Coope, James Fenimore
James Fenimore Coope 1789-1851
American novelist, essayist, historian, travel writer, and satirist.
For additional information about Cooper's life and career, see ; for discussion of Cooper's Leatherstocking novels, see .
Cooper, who created a uniquely American myth of the pioneer with his historical romances, is considered the first major American novelist and is often credited with establishing the United States as a major force in world literature. Most American critics concur with regards to the historical importance of his works, although some scholars still dismiss him as an artist because of his crude style. However, praise from such writers as D. H. Lawrence, combined with a recent increase in Cooper scholarship, has brought his achievements to light as one of the first American novelists to undertake the creation of a distinct national literature, appropriating his country's history as the central theme of his work.
Born in Burlington, New Jersey, Cooper moved with his family in 1790 to Cooperstown, New York, an upstate town founded and governed by his father and which later served as a model for the frontier communities of Cooper's fiction. Cooper was sent to Yale at age thirteen, though he was eventually expelled for misconduct. In 1805 he entered the Navy, serving for six years and later drawing on his experiences to write such factually accurate sea tales as The Pilot (1824) and The Red Rover (1828). An inheritance from his father enabled him to leave the Navy in 1811, marry, and lead a leisured existence for about a decade, during which time he fell deeply in debt. In 1826, Cooper left the United States for Europe, where he both defended American democracy and developed sympathy for the aristocratic point of view; he returned to the United States in 1833. By 1850 he had fallen ill, and, returning to Cooperstown, he died the following year, leaving behind a vast and varied body of work.
In response to a declaration to his wife that he could write a better novel than the one they were reading, Cooper began his literary career with Precaution (1820), a weak imitation of Jane Austen. Although this novel was largely ignored, his next, The Spy (1821), met with astounding success and established Cooper as the most prominent American writer of his time. Two years later he published The Pioneers (1823), the first of his "Leatherstocking Tales," a series of five novels that also includes The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). Presenting a fictional rendering of United States history, the Leatherstocking Tales established a number of cultural archetypes, including that of the noble native American as well as the savage and treacherous counterpart of this figure. The Leatherstocking novels also feature Cooper's most enduring character, the backwoodsman Natty Bumppo, who has become a national legend and representation of a fictional paradigm of the American character. For The Pioneers, Cooper took as his model the historical romance made popular by Sir Walter Scott, telling a story of the American frontier in a form that had traditionally depended on the cultural background of European history. The uniquely American characters, settings, and themes of The Pioneers engaged the nation's nostalgia for an appealing and historically rich period of the recent past, and Cooper developed the frontier romance and the central character of Leatherstocking further in The Last of the Mohicans and The Prairie. For more than a decade thereafter, Cooper espoused republican social and political convictions in fiction and nonfiction which criticized European forms of government and condemned American reliance on foreign culture. These works were not well received: the readers and critics who extolled Cooper as America's first historical romancer did not accept him in the role of social and political critic. After writing several politically-oriented travel books, Cooper returned to fiction, completing the Leatherstocking Tales with The Pathfinder and The Deerslayer, often considered his finest works. While there are indications that he had intended to conclude the series with The Prairie—which depicts Leatherstocking's death and the retreat of the westward vanguard of settlers—some commentators suggest that he returned to the Leatherstocking saga primarily to recoup the critical and popular regard that had attended the earlier novels in the series. In 1845, Cooper began the "Littlepage Trilogy," a defense of landed aristocracy which sprang from the "Anti-Rent" conflict and pitted the landowners of New York against rebellious squatters. In his last few novels, particularly The Crater (1847) and The Ways of the Hour (1850), Cooper turned to more religious and aristocratic themes, defending his notion that democracy could survive only if privileges were granted to the gentry.
Critics have often noted the influence of the wilderness on Cooper throughout his writing career, praising his depictions of the American landscape. However, some scholars have asserted that his detailed natural descriptions overshadow his plots and characters. Throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century and in the first part of the twentieth, literary historians generally acknowledged Cooper as a leading figure in the development of American literary nationalism, but considered his actual achievement of little importance. Beginning in the 1960s, Cooper's works have undergone a revaluation, focusing for the most part on the Leatherstocking novels. Individual studies have examined Cooper's use of historical sources; his treatment of women and native American characters; his facility with landscape description, an aspect of Cooper's literary art that is almost universally commended; and the explication of the hierarchy of class distinctions that is a salient feature of the series. Many commentators have also suggested that Cooper has been undervalued, contending that as America's first popularly successful man of letters, his contribution to the literary and cultural life of his country was considerable. Current study of Cooper has concentrated on his social and political views, noting that the conflict between his democratic and aristocratic sympathies, which he tried to reconcile in his writing, contributed to the decline of his reputation both at home and abroad.
