Chapter 1 Summary
Jim Gallien, a union electrician, picks up a hitchhiker about four miles out of Fairbanks on Tuesday, April 28, 1992. The hitchhiker introduces himself only as "Alex" and asks for a ride to the edge of Denali National Park, from which point he will walk "deep into the bush and live off the land for a few months." Alex, a congenial young man who looks to be only eighteen or nineteen, shows Gallien a map of the Stampede Trail, a seldom-traveled road which winds "for forty miles or so before petering out...(in a) trackless wilderness north of Mt. McKinley." This is where Alex intends to go.
Gallien is concerned because Alex seems woefully underprepared for such an undertaking. He carries only a small rifle and a...
(The entire section is 247 words.)
Chapter 2 Summary
The Stampede Trail, the route taken by Chris McCandless, wanders through rolling bottomland on the northern margin of the Alaska Range. In 1930 the trail was blazed by a miner named Earl Pilgrim, and in 1961 a construction company was hired to upgrade the trail. The company hauled three "junked buses, outfitted...with bunks and a simple barrel stove" up into the wilderness to house its workers, and when the project was halted, one of the buses was left behind "to serve as a backcountry shelter for hunters and trappers." The rusted vehicle was located twenty-five miles west of Healy...just beyond the boundary of Denali National Park.
On September 6, 1992, three moose hunters managed to get across the flooded...
(The entire section is 230 words.)
Chapter 3 Summary
Chris McCandless often mentioned Carthage, South Dakota, as his home. He had become close to Wayne Westerberg, an elevator owner and jack-of-all-trades, who had picked him up as a hitchhiker there one day in the fall of 1990. McCandless, who told Westerberg that his name was Alex, worked for the older man awhile, and found a "surrogate family in Westerberg and his employees." When McCandless hit the road again, he kept in touch with Westerberg, "calling or writing Carthage every month or so."
In reality, McCandless was the son of Walt and Billie McCandless, and he was raised in a "comfortable upper-middle class" home in Ann andale, Virginia. He had eight siblings, and was close to his younger sister, Car ine....
(The entire section is 230 words.)
Chapter 4 Summary
McCandless chronicled his meanderings after graduation in a journal snapshot album. He traveled first to Lake Mead, where he ignored warnings posted against off-road driving and camped on the dry riverbed. He "basked in his newfound freedom" until a flash flood struck; although he was able to salvage his tent and belongings, his car engine was soaked, and he could not get it started afterwards. He abandoned the car, and took advantage of the opportunity "to shed unnecessary baggage," leaving many of his possessions and burning all of his money. He then "tramped around the West" for the next two months, hitchhiking up the Pacific Coast to Seattle, heading east through Idaho and Montana, then south and west again to the Colorad o...
(The entire section is 236 words.)
Chapter 5 Summary
Chris enters Bullhead City, Colorado in early October of 1991. The town is described as a place that is full of tourist traps and strip malls. Although described as a place that one would not expect Chris to visit or stay for very long, he actually enjoyed his stay in this town—staying there for two consecutive months, even considering staying there for longer. During his stay Chris got a job working at a local McDonald's, giving his real name on the application, and even opened up an account at a local bank. Described by those he knew there as a hard working and dependable person, Chris had to be reminded and forced by his manager to wear socks to work on a daily basis. Also during this time period, he met a man named Charlie...
(The entire section is 246 words.)
Chapter 6 Summary
After leaving The Slabs, Chris made his way to Salton City, California, in January of 1992 where he met Ronald Franz, an older gentleman who had long since lost his wife and son, recovered from alcoholism, and became "a devout christian." Franz would question Chris many times about his lifestyle; as Franz recalls, Chris explained to him that he chooses to live his life this way and described his future Alaskan adventure. The two men create a father-son type of relationship and spend a great deal of time together over the next few months. In March, Chris decided it was again time to move on and go back to Carthage, South Dakota. Ronald, sad to see Chris go, offered to drive him to Grand Junction, Colorado, and asked Chris if he...
