Piozzi, Hester (Lynch) Thrale
Hester (Lynch) Thrale Piozzi 1741-1821
(Born Hester Lynch Salusbury; also known as Hester Lynch Thrale) English diarist, poet, letter writer, essayist, biographer, and historian.
Piozzi is known primarily for her close association with the English critic, poet, and lexicographer Samuel Johnson, about whom she wrote a biography, Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1786); she also edited a collection of their correspondence, Letters to and from the Late Samuel Johnson (1788). A close friend of Fanny Burney's, Piozzi was well known in London literary and social circles. She was one of the first women to write in the genres of biography, history, and travel writing, and was also a competent poet whose works were anthologized during the eighteenth century. Her diaries—The Thrales of Streatham Park [Family Book] (1977) and Thraliana (1942)—which many critics rank among her most important literary achievements, contain a wealth of information about influential literary figures of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Though long neglected, Piozzi's literary achievements have undergone a reassessment during the twentieth century, and many scholars now consider her one of England's most important women writers of her period.
Piozzi, born in Bodvel, Caernarvonshire, Wales on January 27, 1741, was the only child of John and Hester Salusbury, both of ancient Welsh lineage. Her parents had experienced financial difficulties throughout their lives, which forced them to rely heavily on John's younger brother, Sir Thomas Salusbury, for support. Piozzi's parents encouraged her from an early age to read extensively on her own; she later received more formal instruction from tutors. She once recalled that as a teenager she was continually submitting pseudonymous letters and poems to newspapers. Some of these early efforts were highly praised. Piozzi's mother was intent that her daughter secure her future through a prudent marriage and considered Henry Thrale, the son of a prosperous brewer, a suitable husband. Piozzi and Thrale were married on October 11, 1763, and remained together—dividing their time between their estate at Streatham and their home in Southwark—in a relatively happy marriage until Thrale's death in 1781. Piozzi gave birth to twelve children but only four, all daughters, lived to adulthood. At a dinner party in January, 1765, Piozzi met Samuel Johnson; the two quickly became close friends and at Johnson's urging worked together on a translation of the Roman philosopher Boethius. After suffering a series of nervous breakdowns in 1766, Johnson moved to Streatham, where he remained a guest of the Thrale's for the next sixteen years. Piozzi became Johnson's confidante during this time and aided him through fits of depression. With Johnson's encouragement, she published some of her poems; one of these, "The Three Warnings"—a comic poem about a conversation between Death and a farmer—became a popular anthology piece and appeared in 1770 in Poems by Several Hands with Piozzi listed for the first time as the poem's author. Johnson also encouraged her to keep a diary. These writings were posthumously published as The Thrales of Streatham Park [Family Book] and Thraliana.
In July, 1784, Piozzi married Gabriel Piozzi, an Italian musician, and left England for Italy. Her daughters and friends, including Johnson, opposed the marriage, as Gabriel was a commoner as well as a foreigner. Johnson died later that year, and Piozzi soon thereafter began work on a biography, published as Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, LL.D, as well as a collection of Johnson's letters to her, entitled Letters to and from the Late Samuel Johnson. Her work predated James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson (1791) by four years. Boswell and Piozzi, always rivals for Johnson's friendship, had never been friends. Boswell heavily criticized Piozzi's Anecdotes and wrote a scathing portrait of her in his biography of Johnson. Critics note that Boswell's charge of inaccuracy has persistently and negatively impacted Piozzi's literary reputation. Following her works on Johnson, Piozzi published four more books, including a book on her travels and a work of history. She and Gabriel returned to England in 1787 and later moved to an estate in Wales, where they lived until his death in 1809. Piozzi died on May 2, 1821.
Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, LL.D. is a loosely structured collection of anecdotes concerning Johnson's life and character. Piozzi's anecdotes often highlight Johnson's less amiable traits, yet she also extols his virtues. Critics have noted that her frank depiction of Johnson, including numerous personal details, was revolutionary for the period—most biographers at that time concentrated on the positive aspects of their subject's personality—and therefore a noteworthy contribution to the development of modern biography. Much of the information about Johnson in Anecdotes is not available from any other source. Johnson's long residence at Streatham, for instance, allowed Piozzi to portray her subject in a domestic setting; she also provided evidence which scholars have used to identify Johnson's minor poetry. Following the success of Anecdotes, which went through four editions in less than two months, Piozzi published a collection of letters that she and Johnson had exchanged. Evidence suggests, however, that Piozzi rewrote some of her letters before publication. Her next publication, Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey through France, Italy, and Germany (1789), combines an objective yet vibrant account of her tour through Europe following her marriage to Gabriel Piozzi with essays on moral and philosophical subjects. As in her earlier works, Piozzi deliberately wrote in an informal style, believing that the language of literature and everyday speech should not differ. British Synonymy (1794) is a dictionary of English usage which uses anecdotes and definitions to differentiate similar words. In Three Warnings to John Bull before He Dies (1798), Piozzi condemned the radical political ideas that were then current in France. Retrospection (1801), the last work she published during her lifetime, is a summary—intended for a general audience—of the world's history beginning with the birth of Christ. In her diaries, The Thrales of Streatham Park [Family Book] and Thraliana, Piozzi preserved an abundance of autobiographical information about herself as well as observations about the people she knew and the life-styles and attitudes of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Covering a period from 1766 to 1809, these personal writings—which combine a variety of forms including anecdotes, verses, puns, witty sayings, and commentaries on nature, literature, and etymology—are remarkable for their vivid descriptions and insights. Patricia Meyer Spacks has remarked that the literary value of Thraliana "is its vivid revelation of a woman's psychology. The very lack of control in Mrs. Thrale's writing allows it to reveal the full ambiguity of her almost archetypal emotional experience: anger at her fate masked by protestation of virtue, the longing for love reinforcing the restrictions of society, since compliance might wrest approval from the world. Although the journal reveals little depth of self-knowledge, it delineates a self for the reader to know—a self poignantly confused by the impossibilities of its position."
Favorable commentaries on Piozzi's works have centered on her contributions to Johnsonian scholarship; her relaxed, conversational writing style; her talent for brief, vivid descriptions; and her place in English literature as one of the first women to attempt works in the genres of grammar and history. Commentators have argued that her best work appears in the diaries and in the "observations" from her Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey through France, Italy, and Germany. These writings highlight her wit and insights and do not depend on narrative organization, one of her weaknesses, for their impact. Another trait which marred her work's reception, particularly the Anecdotes and Retrospection, was her casual attitude toward dates and sources. Although Piozzi's biography of Johnson has suffered in comparison with Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson, William McCarthy has noted that Piozzi had closer contact with Johnson and has argued that the two works "have different ambitions and different centers of gravity. Boswell's vision of Johnson is fundamentally comic; his physical distance from Johnson probably helped him achieve his comic vision. Hester's intense closeness to Johnson made that kind of detachment impossible. Where Boswell is able to relish Johnson as a genial father . .. Hester must struggle with eighteen years' accumulated resentment of him. Her portrait is dark."
Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, LL.D., During the Last Twenty Years of His Life (biography) 1786
Letters to and from the Late Samuel Johnson, LL.D., to which are added some Poems never before Printed. Published from the Original MSS. in her Possession. 2 vols. [with Samuel Johnson] (letters and poetry) 1788
Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey through France, Italy, and Germany. 2 vols. (travel essay) 1789
British Synonymy; or, an Attempt at Regulating the Choice of Words in Familiar Conversation. Inscribed, with Sentiments of Gratitude and Respect, to such of Her Foreign Friends as Have Made English Literature Their Peculiar Study. 2 vols. (dictionary) 1794
Three Warnings to John Bull before He Dies. By an Old Acquaintance of the Public (essay) 1798
Retrospection: or a Review of the Most Striking and Important Events, Characters, Situations, and Their Consequences, which the Last Eighteen Hundred Years Have Presented to the View of Mankind. 2 vols. (history) 1801
Autobiography, Letters, and Literary Remains of Mrs. Piozzi (Thrale). 2 vols. (letters) 1861
Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale (letters, poetry, and journals) 1910
The Intimate Letters of Hester Piozzi and Penelope Pennington, 1788-1821 (letters) 1914...
