Hero and Leander, Christopher Marlowe
Hero and Leander Christopher Marlowe
The following entry presents criticism of Marlowe's poem Hero and Leander.
When he was killed in 1593, Marlowe left behind the apparently fragmentary poem Hero and Leander, a retelling of the story of two lovers first told by the Greek poet Musaeus Grammaticus (fl. 500 a.d.). Employing the form of a love epyllion (short epic poem), Marlowe infused Musaeus' tale with wit and sensuality to create an erotic masterpiece that was highly esteemed by his contemporaries and has influenced poets for centuries.
Plot and Major Characters
Initially licensed for publication in 1593, Hero and Leander was not published until 1598, when two versions of the poem appeared. The first was Marlowe's version of 818 iambic pentameter lines, ending after the lovers' first romantic tryst. The second version included Marlowe's poem, divided into two sestiads, together with an additional four sestiads, written by George Chapman, which follow the lovers to their deaths. Marlowe's poem opens with a vivid description of the lovers, the beautiful virgin, Hero, and the alluring, handsome Leander. When Hero, a priestess of Venus, the goddess of love, attends the feast of Adonis in her hometown of Sestos, she catches the eye of every man in the vicinity. When Leander sees her, he immediately falls hopelessly in love. After Cupid pierces her with an arrow, the couple exchanges vows of love, but Hero remains steadfast to her vow of chastity. Leander returns home to the nearby city of Abydoes, across the Hellespont (the Strait connecting the Black Sea and the Aegean), but soon sets off to swim back, to reach her in Sestos and consummate their love. As he swims in the river, he attracts the lust of Neptune, who has mistaken him for Jove's subordinate, Ganymede. After Leander's dangerous swim and arrival in Sestos, he arrives naked at Hero's door. Shocked by his appearance, Hero reminds Leander of her vow of chastity and rejects his sexual advances. Eventually, she is worn down by his wily arguments, professions of love, and physical beauty, and she succumbs to his charms. Marlowe's poem ends as the two lovers consummate their relationship. Critics speculate on whether it was the poet's intention to end the poem there or if his untimely death was the cause of the seemingly abrupt conclusion. In Chapman's continuation, the lovers continue their affair until Leander drowns in the Hellespont on his way to Hero. Heartbroken when she sees her lover's lifeless body washed up on the shore, Hero jumps from her high tower and dies by her lover's side.
Critics trace the tale of Hero and Leander back to a story told by the Alexandrine poet Musaeus in the fifth century a.d. It has also been asserted that Marlowe's version is heavily influenced by the work of the classical poet Ovid, particularly his Amores (which Marlowe translated in his Certaine of Ouides Elegies (1593?). Moreover, in his Heroides, Ovid had included two imaginary letters between Hero and Leander, which expressed their love for one another. The story of Hero and Leander has been retold by many artists in a myriad of different genres throughout the years, and Marlowe's poem is regarded as one of the best-known versions. Some critics have viewed Hero and Leander as a superficial hymn to sensuous beauty and a celebration of youthful passion. Yet others note that Marlowe's juxtaposition of the themes of beauty, innocence, and love against death reveals his central thematic concern—the cruelty of love. Homosexual desire is another thematic thread in Marlowe's poem, illustrated by the poet's lingering descriptions of Leander's beauty and Neptune's aggressive lust for the young man. Feminist critics have detected a chauvinistic treatment of Hero's virginity: Leander is celebrated for his triumph, and Hero is shamed by her submission to him. Recent critics have explored the role of sexual coercion and rape in the poem, as well as the issue of betrayal and shame.
