observes, too, that a general critical concern with Rhys's "topicality … carries its own dangers," one of which is a tendency to overlook how "seriously [she was] engaged in the modernist movement in literature."
The present essay is intended to...
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SOURCE: "Man the Enemy," in The Female Form: Women Writers and the Conquest of the Novel, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987, pp. 132-47.
[In the following excerpt, Miles discusses the depiction of female alienation and social subjugation in Rhys's fiction. "In the work of Jean Rhys," writes Miles, "female self-distrust and despair finds its extremest voice."]
'Men—they're so funny—they simply must have you,' said Estelle. 'It's all they want—you. It's imperative they make love to you there and then or, well, they'll die. And then whoops, it's all over and they're not even sure why you're there, in the bed beside them, taking up so much room. It's not that they lied to you in the first place. It's just that they're different. We don't want the sex all that much—although it's perfectly nice—we want the love afterwards. We make love to win love, and they to lose it'.
Sally Emerson, Listeners (1983)
A curse from the depths of womanhood,
Is very salt, and bitter, and good.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 'A Curse for a Nation'
'The man, the male, the important person, the only person who matters.' This phrase, from 1928, might have been taken straight from the pages of any of...
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SOURCE: "'And it Kept its Secret': Narration, Memory, and Madness in Jean Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea," in Critique: Studies in Modern Fiction, Vol. XXVIII, No. 4, Summer, 1987, pp. 195-209.
[In the following essay, Mezei examines the narrative structure and presentation of Antoinette's madness in Wide Sargasso Sea. According to Mezei, Antoinette's deteriorating mental state is linked to her inability to remember and recount her story.]
Very soon she'll join all the others who know the secret and will not tell it. Or cannot. Or try and fail because they do not know enough…. She's one of them. I too can wait—for the day when she is only a memory to be avoided, looked away, and like all memories a legend. Or a lie…. (Wide Sargasso Sea)
With these vengeful words, Rochester closes his narration, the disturbing story of his marriage in Jamaica to Antoinette Cosway (Mason), the first Mrs. Rochester. Soon enough Rochester has transformed Antoinette from a speaking subject into an object, an other, a locked-away madwoman—a lie. As a character and a narrator, Rochester has committed one kind of narratorial lie, but, according to Jean Rhys, the author of Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë, had engendered another, equally serious lie:
The Creole in Charlotte Brontë's novel is a lay...
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SOURCE: "The Artist Emerging," in Critical Perspectives on Jean Rhys, edited by Pierrette M. Frickey, Three Continents Press, 1990, pp. 148-57.
[In the following essay, Nebeker discusses the presentation of female archetypes, mythic patterns, and shifting perspective in After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie.]
In her second novel, After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie, Jean Rhys presents a work so complex that it defies discussion. This complexity has led critics to a consistent oversimplification and misconstruing of the novel's impact. The plot is at once deceivingly simple in thrust and complicated in detail. The setting is April in Paris, the heroine Julia Martin, the time some ten years after World War I. As the story opens, Julia is living in a cheap room, recovering from psychic wounds incurred six months earlier, when Mr. Mackenzie had ended their love affair. A "decent Englishman," Mackenzie has been sending Julia a weekly allowance of three hundred francs, but now, in April, having sent her a severance check of fifteen hundred francs, he abjures further responsibility. Julia, in a rage, seeks him out in a nearby restaurant and, in an embarrassing public scene, melodramatically returns his check. Later the same evening, she meets George Horsfield, a young Englishman, and accepts from him, during the course of a platonic evening, fifteen hundred francs. George sympathetically encourages Julia to return to...
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SOURCE: "The Secret of Wide Sargasso Sea," in Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, Vol. XXXI, No. 3, Spring, 1990, pp. 185-97.
[In the following essay, Curtis examines the use of paradoxical imagery and metaphor to portray Antoinette's death and transformation in Wide Sargasso Sea.]
In "Making Bricks Without Straw," Jean Rhys remembers a typical question-and-answer game she played with many journalists who interviewed her. Before long, the game gently pushed her into her "predestined role, the role of victim." This means, says Rhys, that "I have never had any good times, never laughed, never got my own back, never dared, never worn pretty clothes, never been happy, never known wild hopes or wilder despairs…. Wailing, I have gone from tyrant to tyrant; each letdown worse than the last. All this, of course, leads straight to Women's Lib." As the game went on, Rhys shocked the interviewer when she said that she "didn't like the suffragettes much" and told how one threw herself in front of a horse. Rhys could only feel sorry for the horse. No doubt the woman was wonderful—she wanted to be a martyr, but the horse did not: "He had to be shot." Inevitably, some will interpret Rhys's sympathy for the horse in terms of the now-worn-out statement that Rhys sympathized with the underdog because she herself was a victim.
Critics persist in not so gently pushing Rhys and her...
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Berry, Betsy. "'Between Dog and Wolf': Jean Rhys's Version of Naturalism in After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie." Studies in the Novel 27, No. 4 (Winter 1995): 544-62.
Offers critical analysis of After Leaving Mr. Mackenzie, drawing attention to Rhys's stylistic connection to French naturalism.
Borinsky, Alicia. "Jean Rhys: Poses of a Woman as Guest." Poetics Today 6, Nos. 1-2 (1985): 229-43.
Examines the characterization of female protagonists in Rhys's fiction.
Erwin, Lee. "'Like in a Looking-Glass': History and Narrative in Wide Sargasso Sea." Novel: A Forum on Fiction 22, No. 2 (Winter 1989): 143-58.
Discusses the historical underpinnings of Wide Sargasso Sea, particularly Rhys's portrayal of racism, nationalism, and divided self-identity in the West Indies after the Emancipation Act of 1833.
Howells, Coral Ann. Jean Rhys. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Book-length critical study of Rhys's novels and short stories, including discussion of her placement as a feminist, colonial, and modernist author.
Kendrick, Robert. "Edward Rochester and the Margins of Masculinity in Jane Eyre and...
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