Huldrych Zwingli 1484–1531
Swiss religious reformer, theologian, and essayist.
A contemporary of Martin Luther and a forerunner of John Calvin, Zwingli was a founder of the Reformed Churches and an important figure in the Protestant Reformation in sixteenth-century Europe. Concerned with political and social life as well as theology, Zwingli broke with the Roman Catholic hierarchy and medieval theology and encouraged theocratic social organization. More radical theologically than Luther and more political than Calvin, Zwingli had a profound influence on the debates that framed the development of Protestantism. Despite some pacifist tendencies, he believed in fighting to establish and defend his vision of a Christian society.
Zwingli was born in Wildhaus, in the Toggenburg valley, in the rural district of St. Gallen, Switzerland. His family were farmers and magistrates, essentially well-to-do peasants. A good student, Zwingli was educated first in his village, then by his uncle, a pastor in Wesen, until he was ten. Thereafter he was sent to school in Basel and Bern. At fourteen he entered the University of Vienna, where he took a baccalaureate degree in 1504. He returned to Basel, taught classics at a local school, and took his master's degree in 1506. That same year he was ordained by the Bishop of Constance and assigned to the parish of Glarus. He continued studying on his own, learning Greek and reading Erasmus and other humanist thinkers. He remained largely at Glarus for ten years and gradually began his career as a reformer. His first published writings, The Fable of the Ox (1510) and The Labyrinth (1516), were political allegories critical of the Swiss practice of hiring out mercenaries in European wars, the results of which he had observed first hand, having served as military chaplain in Italy in 1513 and 1515. These views were politically unpopular in Glarus, and Zwingli was forced to leave town, though he did not formally lose his post as pastor. He went temporarily to Einsiedeln, where he stayed for three years and began to actively preach in what became the reform tradition, holding that the Bible was the supreme authority for God's will and criticizing such Roman Catholic practices as the selling of papal indulgences. In 1518 he competed for, and eventually won despite some political difficulty, the post of people's priest at
Zurich, where he launched his reform movement in earnest. He took up his position in January, 1519, beginning a series of sermons on the New Testament, critical both of practices of the Catholic Church and the immoral behavior of the citizens. Later that year he fell ill with a plague that struck Zurich and nearly died. His poem Gebetslied in de Pest (1519; Prayersong in the Plague) described the experience, which generally made him more serious and urgent about his goal of reform. By 1522 his ideas had begun to take hold in Zurich and that spring a number of people chose not to observe the Lenten fast, some quite publicly. Zwingli wrote Von Erkeisen und Freyheit der Speysen (1522; Regarding the Choice and Freedom of Food) arguing that there was no Biblical injunction against eating meat during Lent. The controversy, and condemnation by the papal authorities, led to the historic First Disputation, a debate convened by the City Council of Zurich. There he presented his Sixty-Seven Theses (1523), which became the core of his theology. His arguments won over the council of Zurich and led to an unprecedented break with the bishopric of Constance. Among the ideas presented there was a rejection of the celibacy of priests and in 1524 he married Anna Reinhart, with whom he had been living for two years. The following year he published his major work, De vera et falsa religione commentarius (1525; Commentary about the True and False Religion), a thorough presentation of his theological ideas. Many of the ideas set forth here, especially those concerning the meaning of the Eucharist, put Zwingli at odds with Luther. The two debated the issues in a number of treatises and met in 1529 at the Marburg Colloquy to try to reach an agreement that could allow for a unified reform movement. Their efforts failed and the nascent Protestant movement broke into two camps. During these years Zwingli's preaching and writing had been having an effect in Zurich; in 1524 the council ordered all images and music removed from the churches, and in 1525 the mass was discontinued, replaced by a simpler ceremony in the vernacular language rather than Latin. But the growing success of Zwingli's ideas in Zurich, Bern, and Basel led to increasing conflicts with more conservative Swiss districts that maintained their papal affiliation. The tensions finally came to a head in 1531, when a civil war broke out between the Evangelical Swiss and the Five Cantons, rural districts which rejected the reform movement. Zwingli was killed carrying the banner in the battle of Kappel, in October 1531.