Marlowe's Hero and Leander was immensely popular during its time, and it remains a frequently quoted and imitated poem. Much of the critical discussion of Hero and Leander contrasts the style and tone of Marlowe's fragment with George Chapman's continuation and investigates the relationship between the two very different sections. Many scholars have tried to isolate Chapman's work on Hero and Leander, while others have urged a reading of the poem as a whole. Some have placed the work into its poetic context, arguing that it is a prime example of the epyllion form and a rejection of the predominant poetic aesthetic of its time, as exemplified in the works of Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser. Commentators have interpreted Marlowe's mythological allusions, particularly his borrowings from Ovid and the ways in which Marlowe's use of myth contrasts with Musaeus'. The influence of Marlowe's poem on other authors has been another frequent topic of critical discussion. Hero and Leander has often been linked with the amatory works of William Shakespeare, particularly his poem “Venus and Adonis” and Romeo and Juliet. Commentators have praised Marlowe's mocking wit as well as his incorporation of fantastical conceits. Some have explored the elements of both comedy and tragedy in the poem. Moreover, critics have commended Marlowe's extraordinary mastery of the narrative decasyllabic couplet, as well as the powerful eroticism of his descriptions. Most critics consider it one of the most beautiful short narrative poems of its age.
Hero and Leander 1593? [published 1598]
Certaine of Ouides Elegies, in Epigrammes and Elegies [translator; with John Davies] 1593? [published c. 1595]; enlarged as All Ouids Elegies, c. 1602]
Lucans First Booke Translated Line for Line [translator] 1593? [published 1600]
*“The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” 1593?
The Tragedy of Dido Queen of Carthage (play) 1586? [published 1594]
Tamburlaine the Great: Divided into Two Tragicall Discourses (plays) 1587, 1588 [published 1590]
The Famous Tragedy of the Rich Jew of Malta (play) 1590? [published 1633]
The Massacre at Paris: with the Death of the Duke of Guise (play) 1590? [published 1594?]
The Troublesome Raigne and Lamentable Death of Edward the Second, King of England (play) 1592-93 [published 1594]
The Tragicall History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus (play) 1593? [published 1604, 1616]
*This poem first appeared in 1599 in the anthology The Passionate Pilgrim; a slightly different version appeared the following year in the anthology England's Helicon.
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SOURCE: Miller, Paul D. “A Function of Myth in Marlowe's Hero and Leander.” Studies in Philology 50, no. 2 (April 1953): 158-67.
[In the following essay, Miller considers the relevance of the mythological elements in Hero and Leander.]
Christopher Marlowe's poetic fragment, Hero and Leander, has received high praise from the time of its composition to the present. Douglas Bush passes judgment on the poem and summarizes its history in this fashion:
All the best qualities of the Italianate Ovidian tradition are embodied, and transcended, in Hero and Leander It is equally true that the poem exhibits in high relief all the vices of the tradition. Yet it remains for us the most beautiful short narrative poem of its age, and for Marlowe's contemporaries and followers the causes of our partial dissatisfaction did not exist. It was immensely admired before and after its formal publication, and was enthusiastically quoted and plagiarized for two generations.1
Una Ellis-Fermor accords the poem equally high praise:
[Almost all] that is beautiful in the imagery of the early plays returns in Hero and Leander with an added gravity of form, a firmness and maturity of moulding, that render it the highest work of his invention, and make the aspirations of Tamburlaine...
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SOURCE: Williams, Martin T. “The Temptations in Marlowe's Hero and Leander.” Modern Language Quarterly 16, no. 3 (September 1955): 226-31.
[In the following essay, Williams interprets the Neptune passage of Hero and Leander.]
One episode in Marlowe's partial redaction of Hero and Leander has perplexed, distressed, and offended readers and scholars. Their reactions seem justified. It is the incident, roughly covering lines 159 through 226 of the second sestiad, wherein Neptune issues his salacious and bewildering invitation for dalliance to Leander. Marlowe, it seems, was having a capricious and smutty jest, which is quite uncalled for and, what is worse, quite without any larger integration into his poem. The traditional arguments against the episode are excellently summed up by Professor L. C. Martin in his 1933 edition of the R. H. Chase Collected Works:
it is impossible not to sympathize with those who feel that on this occasion the principle of unity has not been well served. Certain details and digressions may well seem out of place, even in a baroque design; the trivial incident of Neptune's courtship of Leander in Sestiad II calls aloud for excision or recasting, not perhaps on the moral grounds adduced by Professor Legouis, for the gods are notoriously superior to human ethical codes, but because this account of Neptune's heavy...
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SOURCE: Fraser, Russell A. “The Art of Hero and Leander.” The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 57, no. 4 (October 1958): 743-54.