(The entire section is 210 words.)
Chapter 7 Summary
Wayne Westerberg and various other people from Carthage, South Dakota, reminisce about Chris's final visit with them. Wayne recalls the four week stay as a time when Chris did odd jobs that no one else could handle while he prepared for his Alaskan adventure. He was described by Wayne as a hard-worker who did his job yet lacked common sense, a possible tragic flaw. Wayne's girlfriend and mother also commented on Chris saying that he was shy yet fascinating and spoke nothing of his family except mentioning his sister, Carine, a few times. Some background information is also revealed in this chapter. It is revealed that Chris shared many negative qualities with his father, Walt, which included his stubbornness and "hot-headedness."...
(The entire section is 185 words.)
Chapter 8 Summary
Other men before Chris McCandless have journeyed alone to Alaska to test their mettle. One of the best known was Gene Rossellini, a "wayward genius...interested in knowing if it was possible to be independent of modern technology." After experimenting for "over a decade", he concluded that "it is not possible for human beings as we know them to live off the land," and although he did not seem devastated by his findings, he killed himself in 1991 by stabbing himself though the heart. A lesser-known wayfarer was John Mellon Waterman, who made several forays alone into the wild. A self-critical, compulsive character, Waterman was erratic and unstable, and when his "life's work," an "accumulation of notes, poetry, and personal...
(The entire section is 228 words.)
Chapter 9 Summary
There are many parallels between Chris McCandless and another young adventurer who lived in the early 1900s, Everett Ruess. Ruess tramped the American Southwest and California, taking his first solo trip when he was only sixteen. Driven by a "craving for connection with the natural world and...passion for the country through which he walked," Ruess, like McCandless, was "heedless of personal safety" and "undeterred by physical discomfort." Like McCandless, who developed an alterego, "Alexander Supertramp", Ruess took on a variety of aliases, which he felt compelled to scrawl at some of the remote sites where he made his temporary homes.
Ruess disappeared in 1935, in the Davis Gulch are a in Utah,...
(The entire section is 220 words.)
Chapter 10 Summary
The chapter begins with a New York Times article that gives minor details of Chris's body being found in the Alaskan Wilderness. When he was originally found, Chris's body could not be identified because he did not have identification of any kind. Once the Anchorage Daily News began to publish articles about the mystery, Jim Gallien (see Chapter 1) realized that this must have been the same man that he had dropped off at the edge of the Alaskan wild in the spring. As the search for Chris's identity continued, Alaskan State Troopers were led to South Dakota. When the news of Chris's death traveled there, Wayne Westerberg heard of it and called the Alaskan State Troopers to provide information including...
(The entire section is 154 words.)
Chapter 11 Summary
Chris McCandless was born to Walt McCandless, an intelligent, intense aerospace technician, and his second wife Billie, in 1968. As a child, he showed unusual independence from the time he was a toddler. In elementary school he was placed in an accelerated program for gifted students, but tried to reason with his teachers and administrators that he did not really belong there. His sister Carine remembers that though he was popular, "he was very to himself...he could be alone without being lonely." Chris got good grades in school with little effort, and although he was small, he was a great athlete. He "had little patience for learning the finer points" of organized sports, however; "nuance, strategy, and anything beyond the...
(The entire section is 235 words.)
Chapter 12 Summary
Chris graduated from high school in 1986. After giving his father the gift of a fine telescope and expressing his thankfulness for all he had done for him, he left on the first of a series of extended trips. With no definite itinerary, Chris journeyed to the Pacific Coast, making a startling discovery in California. While visiting family friends in the neighborhood where he had grown up, Chris learned that, long after falling in love with his mother Billie and fathering Chris, his father Walt McCandless had had a son with his first wife and had essentially led a double life. Although he never confronted his father, the discovery irrevocably soured the way he viewed Walt, and filled him with rage.
Chris returned, scruffy...
(The entire section is 235 words.)