Zwingli developed his key theological ideas over the course of a decade, beginning with Archeteles (1522; The Beginning and the End), his first major treatise, which criticized many of the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, and ending with his Christianae Fidei Expositio (1531; Exposition of Christian Faith). In between, he published dozens of essays, sermons and letters expounding and defending his views. In the Sixty-seven Theses, Zwingli affirmed the primacy of scriptural authority and rejected papal indulgences, prayers to the saints or any other intermediary between individuals and God, transubstantiation and the mass, the use or display of images and music in churches and worship ceremonies, and the celibacy of priests. He elaborated on these tenets later that year in Auslegung der Gründ der Schlussreden (1523; An Exposition of the Articles). His most comprehensive theological tract was the Commentary about the true and false Religion (1525). Other essays addressed specific and controversial issues, such as: Vom Touf vom Wiedertouf und vont Kindertouf (1525; Baptism, Rebaptism, and Infant Baptism) and Ein klare Unterrichtung vom Nachtmal Christi (1526; A Clear Briefing about the Lord's Supper). Some of his last works addressed basic Christian beliefs: De Providentia Dei (1530; On Divine Providence), Fidel Ratio (1530; Confession of Faith), and the Christianae Fidei Expositio (1531; Explanation of Christian Faith). In all his writings Zwingli sought to free the church from the perceived idolatry of Roman Catholic practices and to build a theocratic community in which local civil leaders would have the right and the duty to regulate church teaching and social life. In this he was as much a political and social reformer as a religious one, and his thinking shows the influence of the humanist thinkers he read and studied. A contemporary of Luther, he insisted as early as 1519 that he had come to his ideas on his own, through reading and interpreting the Gospel, and rejected the notion that he was in any way a follower of Luther. In fact, the two men were in sharp disagreement about many points, most especially the meaning of the Eucharist. In general, Zwingli made a stronger break with Roman Catholic theology. Nowhere was this more clear than in his insistence that the Eucharist was a remembrance, not a repetition of Christ's sacrifice, and that the communion wafer was purely symbolic.
Perhaps because of his sudden and early death, Zwingli is often forgotten as a founder of the Reformation, along with its giants, Luther and Calvin. While his successor Heinrich Bullinger continued to advance his ideas, he also gradually made concessions. The most significant was at the Zurich Consensus of 1549, where Calvin's more moderate ideas about the Eucharist won. Calvinist doctrine was subsequently adopted by the Swiss Reform Church and spread to other parts of Europe and the British Isles. Among the ways Calvinism differs are a position closer to Luther's on the Eucharist, a rejection of theocracy, and a stricter view on predestination. As Calvinist doctrines grew and spread, Zwingli's name and writings were largely forgotten outside of his native Switzerland. Luther and his followers invoked his work to criticize the Calvinist strain of Protestantism; Catholic theologians went even further, condemning him as a heretic and banning his writings. In the twentieth century, scholars of religious history and theologians have returned to Zwingli's work and ideas. While there is some disagreement about whether there is a coherent and distinct body of thought which can be termed "Zwinglianism," there is no doubt that Zwingli was the founder and leader of the Zurich Reformation, a profound influence on Calvin, and a major voice in debates that shaped the course of Protestantism.
The Fable of the Ox (verse) 1510
The Labyrinth (verse) 1516
Gebetslied in de Pest [Prayersong in the Plague] (poem) 1519
Archeteles [The Beginning and the End] (essay) 1522
Von Erkeisen und Fryheit der Speysen [Regarding Choice and the Freedom of Food] (essay) 1522
Auslegung der Gründ der Schlussreden [An Exposition of the Articles] (essay) 1523
Lehrbuchlein [On the Education of Youth] (essay) 1523
A Short Christian Introduction (essay) 1523
*The Sixty-Seven Theses (speech) 1523
Von der göttlichen und menchlichen Gerechtigkeit [On Divine and Human Righteousness] (sermon) 1523
Der Hirt [The Shepherd] (sermon) 1524
Ein Antwort, Valentin Compar Gegeben [An Answer to Valentin Compar] (essay) 1525
De vera et falsa religione commentarius [Commentary about the True and False Religion] (essay) 1525
Vom Touf, vom Wiedertouf, und vom Kindertouf [Baptism, Rebaptism, and Infant Baptism] (essay) 1525
Ein klare Unterrichtung vom Nachtmal Christi [A Clear Briefing about the Lord's Supper] (essay) 1526
Plan for a Campaign (essay) 1526
[De Providentia Dei [On Divine...
