The Irish Famine as Represented in Nineteenth-Century Literature
The Irish Famine as Represented in Nineteenth-Century Literature
By 1845, Ireland had become familiar with the unreliability of their staple crop—they had suffered through intermittent potato crop failures throughout the previous one hundred or so years, and the hunger that resulted from the failures of 1800, 1817, and 1822 had even been widespread enough to have been described as "famine." So when the crop of 1845—which by early indications promised to be bountiful—began to fail due to an inexplicable rot that destroyed the potatoes even before they had been dug up, many believed that the abundance of the crop would compensate for these losses. By winter, however, the rot had even blackened and spoiled the tubers that had been stored in pits. Reports of potato crop failures in the United States and, later, Europe, had made their way to England and Ireland, but in general the British government ignored the ramifications of the possibility that the disease would make its way to Ireland. Meanwhile, the Irish farmer made extra efforts to ensure that the crop of 1846-47 would be better. In fact, this season became known as "Black '47," the year in which the potato disease destroyed crops throughout the countryside; the year that marked the beginning of the "Great Famine"; and the first of several years in which record numbers of people died from starvation, malnutrition, dysentery, cholera, and typhoid fever. The Famine claimed countless numbers of victims (estimates range into the millions) throughout the late 1840s. Many of those who managed to stay alive fled to other countries, often to the United States. A cure for the potato blight (the disease was actually a fungus which was eventually identified as Phythophthora infestans) was not developed until 1882.
Critics note that the literature of this time period is scarred with incomplete, disjointed images—such as the "skeletal spectre" of death—which recur throughout the poetry and prose. Many Famine writers begin to describe a scene of a starving child, or a cabin whose emaciated inhabitants lie dead in the corner, only to abruptly depart from the image, refusing to detail it further. Often the same writers note their uncertainty regarding their ability, or even their right, to describe with words the horror of the Famine. This uncertainty, and these fragmented images, are the thread which binds together the vast array of Famine literature.
The political history of the Famine years is touched upon to varying degrees in the novels, poetry, and narratives of the time period. This history is not just that of Ireland, but that of England as well, for Ireland's history is inextricably tangled with England's. In 1801, the Act of Union between England and Ireland had made the two countries one, merging their economies and political structures; and historians, among others interested in the affairs of England and Ireland, have debated the role of British politics in the Famine. Some pose the question of whether the disaster could have been averted altogether, or, at the very least, if the suffering could have been assuaged to a greater degree than it was in reality. Others defend Britain's policies. Even some of the literature of the time period, especially Anthony Trollope's Castle Richmond (1860), while sympathizing with the victims of the Famine, seems to argue that the Famine was a "blessing in disguise" for the Irish, brought about by either God or nature, in that it created the suffering necessary for the emergence of a more equitable social order. From this standpoint—that the Famine was required either by nature or by God—Britain's policy of limited intervention is justified. Many contemporary and modern observers, however, revolted by the concept of the Famine as a blessing of any kind, agree that the British government did too little, too late, for the nation it occupied.
For a variety of reasons, the social, political, and economic structure of pre-Famine Ireland, which had been occupied for decades by the English, left Irish peasants in a position of absolute dependence upon the land, and on the potato in particular, for their existence. Irish farmers were tenants, most often renting land from absentee English or Irish landlords. The Irish paid a high price for the land—many times much higher than its actual value—but they had little choice, for without land, the Irish farmer had no means of supporting his family. As the population as well as unemployment increased, the rented land was subdivided until several families settled on a patch that could only grow enough potatoes to support one family. When the disease struck potato crops in 1845, and as crop failures continued throughout the next several years, the effect on a people completely reliant on one crop was utter devastation.
At the time of the Famine, England was experiencing its own economic crisis, and the concerns of Ireland were often viewed as trivial in light of this. Reports of widespread famine in Ireland were accused of being exaggerated. A few government officials advocated public relief efforts in Ireland, and finally, in 1847, some government aid was provided in the form of public works projects, soup kitchens, and workhouses. Critics of Britain's aid, contemporary and modern, argue that none of these efforts addressed the agricultural issues that formed the heart of the Famine problem. Britain's relief efforts, or lack thereof, also became a rallying point for the Irish nationalist movement during these years, and the literature of the time period, particularly poetry, which details the suffering of Famine victims was praised and published by Irish nationalist papers, including The Nation and The United Irishman. These publications, however, were often either ignored or derided in England.