Precaution (novel) 1820
The Spy (novel) 1821
*The Pioneers; or, The Sources of the Susquehanna (novel) 1823
The Pilot (novel) 1824
Lionel Lincoln; or, The Leagues of Boston (novel) 1825
The Last of the Mohicans (novel) 1826
The Prairie (novel) 1827
Notions of the Americans (travel essay) 1828
The Red Rover (novel) 1828
The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish (novel) 1829; published in England as The Borderers; or, The Wept of Wish-tonWish
The Water-Witch; or, The Skimmer of the Seas (novel) 1830
The Bravo (novel) 1831
A Letter to His Countrymen (essay) 1834
The Monikins (satire) 1835
Sketches of Switzerland (travel essays) 1836; published in England as Excursions in Switzerland
Sketches of Switzerland: Part Second (travel essays) 1836; published in England as A Residence in France: With an Excursion up the Rhine, and a Second Visit to Switzerland
Gleanings in Europe (travel essays) 1837; published in England as Recollections of Europe
Gleanings in Europe: England (travel essays) 1837; published in England as...
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SOURCE: An introduction to The Spy, Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, 1849, pp. iii-vii.
[In the following introduction to The Spy, Cooper discusses the basis of the novel and the state of the union since the Revolutionary War.]
The author has often been asked if there were any foundation in real life for the delineation of the principal character in this book. He can give no clearer answer to the question than by laying before his readers a simple statement of the facts connected with its original publication.
Many years since, the writer of this volume was at the residence of an illustrious man, who had been employed in various situations of high trust during the darkest days of the American Revolution. The discourse turned upon the effects which great political excitement produces on character, and the purifying consequences of a love of country, when that sentiment is powerfully and generally awakened in a people. He who, from his years, his services, and his knowledge of men, was best qualified to take the lead in such a conversation, was the principal speaker. After dwelling on the marked manner in which the great struggle of the nation, during the war of 1775, had given a new and honorable direction to the thoughts and practices of multitudes whose time had formerly been engrossed by the most vulgar concerns of life, he illustrated his opinions by relating an anecdote, the...
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SOURCE: "Discourse on the Life, Genius, and Writings of J. Fenimore Cooper," in Precaution: A Novel by J. Fenimore Cooper, D. Appleton and Company, 1881, pp. v-xli.
[In the excerpt below, from the text of a lecture delivered in 1852 at a Public Memorial Meeting in honor of Cooper, Bryant surveys Cooper's career and assesses its significance.]
It is now somewhat more than a year since the friends of JAMES FENIMORE COOPER, in this city, were planning to give a public dinner in his honor. It was intended as an expression both of the regard they bore him personally, and of the pride they took in the glory his writings had reflected on the American name. We thought of what we should say in his hearing; in what terms, worthy of him and of us, we should speak of the esteem in which we held him, and of the interest we felt in a fame which had already penetrated to the remotest nook of the earth inhabited by civilized man.
To-day we assemble for a sadder purpose: to pay to the dead some part of the honors then intended for the living. We bring our offering, but he is not here who should receive it; in his stead are vacancy and silence; there is no eye to brighten at our words, and no voice to answer. "It is an empty office that we perform," said Virgil, in his melodious verses, when commemorating the virtues of the young Marcellus, and bidding flowers be strewn, with full hands, over his early...
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SOURCE: "1850-1851," in James Fenimore Cooper, Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1883, pp. 265-89.
[In the following excerpt, Lounsbury assesses the positive and negative characteristics of Cooper's writing.]
More than sixty years have gone by since Cooper began to write; more than thirty since he ceased to live. If his reputation has not advanced during the period that has passed since his death, it has certainly not receded. Nor does it seem likely to undergo much change in the future. The world has pretty well made up its mind as to the value of his work. The estimate in which it is held will not be materially raised or lowered by anything which criticism can now utter. This will itself be criticised for being too obvious; for it can do little but repeat, with variation of phrase, what has been constantly said and often better said before. There is, however, now a chance of its meeting with fairer consideration. The cloud of depreciation which seems to settle upon the achievement of every man of letters soon after death, it was Cooper's fortune to encounter during life. This was partly due to the literary reaction which had taken place against the form of fiction he adopted, but far more to the personal animosities he aroused. We are now far enough removed from the prejudices and passions of his time to take an impartial view of the man, and to state, without bias for or against him, the conclusions to...