Chapter 13 Summary
Chris McCandless's younger sister Carine "looks enough like him that people frequently asked if they were twins." She is "energetic and self-assured," and, like Chris, "clashed fiercely" with her father and mother as an adolescent. Carine eventually made peace with her parents, however. And although she "shares Chris's outrage over racial injustice," she has no objection to the pursuit of wealth. Carine lives in a nice Virginia Beach home with her husband, Chris Fish, and Buckley, the Shetland sheepdog her brother so loved.
It was Chris Fish who told Carine that her brother had been found dead. When Chris McCandless's identity had been confirmed through dental records, Carine and Walt McCandless's oldest...
(The entire section is 227 words.)
Chapter 14 Summary
After Chris McCandless's death, there was "considerable speculation that the boy had been bent on suicide from the beginning" of his risky undertaking, but the author, Jon Krakauer, disputes these theories. His own belief is that McCandless's death was "unplanned...a terrible accident," and he bases his conclusion on experiences of his own.
As a youth, Krakauer, like McCandless, was "willful, self-absorbed, intermittently reckless, moody." "Figures of male authority" aroused in him fierce and conflicting emotions, and "if something captured (his) undisciplined imagination," he pursued it with "a zeal bordering obsession." Krakauer's passion was mountain climbing, and, in 1977, he "got it into (his) head" to...
(The entire section is 243 words.)
Chapter 15 Summary
After retreating back to base camp, Krakauer considered making another try up the mountain; although he really "didn't want to go up on the Thumb again at all...the thought of returning...in defeat wasn't very appealing." He remembered his father, with whom he had clashed continually during his youth. Jon Krakauer's father set impossibly high expectations for his children, and was volatile and unyielding, but Jon "felt oppressed by the old man's expectations" and refused to follow the path set for him. Later, he realized that, in growing up, he "had been selfish and unbending and a giant pain in the ass," but it was too late. He and his father were never really reconciled.
Jon's father had, if nothing else,...
(The entire section is 241 words.)
Chapter 16 Summary
In April of 1992, Chris McCandless hitchhiked from Carthage, South Dakota, to Fairbanks, Alaska, riding the last thousand miles with Gaylord Stuckey, a driver who was transporting a motor home to a Fairbanks RV dealer. Stuckey dropped Chris off at the University of Alaska, where the young man spent a few days researching edible plants before he began his hike west into the wild.
Chris McCandless entered the wilderness with only ten pounds of rice and a backpack half-filled with books. From his journal, it is known that he reached the Teklanika River on his second day out, and was able to ford the half-frozen water by wading across. The next day, he found the abandoned construction company bus and was...
(The entire section is 238 words.)
Chapter 17 Summary
If Chris McCandless had taken a detailed map with him into the wild, he would have known there was a way to ford the river he believed was impossible to cross, just twenty minutes from where he was stranded. His mistakes led many to view him as "arrogant" and "ridiculously ill prepared," a victim of his own stupidity. The author, Jon Krakauer, felt there was more to it than that, however, and went back to where Chris died a year later to try to gain a greater understanding of the man.
Krakauer believes McCandless went into the wild "to explore the inner country of his own soul," but found that the struggle for basic survival demanded he focus as much "outward...as inward." His journal does not address...
(The entire section is 239 words.)
Chapter 18 Summary
Chris McCandless resumed his solitary life at his camp after finding the Teklanika uncrossable. He caught enough game to subsist for a month, and apparently spent that time hunting, gathering, and reading. At the end of that time, he "made the mistake that pulled him down." On July 30, his journal entry indicates that he was "extremly weak" and in "great jeopardy." He faulted "pot.seed" for his predicament.
There have been many conjectures as to what exactly caused Chris's "precipitous decline." It is possible that he ingested potato seeds he had brought in with him, which become toxic after they have begun to sprout. More probably, he might have mistakenly eaten a toxic plant that closely resembles an...
(The entire section is 231 words.)