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SOURCE: A review of Retrospection, in The London Review and Literary Journal, March, 1801, pp. 188-90.
[In the excerpt below, the critic comments on Piozzi's Retrospection, finding fault with her grammar and her lack of a "regular series of dates. "]
Cicero somewhere observes—Historia quoque modo scripta delectat, " "History, in whatever manner it is written, gives delight." And this sentiment Mrs. Piozzi has adopted to the most extensive latitude, in the amusing medley she has compiled, chiefly, as she professes, "for the benefit of young beginners." For we defy the most learned Critic to decide, to what class of literature this pretty piece of female patch-work belongs.
The title, however, is admirably suited both to the portrait and to the performance, as they look backward to things that once had an existence, but of which scarce a shadow of resemblance now remains. The portrait is not what was once the gay, the sprightly, the admired Mrs. Thrale, nor yet the maturer features of Signora Piozzi, as they were viewed by the writer at Bath in the year 1787; to be sure, some allowance must be made for thirteen years of health-impairing lucubrations; for the wide range she has taken through the fields of ancient and modern literature, in order to cull the sweets from its various flowers, to fill the present hive of industry, could...
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SOURCE: "Madame D'Arblay, in a letter to Madame de Staël in May, 1821," in Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay (1778-1840), Volume VI, edited by Charlotte Barrett, Macmillan and Co., 1905, pp. 399-400.
[In the following excerpt from a collection of her diaries and letters, Burney (Madame D'Arblay) comments on Piozzi's character and compares her to Madame de Staël Holstein.]
I have lost now, just lost, my once most dear, intimate, and admired friend, Mrs. Thrale Piozzi,1 who preserved her fine faculties, her imagination, her intelligence, her powers of allusion and citation, her extraordinary memory, and her almost unexampled vivacity, to the last of her existence. She was in her eighty-second year, and yet owed not her death to age nor to natural decay, but to the effects of a fall in a journey from Penzance to Clifton.2 On her eightieth birthday she gave a great ball, concert, and supper, in the public rooms at Bath, to upwards of two hundred persons, and the ball she opened herself. She was, in truth, a most wonderful character for talents and eccentricity, for wit, genius, generosity, spirit, and powers of entertainment. She had a great deal both of good and not good, in common with Madame de Staël Holstein. They had the same sort of highly superior intellect, the same depth of learning, the same general acquaintance with science, the same ardent love of literature, the same...
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SOURCE: "Original Memorials of Mrs. Piozzi," in The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. VII, May, 1861, pp. 614-15.
[In the following excerpt, the anonymous critic comments on Piozzi's character, focusing in particular on her "animated manner" and her "charm" as the mistress of Streatham Park.]
Ninety years ago, one of the pleasantest houses near London, for the society that gathered within it, was Mr., or rather, Mrs. Thrale's, at Streatham Park. To be a guest there was to meet the best people in England, and to hear such good talk that much of it has not lost its flavor even yet. Strawberry Hill, Holland House, or...
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SOURCE: "Letters, Diaries, and the Like," in The Peace of the Augustans: A Survey of Eighteenth Century Literature as a Place of Rest and Refreshment, G. Bell and Sons, Ltd., 1916, pp. 231-35.
[In the excerpt below, Saintsbury comments on Piozzi's character and her skills as a letter writer and diarist.]
The century is deservedly famous for letters, memoirs, and all the other more or less personal literature which France had initiated in its predecessor, and to give an account of them here from Hervey to Wraxall would be impossible, and at least proportionately out of place. Something, however, may be said, before coming to Gray and Cowper—the chiefs of the department next to or with Horace Walpole—of a personage whom the writer has found it amusing and profitable to study—Mrs. Thrale. Some new Thraliana (though it is believed not all that are or were available) have recently been recovered; but they seem not to add very much to Hayward's almost classical collection, and to the older documents in Boswell, Madame D'Arblay, and elsewhere. "Thralia dulcis" is certainly one of the most interesting, if not of the most fascinating, studies of the whole century. Nobody, so far as the present writer knows, has yet done her justice: and the reasons are pretty clear, though they require a certain amount of disentangling, and cannot perhaps be fully understood without reading the odd...