Novels written during this time period were authored by upper-class men and women, rather than by the peasantry decimated by famine, and often came down rather softly on the British handling of the Famine, even as they offered harsh and painful images of Famine victims. The most frequently noted problem of most Famine novels—cited by contemporary and modern critics alike—is the apparent conflict between the story itself and famine analysis. Often the Famine backdrop is a marginal, and even obtrusive, part of the novels. This problem is shared by two of the most well-known nineteenth-century Famine novels: Trollope's Castle Richmond and William Carleton's The Black Prophet (1847). Modern analysis of Trollope's work, however, has attempted to prove that the Famine is neither incidental to Castle Richmond nor a separate story that should have been handled as such, as previously argued in the May, 1860, edition of the Saturday Review. Rather, critic Hugh Hennedy argues that Trollope parallels the plight of the Fitzgerald family with the plight of Ireland itself: as the Fitzgerald family emerges strengthened after its dealings with an unscrupulous member of the middle class, so does the whole of Ireland emerge "almost with triumph" from the Famine, as "the idle, genteel class has been cut up root and branch" and the "poor cotter .. . has risen from his bed of suffering a better man." Similarly, Christopher Morash demonstrates that the seemingly incidental depiction of the Famine in the novels of the time actually serves a purpose. Morash contends that Castle Richmond and two other novels (Margaret Brew's The Chronicles of Castle Cloyne; or, Pictures of the Munster People  and Annie Keary's Castle Daly: The Story of an Irish Home Thirty Years Ago ) view the Famine as "a Malthusian 'check' upon extravagance, moderating the two extremes of society, making them both more like the middle class." While the advent of this new social order is prescribed by the conventions of the novel, Morash maintains, the authors convey details about Famine suffering as a reminder that establishing an empowered middle class comes at a heavy cost.
Like these novels' apparently incidental depictions of the Famine, which arguably convey a larger meaning, Famine poetry contains fragmented, unfinished images which seem to stop short of portraying the fully horrific nature of the Famine. Modern critics, such as Morash, maintain that the disjointed and incomplete nature of these images stems from the hesitancy of Famine poets to describe the indescribable. Such images include that of death as a "skeletal spectre" (due to the emaciated appearance of the living and the dead) and that of the "green-mouthed corpse" (referring to individuals who tried to eat grass to ease their hunger but died nonetheless, often with masticated grass still in their mouths). The reuse of these images in later Famine writings, Morash explains, contributed to the formation of collective, constructive memories among the Irish as a people, and that such memories are displayed in twentieth-century art and literature, including the 1990 film The Field. In a separate essay, Morash also discusses the role of Famine poetry, particularly that of the millenarianism movement and poets such as James Clarence Mangan, in supporting the Irish nationalist movement. Critic Margaret Kelleher agrees with the significance Morash attributes to Famine poetry when, in her discussion of the poetry most often published in widely available Irish periodicals, she states that such works "played an important role in nationalist famine historiography." Kelleher lists the themes of eviction, starvation, and emigration as highly prevalent in Famine poetry. Nationalists sought to use the poetic depiction of these themes, the results of the Famine, to incite rebellion against England.
In addition to poetry and novels, eye-witness accounts were transcribed during the Famine. Such narratives, some twentieth-century critics argue, have long been overlooked by historians. Kelleher asserts that this dismissal is perhaps due to the fear by some historians that the material is too subjective or overly emotional. She maintains that a significant amount of research on the nature and influence of such accounts has yet to be undertaken and offers her own examination of the first-hand experiences of one American woman—Asenath Nicholson—during the Famine years. K. D. M. Snell agrees that the eye-witness narratives are sources too often discounted by historians. Snell describes one such account, that of the Scottish-born Alexander Somerville, who traveled throughout Ireland during 1847 and recorded all aspects of rural life, including the human effects of the Famine, and issues such as tenant rights, the dependance of the Irish peasant on the land, and the Poor-Law system. Just as such accounts are so frequently overlooked by modern scholars, contemporary readers often considered the reports exaggerated in order to muster sympathy for the Irish among the British, or to urge the revolt of the Irish against the British. In fact, in 1845, an editorial in the Achill Herald summarized the work of Nicholson: "It appears to us that the principal object of this woman's mission is to create a spirit of discontent among the lower orders and to dispose them to regard their superiors as so many unfeeling oppressors. ... "
The Irish Famine has been compared to the Holocaust in dimension, despite other obvious differences. It is not surprising, therefore, that the literature of the time period has been undergoing such a thorough re-examination by twentieth-century readers and critics. Modern reviewers of Famine literature, poetry, and narratives are perhaps as much moved to horror and its accompanying sympathy by the stark depictions of the Famine—sometimes edged with agony and despair, sometimes softened but rarely eased by memory—as they are by an effort to learn about and from the historical event itself.
