Themes and Meanings

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

“Inspiration” is the clearest expression in verse of the principles of the American philosophy of Transcendentalism. As such, it is important not only for what it says, but also for the way in which it says it. Part of what the poet says is about the intriguing nature of inspiration itself. On one hand, it is a force by which the creative artist communes with the spiritual reality signaled in nature and which resides in corresponding form in the mind. On the other, it is a divine “electuary,” as Thoreau calls it in the fifth quatrain of the poem, which, while it attunes one to the “ancient harmony,” also leaves the poet “single in the crowd” and alone with eternity. This idea of the poet being both joined and isolated is one of the basic contradictions of a philosophy that glorifies the personal and the intuitive. Thoreau would insist, however, as did his mentor and friend Ralph Waldo Emerson, that the separation is not so much an alienation as it is a form of elevation to a higher level of awareness. Any man or woman, properly attuned, is capable of achieving such an intuitive grasp of the divinity that is at once a part of nature and of his or her own soul. Inspiration, in other words, is open to all humanity.

Inspiration for the poet, however, is another matter. As Thoreau declares in the last stanza of the poem, the poet—untempted by fame, unmoved by the prospect of earthly rewards—becomes a kind of interpreter, a priest in the...

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