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SOURCE: "Hester," in Prose and Poetry, Jonathan Cape, 1947, pp. 198-205.
[In the following excerpt, Meynell remarks on Piozzi's marriages, social life, and literary style, finding that she had "all the interest belonging of right to a woman altogether of her time. "]
Too much contemporary literature tampered with the history of Mrs. Thrale. She was the victim of end-of-the-century styles. It was not only her Fanny Burney that made her the subject of a first manner, a second manner, and a third manner. She was the object of Dr. Johnson, in letters that were to be preserved; but she was also his topic, in talk that would have been better forgotten. It was reported to her by the hostile Boswell, when it seemed more or less to belie the letters of the past. And all the world knows by heart how Mrs. Thrale's story became Macaulay's opportunity.
Fanny Burney's literary style was in training, and had almost reached its final point of absurdity when she recorded her drive away from Streatham with the discarded Dr. Johnson. It is hardly possible to write such a style as hers was at the time, and to keep a narrative in the right condition of actual facts. She could not so drive away with Johnson from the house of the friend whom he loved, and who was forming a dearer tie, and not so drive away 'for ever'. Dr. Johnson lived in much content in Mrs. Thrale's house for six weeks at a time after this...
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SOURCE: An introduction to Anecdotes of the late Samuel Johnson, LL.D., during the last twenty years of his Life, by Hesther Lynch Piozzi, edited by S. C. Roberts, Cambridge at the University Press, 1925, pp. xxxvii-1.
[In the excerpt below, Roberts provides an overview of Piozzi's writings.]
At an early age, Hester Salusbury had an itch for writing:
It was then, too, when I was about thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen years old, that I took a fancy to write in the "St James's Chronicle," unknown to my parents and my tutor too: it was my sport to see them reading, studying, blaming or praising their own little whimsical girl's performance. . . . The little poetical trash I did write in earnest, is preserved somewhere, perhaps in Thraliana, which I promised to Mrs Mostyn: perhaps in a small repository I prepared for dear Salusbury. There is a little poem called "Offley Park" I know; another "On my poor Aunt Anna Maria's favourite Ash Tree"; and one styled "The Old Hunter's Petition for Life," written to save dear Forester from being shot because grown superannuated . . . 1.
Mrs Thrale's verse was essentially of the 'Miscellany' order, and her poem entitled "The Three Warnings" appeared in Mrs Anna Williams's Miscellanies of 1766. Even Boswell could not "withhold from Mrs Thrale the praise of...
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SOURCE: "Mrs. Piozzi's Letters," in Essays on the Eighteenth Century: Presented to David Nichol Smith in Honour of His Seventieth Birthday, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1945, pp. 155-67.
[In the following essay, Clifford discusses the content and style of Piozzi's letters, concluding that "few can read her letters without gaining an intimate knowledge of the woman herself."]
Ί have for this week past been employing my Mind in the recollection of all the civil Things that ever were said in Praise of my Merit as a Letter writer.' So wrote Hester Lynch Salusbury, a young lady of 22, in 1763. Nearly two hundred years later we are still interested in this same lady and her correspondence—not that of Miss Salusbury, to be sure, but that of her later years as Mrs. Thrale and Mrs. Piozzi. We still find pleasure in reading the letters that her contemporaries thought so delightful and amusing. Yet among the more voluminous letter-writers of the eighteenth century she is perhaps the least known.
Two reasons for this comparative neglect stand out: the overshadowing renown of her friendship with Dr. Johnson; and the difficulty of consulting the greater part of her correspondence. Most readers, if they have heard of the lady at all, think of her only as the busy hostess of Streatham, pouring endless cups of tea for her famous guest, while rattling away with a cascade of inconsequential...
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SOURCE: An introduction to Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey Through France, Italy, and Germany, by Hester Lynch Piozzi, edited by Herbert Barrows, University of Michigan Press, 1967, pp. vii-xxx.
[In the following essay, Barrows remarks on the relevancy of Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey through France, Italy, and Germany to modern readers, noting Piozzi's style and the wealth of information she provided.]