Chapter Summary and Analysis
Chapters 1-2 Summary and Analysis
The story opens with the introduction of Jim Gallien, a union electrician who was the last person to see Christopher McCandless before he embarked on his fateful journey into the wild. Gallien was on his way to Anchorage, Alaska, when he picked up a hitchhiker a few miles out of Fairbanks. The hitchhiker was small and wiry, said he was from South Dakota, and was twenty-four years old. He gave his name only as Alex, and asked for a ride up to the edge of Denali National Park, where he proclaimed his intention of walking into the wilderness to live off the land for awhile.
The two men talked on the two-hour drive to Denali Park. Alex struck Gallien as an intelligent, educated individual,...
(The entire section is 1418 words.)
Chapters 3-7 Summary and Analysis
Chris McCandless graduated from Atlanta's Emory University in May 1990. He had done well in school, completing a history and anthropology major with a 3.72 GPA. While a student, however, he had declined awards and recognitions, insisting that such honors were meaningless. Upon graduation, he donated the remaining money in his college fund to charity, casually told his parents he was "going to disappear for awhile," packed up his beloved 1982 Datsun 210, and took to the road. Chris's parents received one brief note from him in June 1990, along with a copy of his final transcripts; this was the last anyone in his family ever heard from him. It was as if, out of a sense of obligation, he had fulfilled...
(The entire section is 1546 words.)
Chapters 8-9 Summary and Analysis
Before he authored Into the Wild, Jon Krakauer wrote an article about Christopher McCandless for the magazine Outside, a work which generated a good deal of vitriol in the form of communication condemning McCandless's demise as "a foolish, pointless death." These correspondences, many of which were sent by Alaskans, railed against Krakauer for glorifying an imprudent young man whom they believed simply "overestimated (him)self, underestimated the country, and ended up in trouble." Krakauer responds by examining a sampling of "marginal characters" who have, throughout history and for various reasons, felt compelled to challenge the Alaskan wilderness alone, only to be found wanting....
(The entire section is 1487 words.)
Chapters 10-13 Summary and Analysis
Christopher McCandless carried no identification when he ventured into the wild for the last time; when his body was found, no one knew who he was. A front page article about his discovery was published in the Anchorage Daily News, and was seen by Jim Gallien, who stepped forward, identified pictures of McCandless, and told authorities that the young hitchhiker had mentioned he was from South Dakota. Wayne Westerberg then heard of the tragedy on the radio in Carthage, and provided Alaska State Troopers with a social security number McCandless had written on a W-4 form he had filled out in order to work at the grain elevators. McCandless was traced to his permanent residence in Virginia with...
(The entire section is 1808 words.)
Chapters 14-15 Summary and Analysis
Jon Krakauer, the author of Into the Wild, has his own theories about Chris McCandless's state of mind when he retreated into the Alaskan wilderness. His belief that McCandless's death was solely accidental, and not the manifestation of a death wish, is based on evidence collected from McCandless's writings and interviews with those who knew him, but even more than that, it is an insight that derives from a more personal perspective. There are numerous striking parallels between Krakauer's experience and that of Chris McCandless, and it is these parallels that make the character of McCandless so fascinating to him, and that allow him to examine the intricacies surrounding McCandless's fate...
(The entire section is 1479 words.)
Chapters 16-18 Summary and Analysis
Christopher McCandless arrived in Fairbanks, Alaska, on April 25, 1992, courtesy of an Indiana man, Gaylord Stuckey, who was delivering a new motor home to an RV dealer in the city. Stuckey enjoyed McCandless's company immensely; Chris shared with him his plans to spend the summer alone in the bush, saying he "wanted to prove to himself that he could make it...without anybody else's help." McCandless also spoke about the bitterness he felt toward his father. Sensing that the young man came from a "nice family," Stuckey pleaded with him to call his parents to let them know where he was, but Christopher would not give him a definitive commitment. In Fairbanks, Christopher McCandless bought a ten-pound...
(The entire section is 1756 words.)