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SOURCE: "The Reformation in Switzerland," in The Reformation of the 16th Century: In Its Relation to Modern Thought and Knowledge, 1883. Reprint by The University of Michigan Press, 1962, pp. 225–61.
[In the following excerpt from his important study of the Reformation, Beard analyzes the Reformation in Switzerland, comparing the ideas of Zwingli with those of Calvin.]
The history of Swiss Protestantism is peculiar in the fact that it follows a double line of development. It boasts two names of the first rank, Zwingli and Calvin: it had two centres, Zürich and Geneva. And it is obvious to remark that one of these is German, the other French; that standing in close relation to the Rhineland, this to France, Italy, Savoy. The movement in Switzerland divides itself into two parts, chronologically as well as geographically. Zwingli was born on the 1st of January, 1484, and was therefore less than two months younger than Luther. He was at work in his own way—a way which I shall try to describe presently—as early as Luther was. The scene of his activity was the northern and German-speaking Cantons of Switzerland, Glarus, Zürich, St. Gall, Schaffhausen, and afterwards Basel and Bern; while many of the free cities on the German side of the frontier, Strasburg, Constanz, Ulm, Augsburg, Reutlingen, adopted with more or less unanimity his opinions on the Eucharist. But when in 1531 he fell in the Battle of...
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SOURCE: "Zwingli's Theology, Philosophy, and Ethics," in Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland, 1484–1531, edited by Samuel Macauley Jackson, revised edition, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903, pp. 365–401.
[In this essay, Foster gives an overview and explanation of the main precepts of Zwingli's theology.]
The Protestant Reformation rendered two separate and great services in the realm of thought to its age and to the world. One of these was in the protest which it delivered against the Roman doctrinal system; and the other was in its positive contribution to the enrichment and development of Christian theology. The Roman idea of human merit and its relation to salvation had led to a conception of grace, of the operation of the sacraments, of the atonement and the divine forgiveness, to a system of morals, and to methods of discipline, which the adherents of the Protestant faith declared must be swept away, with all their practical consequences in the conception and the conduct of life, and in their stead new conceptions must be introduced. But the system of thought was even then defective. It was not up to the level of Christian experience. It had to be enlarged and perfected. A new doctrine, justification by faith, had to be adjusted to the old, and to be supplemented by a group of other new doctrines which should first bring the system into some degree of completeness. This work...
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SOURCE: "Calvin, Luther, and Zwingli," in The Theology of John Calvin, translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995, pp. 69–128.
[In this excerpt from his noted study of Calvin, originally published in 1922, Barth discusses Zwingli's thought in relation to that of both Calvin and Luther.]
In taking Calvin as the specifically and typically Reformed reformer as distinct from Luther, what I have in mind is that because of Zwingli's early death we have only Calvin's and not Zwingli's Reformed theology before us in developed systematic form, and it was Calvin, not Zwingli, who in large part left his imprint on the Reformed world. For a proper understanding of Calvin, however, we must not overlook the fact that the so-to-speak classical representative of the Reformed possibility was Zwingli. In a pure, one-sided, not too cautious, and very exposed form, the Reformed trend is much more prominent in him than in Calvin, who worked out much more sharply the dialectical relation to Lutheranism and thus took some of the edge off the antithesis. In the relation Zwingli was a pure type like the younger Luther. But the pure, or relatively pure, is not always historically the most powerful, and Zwingli's theology could no more establish itself than that of the younger Luther. Since the gods did not love Luther enough to grant him an early death, his early theology was given a...
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SOURCE: "The Answer to Valentin Compar," in Zwingli and the Arts, Yale University Press, 1966, pp. 161–78.
[In this excerpt, Garside analyzes Zwingli's rationale for his rejection of ecclesiastical and liturgical images and music.]
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SOURCE: "The Influence of Mediaeval and Humanist Traditions upon Zwingli's View of Society," in Zwingli's Theocracy, University of Toronto Press, 1967, pp. 17–29.