The Chronicles of Castle Cloyne; or, Pictures of the Munster People (novel) 1885
The Black Prophet (novel) 1847
Aubrey De Vere
"The Desolation of the West" (poem) 1869
"Ode: After One of the Famine Years" (poem) 1869
"Dublin: A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal" (satire) 1849 "Inheritor and Economist: A Poem" (satire) 1849
John De Jean Frazer
"The Harvest Pledge" (poem) 1848
"The Artisan's Apology for Emigrating" (poem) 1849
Mary Anne Hoare
Shamrock Leaves (tales and sketches) 1851
Castle Daly: The Story of an Irish Home Thirty Years Ago (novel) 1875
"To the Cholera" (poem) 1848
James Clarence Mangan
"The Warning Voice" (poem) 1846
"A Vision: A.D. 1848" (poem)...
(The entire section is 180 words.)
Margaret Kelleher (essay date 1995)
SOURCE: "Irish Famine in Literature," in The Great Irish Famine, edited by Cathal Póirtéir, Mercier Press, 1995, pp. 232-47.
[In the following excerpt, Kelleher surveys Famine novels and poetry, maintaining that one of the primary issues concerning nineteenth-century Famine literature is the fulfillment of "its role in preserving and shaping the memory of famine for succeeding generations. "]
In William Carleton's famine novel, The Black Prophet, the narrator hesitates before the task of describing a famine victim with the exclamation, 'But how shall we describe it?'1 Such a question recurs throughout Irish famine literature: can the experience of famine be expressed; is language adequate to a description of famine's horrors? Fears as to language's adequacy in face of overwhelming events also appear in other literary contexts, most famously in writings concerning the Holocaust by George Steiner and others. Steiner's work expresses a further anxiety as to whether such representations should even be attempted: 'The world of Auschwitz lies outside speech as it lies outside reason. To speak of the unspeakable is to risk the survivance of language as creator and bearer of humane, rational truth'.2
Analogies between famine and the Holocaust, while suggestive, are limited; but significant comments...
(The entire section is 7799 words.)
A. M. Sullivan (essay date 1877)
SOURCE: "The Black Forty-Seven," in New Ireland, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1877, pp. 121-43.
[The following essay is taken from Sullivan's New Ireland, which was published just thirty years after the Famine of 1847. In the essay Sullivan attempts not a "formal history" of the Famine, but a history based on his own "personal observation," describing the political, social, and economic forces that contributed to the great tragedy.]
There is probably no subject on which such painful misunderstanding and bitter recrimination have prevailed between the peoples of England and Ireland as the Irish famine. The enmities and antagonisms arising out of other historical events were at all events comprehensible. The havoc and devastation which ensued upon the Royalist-Cromwellian war of 1641-1650, the confiscations and proscriptions which followed the Stuart struggle in 1690, the insurrection of 1798, and the overthrow of the Irish constitution in 1800, were causes of ire, on the one side or the other, as to the reality of which there was at least no controversy. But it was not so in this case. The English people, remembering only the sympathy and compassion which they felt, the splendid contributions which they freely bestowed in that sad time, are shocked and angered beyond endurance when they hear Irishmen refer to the famine as a...
(The entire section is 12616 words.)
Hugh L. Hennedy (essay date 1972)
SOURCE: "Love and Famine, Family and Country in Trollope's Castle Richmond," in É ire-Ireland, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter, 1972, pp. 48-66.
[In the following essay, Hennedy examines the relationship in Anthony Trollope's Castle Richmond (1860) between the love story and the Famine backdrop. The critic argues, contrary to earlier scholarship, that Trollope established a thematic and situational parallelism in the novel between family and country, but concedes that both examples of such parallelism suffer to a degree from disproportion.]
