Biography (Critical Survey of Poetry: American Poets)
James Russell Lowell was born into an important New England family that had been playing a prominent role in Massachusetts history ever since a wealthy merchant from Bristol, Percival Lowell, had helped to found the town of Newbury. Lowell’s grandfather was a lawyer, a leading member of the Continental Congress. The poet’s uncle, Francis Cabot Lowell, was one of the leading industrialists of the age, having given the family name to a factory town on the banks of the Merrimac River. His cousin was founder of Boston’s Lowell Institute, and descendants of these Lowells, the poets Amy and Robert, kept the family name before readers well into the twentieth century. To be born into such a family meant that Lowell was outfitted for success from birth. His parents had him reading before he was four, translating French before he was ten, studying Latin and Greek in the small classical school run by William Wells, and gaining admission to Harvard by the time he was fifteen.
The youngest of six children, Lowell never quite outgrew the advantages his family so willingly bestowed on him. As it turned out, he lived and died in the same familial mansion, Elmwood, in which he was born. His father helped to subsidize his first three volumes of poetry. In 1854, his cousin helped to launch his academic career by paying him to deliver a series of lectures at the Lowell Institute. The lectures turned out well enough to convince a close family friend, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, to campaign to have him appointed to a professorship at Harvard the following year. Another cousin, James Elliot Cabot, as well as Longfellow and Ralph Waldo Emerson, recommended him for the editorship of the newly established Atlantic Monthly in 1867. The Lowell name and fortune, together with the conservative political commentary that he wrote for The Atlantic Monthly and the North American Review, proved to be influential enough to launch him eventually on a diplomatic career. By 1877, his support of President Hayes had netted him an appointment as the American ambassador to Spain. By 1880, he had...
(The entire section is 858 words.)
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
James Russell Lowell (LOH-uhl) was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on February 22, 1819. A life-long leader of the Cambridge group of nineteenth century literary New Englanders, he managed to crowd a number of careers into his seventy-two years of life. He was a poet, a radical political writer, a conservative political writer, a satirist, an editor, a critic, a diplomat, and a teacher. In all these efforts he won the praise of his contemporaries. Today his reputation as poet and as critic has considerably diminished, indicating perhaps that much of the greatness attributed to him during his lifetime was attributable to the force of his personal qualities as a speaker and public figure and to his urbanity and wit. Even though modern re-evaluation has diminished his stature as an artist, he is still one of the most active and most versatile figures in American literature.
This versatility was demonstrated as early as his college days. As an upper-class New Englander, he naturally attended Harvard University, and there he read widely but studied indifferently. He began his career as a poet with contributions to the college magazine, Harvardiana, which he edited during his final year. He was elected class poet but was unable to deliver the class poem for the graduation exercises.
He graduated from Harvard in 1838 and devoted the next two years to the study of law. Although he received his law degree in 1840 and set up practice for a time, his primary interest was in literature, and to that he soon completely turned, publishing his first volume of poetry, A Year’s Life, in 1841 and making his first professional venture as an editor with the founding of the short-lived...
(The entire section is 704 words.)