Mrs. Miller has been in Italy too, & has written her Travels; and brought home a fine Vase which once belonged I think She says either to Cicero or Virgil I forget which. . . .
Mrs. Piozzi was an inveterate journal-keeper, and when she set out, newly married to her second husband, Gabriel Piozzi, on the tour of the Continent which was to last a little over two and a half years, she equipped herself with two calf-bound quarto notebooks, eventually to be inscribed "Italian Journey 1784" and "German Journey 1786," respectively. These notebooks,1 which will be more fully described later, along with the entries she continued to make in the Thraliana,2 the journal she had been keeping since 1776, formed the basis in written record for the Observations and Reflections which she wrote "in...
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SOURCE: An introduction to Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Late Dr. Samuel Johnson, by William Shaw, and Anecdotes of the Late Samueljohnson, LL.D. During the Last Twenty Years of His Life, by Hesther Lynch Piozzi, edited by Arthur Sherbo, Oxford University Press, 1974, pp. x-xiv.
[In the following excerpt, Sherbo discusses Piozzi's biography of Johnson and the circumstances of its publication.]
As early as 1768 when Johnson advised her to 'get a little Book' in which to write all the anecdotes and observations that might strike her fancy, Mrs. Piozzi (then Mrs. Thrale) began to devote herself to recording her friend's conversation and whatever she could learn about him. In 1776 her husband gave her six quarto blank books with a label stamped 'Thraliana' on each, and into these she copied stories about Johnson accumulated between 1768 and 1776 as well as other '-ana' she had jotted down. Professor Balderston writes in her introduction to Thraliana that 'in the Anecdotes are to be found 227 separate fragments, taken from the matrix of the Thraliana, recombined, altered, and mixed with new matter', and that the passages borrowed from Thraliana 'amount in all to five-ninths of the total bulk of the Anecdotes' (p. xxiii). Thus, when Johnson died in December 1784, Mrs. Piozzi, then in Milan, had a fund of material ready to...
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SOURCE: "Finger Posts," in The Female Imagination, Alfred A. Knopf, 1975, pp. 197-207.
[In the following excerpt, Spacks focuses on Piozzi's Thraliana and concludes that the work's literary merit "is its vivid revelation of a woman's psychology. "]
The eleven hundred pages of text in Hester Thrale's Thraliana have attracted the attention mostly of those interested in people other than the author. Rich in varied anecdotes about Dr. Johnson, Goldsmith, Fanny Burney and her father, they provide a capsule social history of middle-class life in the second half of the eighteenth century. They also compose an intricate self-portrait, probably more revealing than the author intended. Despite its voluminousness, this verbal portrait has something in common with the Duchess' miniature: Mrs. Thrale, too, suffered from conflicting desires to conceal and to reveal herself; more openly than her predecessor, she exposes her rage. "Denied a real testing ground" (a condition my students believed characteristic of women), she tried to make her family life a sufficient arena for creative activity: the result was the alienation of her children. In middle age she emerged as an author, her Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson (published soon after his death) highly successful, although her subsequent literary efforts won much less acclaim. Her greatest energies apparently went into the Thraliana...
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SOURCE: "Portrait of a Georgian Lady: The Letters of Hester Lynch (Thrale) Piozzi, 1784-1821," in Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library, Vol. 60, No. 2, Spring, 1978, pp. 304-30.
[In the following excerpt, the critics present a portrait of Piozzi's character based on her letters and diaries.]
Often too quick to take offence, Mrs. Piozzi never suffered from an excess of humility. Even in admitting mistaken judgements, she rarely denigrated herself. At the same time that she wrote her letters, she appraised their worth as literary and historical documents, as testimonials of an unrewarded virtue, that cried out—she assumed—for preservation and publication. Writing to John Salusbury on 17 March 1811, she optimistically prophesies, "When the black, deep, dividing Gulph is pass'd by your poor Aunt, you will consider these Pages as her Shadows; and prize them accordingly not for their Wit, because the Head that has nothing better than Wit in it, is scarce worth a Stroke from a French Guillotine: but for the Heart which dictates every Line. . . ."1
Strong-minded and insistent always, she nevertheless suffered frustration in this desire, and in others as well. The relatively few letters that have been printed are either fragmented, viciously bowdlerized, or edited in hit-and-run fashion. . . .