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SOURCE: "Fenimore Cooper's Further Literary Offenses," in The New England Quarterly, Vol. XIX, No. 3, September, 1946, pp. 291-301.
[In the following essay, originally composed in 1895, Twain criticizes Cooper for his inflexible style and verbosity.]
Young Gentlemen: In studying Cooper you still find it profitable to study him in detail—word by word, sentence by sentence. For every sentence of his is interesting. Interesting because of its make-up, its peculiar make-up, its original make-up. Let us examine a sentence or two, and see. Here is a passage from Chapter XI of The Last of the Mohicans one of the most famous and most admired of Cooper's books:
Notwithstanding the swiftness of their flight, one of the Indians had found an opportunity to strike a straggling fawn with an arrow, and had borne the more preferable fragments of the victim, patiently on his shoulders, to the stopping-place. Without any aid from the science of cookery, he was immediately employed, in common with his fellows, in gorging himself with this digestible sustenance. Magua alone sat apart, without participating in the revolting meal, and apparently buried in the deepest thought.
This little paragraph is full of matter for reflection and inquiry. The remark about the swiftness of the flight was unnecessary, as it was merely put in to...
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SOURCE: "A Note on Fenimore Cooper," in The Double Dealer, Vol. 7, No. 45, July, 1925, pp. 219-22.
[In the following essay, Grattan considers Cooper to be an overrated writer who is remembered today mostly for his personality rather than his writings.]
Among all the figures in American literature who have lately been under critical fire, Cooper has suffered as little as any. A curious chapter indeed could be written on the antics critics have gone through in swallowing him. Such a situation is not astonishing in the light of a knowledge of the dominant critics but it is astonishing to find so keen a man as Van Wyck Brooks concluding "the characters of Cooper lighted up a little fringe of the black uncut forest; they linked the wilderness with our own immemorial world," when he has dealt so caustically with figures of vastly greater literary importance. Part of this may be explained perhaps through reference to selective forgetting. A great many people formerly read Cooper in childhood, and in after years he assumed a place in the delirious haze that spread over those years, taking a place with tops, marbles, and the multiplicity of games. But today I doubt that it is so. The urge that he satisfied is catered to by the motion pictures and in spite of the fact that his books are still issued in elaborate illustrated editions I doubt that he is popular. The boy of immediate yesterday read Horatio Alger and...
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SOURCE: "Cooper: The First Phase," in The World of Washington Irving, E. P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1944, pp. 167-82.
[In the following essay, Brooks discusses the influence of the sea on Cooper's early fiction.]
While Irving was exploring England, another New Yorker, six years younger, who had served for a while in the navy after going to Yale, had married and settled in Westchester county, where he lived as a country gentleman without so much as a thought of writing a book. In 1819, James Fenimore Cooper was thirty years old, and he was looking forward to a farmer's life, planting trees at Angevine, the house he had built at Scarsdale, grading his lawns, building fences, grouping the shrubs and draining the swamps.
Cooper had inherited from the founder of Cooperstown, his father, a sufficiently ample fortune and twenty-three farms, and his wife was one of the De Lanceys, the old New York Huguenot family, who had connections in New Rochelle, near by. He had spent some years at sea, his youth had been adventurous, he had acted, like Irving, as a colonel on the governor's staff, and he was thoroughly enjoying a leisurely existence, visiting his neighbours, riding and reading to his wife. He knew Shakespeare well enough to find in him appropriate mottoes for hundreds of the chapters that he wrote later, but, while he kept up with the Waverley novels and liked Jane Austen and Mrs....
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SOURCE: "Chapter IX," in James Fenimore Cooper, Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1950, pp. 221-64.
[In the following essay, Grossman discusses Cooper's political views and the influence of European values on his writings.]
Cooper's literary career, beginning haphazardly without conscious preparation or plan and advancing rapidly to world fame, in its apparently eccentric course from the time of the European experience onward touches on almost every situation that can confront the American writer or that criticism insists on confronting him with. The questions so often argued since are thoroughly argued in Cooper's work and in contemporary criticism of it: whether an American writer expatriates himself and loses touch with his own country by living abroad; whether it is dangerous for his development to write on "foreign" subjects; the extent to which he should be influenced by popular opinion and, conversely, should try to influence it; his role in American civilization, and his duty both to represent and to create it.
Stated bluntly the questions seem unprofitable and unreal, but they have a historical reality. They are as old as American literature, and in fact largely preceded it. Before there was a national literature a critical attitude toward it, an anxious parental expectation of what it was to achieve, had been developed. The questions are significant not for the answers that we may give...
