Intelligence Quotient (Encyclopedia of Psychology)
A measurement of intelligence based on standardized test scores.
Although intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are still widely used in the United States, there has been increasing doubt voiced about their ability to measure the mental capacities that determine success in life. IQ testing has also been criticized for being biased with regard to race and gender. In modern times, the first scientist to test mental ability was Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who devised an intelligence test for children in 1905, based on the idea that intelligence could be expressed in terms of age. Binet created the concept of "mental age," according to which the test performance of a child of average intelligence would match his or her age, while a gifted child's performance would be on par with that of an older child, and a slow learner's abilities would be equal to those of a younger child. Binet's test was introduced to the United States in a modified form in 1916 by Lewis Terman. The scoring system of the new test, devised by German psychologist William Stern, consisted of dividing a child's mental age by his or her chronological age and multiplying the quotient by 100 to arrive at an "intelligence quotient" (which would equal 100 in a person of average ability).
The Wechsler Intelligence Scales, developed in 1949 by...
(The entire section is 1854 words.)
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