Hester Lynch Piozzi had so complex a personality, was in fact...
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SOURCE: "'Under the Dominion of Some Woman': The Friendship of Samuel Johnson and Hester Thrale," in Mothering the Mind: Twelve Studies of Writers and Their Silent Partners, edited by Ruth Perry and Martine Watson Brownley, Holmes and Meier, 1984, pp. 64-79.
[In the essay below, Brownley examines the relationship between Piozzi and Samuel Johnson.]
In English literary history, the later eighteenth century is known as the Age of Johnson, after Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), the most famous literary figure of the time. In addition to his monumental Dictionary of the English Language, Johnson was known for his poems, his periodical essays, the short fictional Rasselas, his edition of Shakespeare, and numerous biographical and critical works. Equally renowned for his conversation, which James Boswell immortalized in his great biography, Johnson dominated his age by the force of his personality as well as his writings.
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SOURCE: "A Candle-Light Picture: Anecdotes of Johnson," in Hester Thrale Piozzi: Portrait of a Literary Woman, University of North Carolina Press, 1985, pp. 97-132.
[In the following excerpt, McCarthy discusses Piozzi's Anecdotes of the Late Samuel Johnson, LL.D. and compares the book with James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson.]
A transition from an author's books to his conversation, is too often like an entrance into a large city, after a distant prospect. Remotely, we see nothing but spires of temples, and turrets of palaces, and imagine it the residence of splendor, grandeur, and magnificence; but, when we have passed the gates, we find it perplexed with narrow passages, disgraced with despicable cottages, embarrassed with obstructions,and clouded with smoke.
Most of the very very great Men are odious!1
The canonical Johnson friendship is the one with Boswell. It has the force of a myth. Like Sherlock Holmes and Watson, the Johnson and Boswell of the Life exemplify that undemonstrative but rocklike loyalty between unequal men which has always been dear to the Anglo-American male heart. We see them strolling up a perpetual High Street, as in Rowlandson's cartoon, and forget that the actual time they spent together during twenty-one years amounted only to 425 days. The friendship of Johnson and...
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SOURCE: "The Repression of Hester Lynch Piozzi; or, How We Forgot a Revolution in Authorship," in Modern Language Studies, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Winter, 1988, pp. 99-111.
[In the following essay, McCarthy discusses Piozzi's stature among literary scholars and remarks on the revival of interest in her works as fueled by feminist criticism.]
Let me introduce my subject with a bit of dialogue, a very short dialogue in which I was fairly often engaged seven or eight years ago:
A Colleague (to me): Who are you writing about?
I: Hester Lynch Piozzi.
I (trying to be polite): You know, "Dr. Johnson's
Colleague: Oh, Mrs. Thrale .. . didn't they have an
affair or something?
This is not an exact transcription, but it is representative enough. And it represents a great deal. Before we unpack it, however, let us first, by way of contrast, establish some facts about Piozzi. They are, most of them, simple bibliographical facts.
Her publishing career spanned some 45 years, from 1762 to 1806. Its products include a poem, "The Three Warnings" (1766), that was not only immensely popular in her time—it was reprinted in the poetical miscellanies and in a threepenny chapbook, and was often read at public...
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Clifford, James L. Hester Lynch Piozzi (Mrs. Thrale). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952, 493 p.
Hyde, Mary. The Impossible Friendship: Boswell and Mrs. Thrale. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972, 188 p.
Examines the relationship between James Boswell, Piozzi, and her first husband, Henry Thrale, through their written correspondence and their experiences with one another.
—. The Thrales ofStreatham Park. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977, 373 p.
Biographical study of the Thrale family which draws extensively on Piozzi's journal the Family Book
McCarthy, William. Hester Thrale Piozzi: Portrait of a Literary Woman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985, 306 p.
Focuses on Piozzi's career as a writer, with an emphasis on political and cultural context and on the special problems encountered by women writers at the time. Chapter eight is excerpted above.
Newton, A. Edward. "A Light-Blue Stocking." In The Amenities of Book-Collecting and Kindred Affections, pp. 186-225. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1931.
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