[In the following essay, Fraser finds fantastical conceits and traces of humor in Hero and Leander.]
No one has ever challenged Marlowe's greatness as a maker, his mastery of the couplet, the proud full sail of his verse. Few critics, however, have been willing to allow him a sense of humor. “He lacked alike humor and native tenderness,” writes one student of his art. He is unlike Shakespeare, according to another, in that, “with all his brilliance and his power over words, [he] has one fatal lack: his sense of humour is painfully limited.”1 This is the orthodox view of the poet. Its validity, of course, has been questioned before.2 For the most part, however, the opinion of scholars has echoed without qualification Edward Dowden's magisterial verdict: “Marlowe possessed no gift of humor.”3
It may be so. But what, one wonders, of the eccentric observation, the quite fantastic conceits that are found in his work, and notably in Hero and Leander? In that poem, Cupid perceives Hero in tears,
And as she wept, her teares to pearle he turn'd, And wound them on his arme, and for her mourn'd.
This smacks of convention reduced, or...
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SOURCE: Cantelupe, Eugene B. “Hero and Leander: Marlowe's Tragicomedy of Love.” College English 24, no. 4 (January 1963): 295-98.
[In the following essay, Cantelupe discusses Hero and Leander as a tragicomedy.]
The seriocomic “Court of Love,” the anonymous erotic allegory written in the early part of the sixteenth century, foretells certain Ovidian poems that appear at the end of the century. English poets of the Ovidian school, like the humanists of Northern Europe, show a divided loyalty to paganism and to Christian morality.1 In the sixties and seventies, such poets as Churchyard, Gascoigne, and Turberville sought refuge in Golding's allegorical interpretation of Ovid, the medieval solution; and in the eighties and nineties, when the Italianate Ovidian tradition—with its glorification of the senses and the imagination—was in vogue, such poets as Lodge, Marlowe, and Shakespeare resorted to wit and sophisticated humor.2 Their solution was not incompatible with the late Elizabethan attitude toward the cult of the antique in Italy—more papal than classical3—and it permitted the late Ovidians to rescue the amatory-mythological poem from the feeble paraphrases and jejune moralization of their predecessors.
Perhaps the best example of the amatory poem in the Italianate Ovidian tradition, and certainly one of the most popular,...
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SOURCE: Segal, Erich. “Hero and Leander: Góngora and Marlowe.” Comparative Literature 15, no. 4 (fall 1963): 338-56.
[In the following essay, Segal contrasts Marlowe's and Luis de Góngora y Argote's versions of the Hero and Leander story.]
That contemporaries like Góngora and Marlowe should have chosen the same classical myth is hardly a remarkable literary phenomenon.1 What is interesting about their versions of the Hero and Leander story is that, while their approaches are similar, they stand diametrically opposed to all previous treatments of the legend. Both poets have made mock heroic a tale hitherto treated only with high seriousness, casting an unsentimental eye on what was traditionally the tenderest of love stories. In their cynical interpretations, Marlowe and Góngora employ similar images, make similar mythological allusions, and describe their protagonists in similar artificial terms. Yet these two comic epyllia, independently conceived though remarkably akin in spirit, also exemplify the two poets' individual stylistic characteristics.
The legend of Hero and Leander did not appear in classical literature until relatively late, and attained popularity only after the Augustan age. Ovid's version (Heroides, XVIII-XIX) is the earliest extant account of this star-crossed pair. For the Renaissance Hero and Leander had much the same psychological appeal...
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SOURCE: Morris, Brian. “Comic Method in Marlowe's Hero and Leander.” In Christopher Marlowe, edited by Brian Morris, pp. 115-31. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1968.
[In the following essay, Morris analyzes Marlowe's comic manner in Hero and Leander.]
Marlowe's Hero and Leander is a great comic fragment. Professor Leech has analysed some parts of it and claimed it as a ‘major comic poem’.1 ‘Fragment’ seems to me more appropriate than ‘poem’, but I agree with Leech's verdict, and welcome its implications. It supposes a comprehensive comic vision on Marlowe's part, which he did not (perhaps could not) impose on the whole story; it suggests an attitude to human love which is neither the celebration of rarified passion nor the simple enjoyment of the flesh; it asks us to believe that Marlowe deliberately denied the lovers what his exemplars, Ovid and Musaeus,2 had considered their true decorum. All three implications can be vindicated from the poem itself.
