Hippolyte-Adolphe Taine (tehn), born at Vouziers, France, on April 21, 1828, was educated at the Collège Bourbon and the Normal School in Paris. By 1848 he had two baccalaureate degrees, one in science and one in letters. After leaving school he became a teacher at Toulon, but because of his political views he was appointed to successively poorer posts until he left teaching entirely in 1852 and devoted his time to study and writing. In 1853 he completed his Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine (essay on the fables of La Fontaine), written as the thesis for his doctorate at the Sorbonne. He immediately began an essay on Livy, which, entered in competition, won for him an award from the French Academy in 1855. Early in 1854, however, Taine had suffered a breakdown in health because of his arduous program of writing.
After a period of enforced rest he resumed his literary activities, contributing articles on various subjects to periodicals and entering literary society. One series of articles, published as Les Philosophes classiques du XIX siècle en France (the classic philosophers of the nineteenth century in France), first suggested Taine’s theory of the application of scientific methods to psychological and metaphysical research. The book attracted considerable interest and helped to spread the author’s critical fame. A revised version of his doctoral essay on La Fontaine was published in 1861.
In 1864 Taine received...
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