Hundred Years’ War (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: At issue: English claims in France. Result: English fail to conquer France.
Early in the fourteenth century, French kings began actively trying to expel the English from France, where they had held extensive lordships almost continuously since 1066, when William, duke of Normandy, had also become King William the Conqueror I of England. This struggle would eventually become known as the Hundred Years’ War. When Philip VI of France invaded English-held Guienne in 1337, England’s King Edward III retaliated by making alliances with Flemish and German rulers. Guienne was linked to England by wine trade, and Flanders did a good business turning raw English wool into finished goods. The French, in turn, helped the Scots in their frequent wars against England. Border disputes, legal disputes, and violence between sailors and fishermen in the Channel ports also caused friction.
Edward declared his claim to the French throne and eventually led invasive raids. Edward’s claim was through his mother, and he was indeed the only grandson of Philip IV, but the French court had ruled that France was too important to be inherited by or through a woman. However, Edward’s claim, publicized in England through the churches, sheriffs, and itinerant justices, gave the king the just cause considered essential for medieval war.
From 1337 to 1356, the English...
(The entire section is 967 words.)
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