The comic vision is comprehensive because it obeys its own perverse logic throughout the two Sestiads. The comedy works by the deliberate inversion of all orthodox attitudes towards human dignity and human love, by the frustration of normal expectations. A Renaissance reader, familiar with Ovid, if not with Musaeus, would have expected the story of Hero and Leander to be told richly,...
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SOURCE: Collins, S. Ann. “Sundrie Shapes, Committing Headdie Ryots, Incest, Rapes: Functions of Myth in Determining Narrative and Tone in Marlowe's Hero and Leander.” Mosaic IV, no. 1 (fall 1970): 107-22.
[In the following essay, Collins maintains that the mythological episodes of Hero and Leander function “both as indicators of the poem's tone and as emblematic parallels of segments of the narrative.”]
Hero and Leander, the unfinished epic which was almost solely responsible for Christopher Marlowe's reputation as a poet among his contemporaries, has frequently proved at worst blinding and at best enigmatic to modern critics. Like Hero, “Moving severall ways / At one self instant,” they have found it to be variously a tragic epic of love pure as the driven snow (admittedly a minority view of days past, chiefly held by C. F. Tucker Brooke), a cynical dumb show of Bergsonian comic types, a banquet of poetic sense, an amoral gambol along the wilder shores of love, or a superb example of the best and worst qualities inherent in the Ovidian-Italian tradition, all delightfully seasoned with wit and sensuality and totally lacking in spiritual content. Indeed, the only point of critical harmony on the poem seems to have been that, above all, it must not be taken seriously. The point of this attitude is not that Hero and Leander is comic; it is simply not to be taken...
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SOURCE: Martz, Louis L. Introduction to Hero and Leander, by Christopher Marlowe, pp. 1-14. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1972.
[In the following essay, Martz differentiates Marlowe's Hero and Leander from George Chapman's continuation of the poem.]
This publication provides an occasion for attempting to persuade all admirers of this poem to avoid speaking of Marlowe's “fragment” and Chapman's “continuation,” or of a poem “Begun by Christopher Marloe; and finished by George Chapman,” as on the title page of the first combined edition of 1598. I would even avoid speaking of Marlowe's “part” and Chapman's “part,” as though each in some way belonged to what is sometimes called “the entire poem” or “the composite poem.” Above all I wish to avoid speaking of Marlowe's “two sestiads.” I should like to think instead of the work entered in the Stationers' Register for September 28, 1593, as “a booke intituled Hero and Leander, beinge an amorous poem devised by Christopher Marlow,”1 a poem published by itself in 1598, for the first time, as far as we know. But the fact that the present facsimile is based upon a unique copy may well lead us to suspect that an earlier edition (of 1593?) has completely disappeared. In any case the “amorous poem,” as we here have it, was published as one seamless fabric, without any division into...
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SOURCE: Bieman, Elizabeth. “Comic Rhyme in Marlowe's Hero and Leander.” English Literary Renaissance 9, no. 1 (winter 1979): 69-77.
[In the following essay, Bieman argues that Hero and Leander “offers many hilarious moments through incongruities of situation and language.”]
For all its heroics in celebration of the glory and pathos of young love, Marlowe's Hero and Leander offers many hilarious moments through incongruities of situation and language. When noticed at all, at a more solemn time in literary study, these could be chidden lightly and absolved indulgently on the grounds of the poet's untimely death.1 Now we need no longer seek excuses for Marlowe, although we may be disposed to lavish a little sympathy on one so long, and so grievously, misunderstood. Recent criticism takes fully into account the comic ironies of character and situation in the poem and the complexity of tone, even if one of the most prestigious defenders of Marlowe's sense of humor finds something odd in noting a Byronic effect in one rhyming couplet.2 There is nothing accidental in the burlesquing of character and situation in Marlowe's poem; likewise, there is nothing odd in the resemblances we note between the rhyming practices as well as the situations in Hero and Leander and Don Juan: they are plain for the seeing, for reasons probably of literary ancestry...