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SOURCE: "Red Satan: Cooper and the American Indian Epic," in James Fenimore Cooper: New Critical Essays, edited by Robert Clark, Vision and Barnes & Noble, 1985, pp. 143-61.
[In the following essay, McWilliams contends that Cooper failed to employ the epic and romantic imagery that his contemporaries used to describe American Indians.]
Americans who first conceived of heroic historical romance about the American Indian may have lacked facts about the red man, but they were familiar with conflicting preconceptions of him. Cooper, Bird, and Simms had all read historical sources which portrayed Indians as Homeric warriors living on in the American forest. They were also drawn in varying degrees to the Enlightenment belief that the red man had been Nature's noble savage, Man in all his unspoiled virtue. To a generation raised on Homer and Milton, yet exposed to the continuing demand for an American epic in verse or prose, these conflicting images suggested usable literary parallels. To imagine the Indian as hard, solitary, unyielding, aging and doomed (Hector, Achilles, Turnus, Satan) would prompt romancers and historians to create the Big Serpent, Magua, Mahtoree, Sanutee and Pontiac. To imagine the Indian as graceful, generous, pliable, young and equally doomed (Apollo, Patroclus, Achates, Chactas) would lead the same writers to create Uncas, Hard Heart and Occonestoga. Although these two models of...
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SOURCE: "Liberal Conservatives: Macaulay, Cooper, Tocqueville," in The Conservative Mind: From Burke to Eliot, revised edition, Regnery Books, 1987, pp. 185-204.
[In the following excerpt, Kirk discusses Cooper's political views, especially how his aristocratic sympathies shaped his views on democracy.]
In Democracies there is a besetting disposition to make publick opinion stronger than the law. This is the particular form in which tyranny exhibits itself in a popular government; for wherever there is power, there will be found a disposition to abuse it. Whoever opposes the interests, or wishes of the publick, however right in principle, or justifiable by circumstances, finds little sympathy; for, in a democracy, resisting the wishes of the many, is resisting the sovereign, in his caprices. Every good citizen is bound to separate this influence of his private feelings from his publick duties, and to take heed that, while pretending to be struggling for liberty, because contending for the advantage of the greatest number, he is not helping despotism. The most insinuating and dangerous form in which oppression can overshadow a community is that of popular sway.
—Cooper, The American Democrat
Anyone who endeavors to trace the parallel development of ideas in Europe and in America must feel sometimes that he is...
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SOURCE: "'A Parental Affection': Law and Identity in Cooper's America," in "The Guardian of the Law": Authority and Identity in James Fenimore Cooper, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990, pp. 1-24.
[In the following essay, Adams contends that Cooper was ambivalent toward the law in America because he "was impelled to believe—emotionally and intellectually—in the law's ability to achieve both social and individual integrity by the same set of historical and psychological conditions that encouraged him to reject the law as divisive. "]
Early in The Prairie, deep in the long night that opens the novel, Natty Bumppo and Ishmael Bush have a conversation about one of Cooper's persistent concerns—property law. The squatter has just been robbed of his horses by the Tetons, so Natty's innocent observation that the Indians consider themselves owners of the plains, and thus entitled to all it holds, draws from Bush a predictably angry response:
"Owners!" echoed the squatter. "I am as rightful an owner of the land I stand on, as any governor in the States! Can you tell me, stranger, where the law or reason, is to be found, which says that one man shall have . . . perhaps a county, to his use, and another have to beg for 'arth to make his grave in. This is not natur and I deny that it is law. That is, your...
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Grossman, James. James Fenimore Cooper. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1949, 286 p.
Biographical and critical study that includes discussion of the Leatherstocking novels.
Quinn, Arthur Hobson. "James Fenimore Cooper." In American Fiction: An Historical and Critical Survey, pp. 53-76. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1936.
Survey of Cooper's career, naming the Leatherstocking novels as his best works.
Baym, Nina. "The Women of Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales." American Quarterly XXIII, No. 5 (December 1971): 696-709.
Examines the role of women in the Leatherstocking novels.
Beers, Henry A. "James Fenimore Cooper, 1789-1889." The Critic 15, No. 298 (14 September 1889): 125-26.
Pronounces the Leatherstocking novels to be Cooper's "surest claim to immortality."
Bier, Jesse. "Lapsarians on The Prairie: Cooper's Novel." Texas Studies in Literature and Language IV, No. 1 (Spring 1962): 49-57.
Contends that a mythic Christian pattern of a fall from grace underlies the action of The Prairie....
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