[In this excerpt from his book on Zwingli's ideas on theocracy, Walton explains the influence of humanist traditions on Zwingli's thought.]
Even if the local traditions which zwingli accepted had not allowed the magistrate an important place in ecclesiastical affairs, the intellectual tradition which molded his thought would have led him to demand it. As it was, the ideas he brought to Zurich fitted the state of affairs in the city remarkably well. For example, his belief that the acquisition of secular authority and wealth had corrupted the clergy was a theme common both to the leading late scholastics and to the humanists of the northern Renaissance, especially Erasmus. Zwingli had come to this conclusion from his study of these sources and, above all, from his knowledge of scripture and from his personal experience. He was one with Erasmus in the desire to put the wealth and power of the church in the hands of the secular magistrate to free the clergy to preach the Gospel.1 At Zurich the transfer was already well under way, and the earlier achievements of the magistracy doubtless inclined Zwingli to an even more willing acceptance of the government's role in the affairs of the church. Zwingli's ideas, pertinent and sympathetic...
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SOURCE: "Zwingli's Reformation Between Sucess and Failure," in The Reformation: Roots and Ramifications, translated by Andrew Colin Gow, T & T Clark, 1994, pp. 183–99.
[In this essay, originally delivered as a lecture in 1984, Oberman discusses Zwingli's contributions to the Reformation in the political and social context of sixteenth-century Switzerland.]
CANTONIZATION AND PAROCHIALISM
Is Zwingli's Reformation anything more than an episode between Luther and Calvin? To claim that it had a world-wide or even a European influence seems presumptuous in the light of recent Reformation history, which assigns Zwingli's Zurich to the 'city Reformation' and characterizes this phenomenon in sociological terms as a process of 'communalization'.
If communalization means the emancipation of the city, which dates back to the late Middle Ages, and in conjunction with this, the 'localization' of the Reformation—as compared to the territorial Reformation of the princes—then the events at Zurich in the years 1519–31 are reduced de facto to an internal Swiss affair touching hardly more than the area of the canton. The image of the parochial Leutpriester (secular 'people's priest', that is, pastor) of the local church at Zurich fits this interpretation well. Zwingli was able to unite the religious and the political emancipation of the city with such...
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SOURCE: "Zwingli: Theologian and Reformer," in Zwingli: An Introduction to His Thought, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1992, pp. 138–48.
[In the following excerpt, Stephens offers an introduction to Zwingli's thinking as a theologian and reformer.]
Zwingli's theology has many characteristic marks, of which the two most notable are that it is biblical and centred in God. They are not separate, but are intimately related, for the Bible is God's word and not man's and it points to faith in God and not in man.
A Biblical Theologian
The statue of Zwingli by the Wasserkirche in Zurich portrays him with the sword held by the left hand but with the Bible held above it in the right hand. The statue rightly emphasizes the central role of the Bible in Zwingli's reforming ministry. He began his ministry in Zurich on Saturday 1 January 1519, his 35th birthday. He announced that he would begin the next day a continuous exposition of St Matthew, not according to the fathers but according to the scriptures themselves. This action of Zwingli focuses attention on the dominant element in his ministry: the exposition and proclamation of the word.
The preaching of the word meant that the Bible was not God's word in a merely static sense, as something given by God in the past. It was rather for Zwingli the living word of God. Zwingli was to write in A...
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Pipkin, H. Wayne. A Zwingli Bibliography. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, 1972, 157 p.
Useful English bibliography of work on Zwingli.
Farner, Oskar. Zwingli the Reformer: His Life and Work. Translated by D. G. Sear. New York: Philosophical Library, 1952, 135 p.
English translation of an early biography of Zwingli.
Gäbier, Ulrich. Huldrych Zwingli: His Life and Work. Translated by Ruth Gritsch. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986, 196 p.
Thorough overview of Zwingli's life and work, with extensive bibliographical references for each chapter and topic addressed.
Potter, G. R. Zwingli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976, 432 p.
Authoritative English-language biography of Zwingli.
Courvoisier, Jaques. Zwingli: A Reformed Theologian. Richmond, Va.: John Knox Press, 1963, 101 p.
Study of the main features of Zwingli's theology, concluding that he was "an authentic Reformed theologian in the broadest, as well as the most precise, sense of the term."
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