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SOURCE: Campbell, Marion. “‘Desunt Nonulla’: The Construction of Marlowe's Hero and Leander as an Unfinished Poem.” ELH 51, no. 2 (summer 1984): 241-68.
[In the following essay, Campbell argues that to read Marlowe and Chapman's sections of Hero and Leander “as parts of a single whole is to obscure the shape and significance of Marlowe's poem.”]
Hero and Leander is conventionally regarded as a fragmented poem, begun by Marlowe and completed by Chapman. Critical interest has centered, therefore, on defining the nature of the two parts and their relationship to one another; but I believe that there is a prior question to be answered, or at least asked. Why is Marlowe's poem seen as incomplete, and why is it read inevitably in relation to Chapman's continuation? My intention in this paper is to contest orthodox readings of Hero and Leander that regard both parts of the poem as dependent on one another and see them, however mismatched, as forming some kind of whole. I believe we should treat with caution the assumption that Marlowe's poem is incomplete, if this is based on no more than a logical inference from the fact that it was “completed” by another poet. We need to find evidence in Marlowe's poem itself that it was left unfinished. Failing this, we should try to recapture Marlowe's original poem, freed from the conception of it as a fragment that Chapman was...
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SOURCE: Altieri, Joanne. “Hero and Leander: Sensible Myth and Lyric Subjectivity.” John Donne Journal 8, nos. 1-2 (1989): 151-66.
[In the following essay, Altieri assesses Marlowe's achievements with Hero and Leander and considers Chapman's continuation of the poem.]
If we take seriously recent work with Hero and Leander, we can recognize in the poem far broader implications for Marlowe and for the poetry of the 1590s than those pursued by the original scholars, who were interested in discrediting Chapman's claims on the poem. Both Roma Gill and Marion Campbell, following Louis Martz,1 have put before us a poem that is unique, having no real heirs, in effect sui generis in English. Gill's edition dispenses with Chapman's continuation on editorial grounds. Campbell, not content with dismissing the “Sestiads” and their concomitant epicization of the narrative, argues firmly that Chapman's continuation constitutes an appropriation and thorough realignment of the poem toward moralized tragedy, an active interpretation by Chapman having little enough to do with Marlowe's original Ovidian erotic narrative. In what follows, I should like to elucidate some of Marlowe's achieved intentions, examining the effects of some historically uncharacteristic but poetically essential anti-Platonism in Marlowe's poetic procedures. I expect the discussion also to throw light on...
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SOURCE: Holmes, M. Morgan. “Identity and the Dissidence It Makes: Homoerotic Nonsense in Kit Marlowe's Hero and Leander.” English Studies in Canada 21, no. 2 (June 1995): 151-69.
[In the following essay, Holmes examines Marlowe's portrayal of homosexual desire in Hero and Leander.]
Generations of audiences, readers, and critics have proved that few species of literary dissidence can rival the unsettling force of Marlovian homoerotic desire.1 Christopher Marlowe's homoerotic dissidence ranges from a rather mild, titillating naughtiness—as in “The passionate Sheepheard to his love”—to an outright thwarting of English law and custom—as in Edward II. What unites these two instances across a spectrum of transgressions is an opposition to the definition of individual identity through the discourse of exclusive and immutable sexual desire. Nowhere in Marlowe's oeuvre is such dissidence clearer than in the epyllion Hero and Leander, a homoerotic poem in the tradition of the 1590s vogue for amorous narratives penned by such other notables as Thomas Lodge, John Marston, and William Shakespeare. Following an outline of the theoretical, critical, and historical contexts pertinent to the topic, I hope to demonstrate how the deployment of homoerotic desire in Hero and Leander undermines the production of sexualized personal and textual...
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SOURCE: Haber, Judith. “‘True-loves Blood’: Narrative and Desire in Hero and Leander.” English Literary Renaissance 28, no. 3 (autumn 1998): 372-86.
[In the following essay, Haber offers a stylistic analysis of Marlowe's treatment of desire in Hero and Leander, contending that the poem “refuses the comforts of a conventional, mastering narrative.”]
