Internal Migration Portrayed in Literature Analysis

The South Moves North

(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

The most common direction of internal migration in twentieth century literature has been from the South to the North. During the first half of the century, there was a massive migration of African Americans north. Around the middle of the century and a bit later, there was also a steady stream of Appalachians moving north. To a great extent, both migrations were from a rural to an urban environment, from the Deep South and the Southern mountains to Northern cities of all sizes.

During the 1920’s and 1930’s the congregation of African American writers in uptown Manhattan, or Harlem, produced the Harlem Renaissance, an outpouring of literary creativity by such writers as Jean Toomer, Claude McKay, Countée Cullen, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Arna Bontemps. These writers tended to write about where they came from rather than their trip; it remained for the next two generations of African American writers to say more about the great migration itself.

Among African American writers the great migration evokes the immigrant pattern of seeking the American Dream. Crossing the Mason-Dixon line was like a personal declaration of independence. The North was the promised land, and Harlem was heaven. Toni Morrison’s Jazz (1992), set in 1926 Harlem, captures this mood:At last, everything’s ahead. The smart ones say so and people listening to them and reading what they write down agree: Here comes the new. Look out. There goes the sad stuff. The bad stuff. The...

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Internal Migration Portrayed in Literature Bibliography

(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Suggested Readings

Coles, Robert. The South Goes North. Vol. 3 in Children of Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971. Examines the effects of migration on African Americans and poor whites.

Kirby, Jack Temple. Rural Worlds Lost: The American South, 1920-1960. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987. Studies migration in the context of change from a rural to an urban society.

Lemann, Nicholas. The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. One of several books on the African American migration.

Moore, Deborah Dash. To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L.A. New York: Free Press, 1994. Focuses on one migration during the last half of the twentieth century.

Philliber, William W., and Clyde B. McCoy, eds. The Invisible Minority: Urban Appalachians. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981. An excellent collection of essays on Appalachian migrants. Bibliography.