Although Castle Richmond (1860), Anthony Trollope's ninth novel, "was at once translated into five different languages—Dutch, Danish, French, German, and Russian ..." and "No other Trollope novel was so honored,"1 it has not turned out to be one of Trollope's more popular novels. It has not, for instance, been reprinted in the Oxford World's Classics series, the edition that contains more of Trollope's novels than any other modern edition.2 And one critic in the twentieth century has even gone so far as to damn Castle Richmond as one of Trollope's absolute failures, as one of the six Trollope novels "that may be eternally and remorselessly forgotten as though they had never been born."3
When, however, he came to write his autobiography some...
(The entire section is 19018 words.)
Chris Morash (essay date 1989)
SOURCE: An introduction to The Hungry Voice: The Poetry of the Irish Famine, edited by Chris Morash, Irish Academic Press, 1989, pp. 15-39.
[In the following survey of Famine poetry, Morash claims that the Famine "left the poets of the 1840s abandoned by tradition," citing the difficulties the poets experienced trying to respond to the enormous tragedy and the fact that the subject matter resisted the Victorian poetic tendency to marry form with meaning.]
It is not the literal past, the 'facts' of history' that shape us,
but images of the past embodied in language.'
Brian Friel, Translations
If you were to hike across Achill Island in County Mayo, you would find a village of roofless cottages in the island's centre, the empty shells of an entire community, piled stone upon stone. Their counterparts can be found singly and in clusters throughout every county in Ireland. There, on that silent hillside, it takes little effort of the imagination to see the peasant farmer of the first half of the last century carrying each one of those stones from his tiny, irregular field, lifting it and fitting it into place in the wall, stone upon stone. The mind's eye sees his young wife, holding the first of many children, tending to the pig, or digging at the small patch of...
(The entire section is 8663 words.)
Famine Letters And Eye-Witness Accounts
K. D. M. Snell (essay date 1994)
SOURCE: "Alexander Somerville and the Irish Famine," in Letters from Ireland during the Famine of 1847, by Alexander Somerville, edited by K. D. M. Snell, Irish Academic Press, 1994, pp. 7-24.
[The following is an introduction to Scottish writer Alexander Somerville's Letters from Ireland (the letters were originally published at the time of their composition  in newspaper reports in the Manchester Examiner, and later as part of Somerville's The Whistler at the Plough ). Snell offers a brief biography of Somerville—explaining the writer's sympathy with Ireland and the Famine victims—then makes use of quotations from Somerville's writings to depict the candid and often poetic nature of his account of the Famine and of Ireland's political and economic situation.]
At an early point in his investigation of Ireland during the great famine, Alexander Somerville found himself one morning in Clonmel, on the 29th January, 1847. He had decided to accompany a convoy about to set off towards Waterford, to distribute Indian corn to the starving population. It was half past five and still dark, the morning was stormy, rain poured from a blackened and sullen sky, and there was a strong but increasingly saturated military escort gathering to accompany the laden carts.
(The entire section is 13188 words.)
Brown, Malcolm. "Black '47." In The Politics of Irish Literature: From Thomas Davis to W. B. Yeats, pp. 85-102. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
Discusses the political events in Ireland, especially the activities of the Irish nationalist movement, during the worst year of the Famine, 1847.
Kissane, Noel. The Irish Famine: A Documentary History. Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 1995, 184 p.
Chronicles the history of the Famine through the extracts, accounts, and reports of the "traveller, parliamentarian, civil servant, botanist, professional reporter, or bystander."
McHugh, Roger J. "The Famine in Irish Oral Tradition." In The Great Famine: Studies in Irish History, 1845-52. Eds. R. Dudley Edwards and T. Desmond Williams, pp. 391-436. New York: Russell and Russell, 1956.
With the aid of the Irish Folklore Commission, surveys the Irish oral treatment of the Famine, covering such topics as the blight itself, the food available during the Famine, the public relief efforts, disease, death, and the effects of the Famine on the Irish countryside.
Woodham-Smith, Cecil. The Great Hunger: Ireland, 1845-1849. New York: Harper and Row, 1962, 510 p.
(The entire section is 219 words.)