Most critics would agree that throughout Christopher Marlowe's corpus there exists a tension between orthodox and heterodox modes of thought, between containment and resistance. This tension is frequently figured within the texts themselves as a dialectic between the assertion of a phallic point and an acknowledgment of complete pointlessness. In Edward II, for example, Marlowe repeatedly evokes—and links—pointlessness in all its senses: impotence, lack, non-meaning, indeterminacy, incompleteness; yet the threat posed by these ideas is effectively contained when both Edward and the audience get the point in the end.1 In Hero and Leander, Marlowe is able more fully to suspend his relation to his society's dominant fiction (which depends, as ours does, on the equation of conventional masculinity and coherence, of the penis and the phallus),2 partially because Hero and Leander is not a drama but a less “pointed” form of play—and (what is the same thing in Marlowe's terms)...
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SOURCE: Brown, Georgia E. “Breaking the Canon: Marlowe's Challenge to the Literary Status Quo in Hero and Leander.” In Marlowe, History, and Sexuality: New Critical Essays on Christopher Marlowe, edited by Paul Whitfield White, pp. 59-75. New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1998.
[In the following essay, Brown delineates the central thematic concerns of Hero and Leander and assesses its influence on the literary culture of the 1590s.]
Why did Marlowe write Hero and Leander? Most critics have attempted to answer this question by approaching the poem as an essay on love. William Keach, for example, maintains that Marlowe's poem is about “the risks, limitations and disappointments of romantic love.”1 Marlowe's intentions are ultimately unrecoverable, but one way of approaching the question is to consider Marlowe's poem in its generic context. Hero and Leander is part of the epyllion craze that swept England in the 1590s, and Marlowe's choice of genre defines his interpretation of authorship and his attitudes towards literature. Although love has its attractions, in this essay I will focus on the role Hero and Leander played in the literary culture of the 1590s.2 Marlowe's poem, I will argue, is really about poetry, youth, and shame, and it is only partially about love and the relationship within the sexes, or between the sexes. No doubt Marlowe...
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SOURCE: Leonard, John. “Marlowe's Doric Music: Lust and Aggression in Hero and Leander.” English Literary Renaissance 30, no. 1 (winter 2000): 55-76.
[In the following essay, Leonard underscores Leander's sexual coercion of Hero in Hero and Leander.]
Writing in 1948, Tucker Brooke saw Hero and Leander as a celebration of young love: “… there is not an obscene word or a degenerate suggestion. Everywhere we have simply the marriage of true minds; the perfect purity of ocean-dewy limbs and child-like souls.”1 That opinion now seems dated, but it still exerts an influence, for (as we shall see) Brooke revised the lines describing the consummation, and almost all editors have accepted his text. But even Brooke's text is hard pressed to bear his interpretation. J. B. Steane, in a celebrated essay, has emphasized the poem's “fierceness and destructiveness.” Where earlier critics saw ocean-dewy limbs or a detached and sophisticated comedy, Steane sees “embarrassment, fear, conflict and farce.” He describes the end of the poem as “savagely Marlovian (not remote even from ‘we sawe Cassandra sprauling in the streetes’).”2 That allusion (to Dido Queene of Carthage 2.1.274) evokes the possibility of rape, but Steane at once modifies his comment by acknowledging that “Hero's rapture is uninhibited at last,” even if only “for a very short...
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SOURCE: Summers, Claude. “Hero and Leander: The Arbitrariness of Desire.” In Constructing Christopher Marlowe, edited by J. A. Downie and J. T. Parnell, pp. 133-47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
[In the following essay, Summers identifies the central theme of Hero and Leander as “the utter arbitrariness of desire, a perspective that is pointedly at variance with the conventional morality of Marlowe's society and its dominant constructions of sexuality and that has tragic as well as comic potential.”]
Hero and Leander is a remarkable achievement, principally because of its curious tone, an unusual blend of apparently affectionate but actually scathingly unsentimental comedy and iconoclastic realism in its depiction of love. If Marlowe's critics can no longer be neatly divided between those who labour mightily to discover (or to impose) a moralistic point to the comedy and those who aver that the comedy is its own reward,1 that is all to the good. The moralistic critics are not very convincing, for Marlowe does not simply disregard conventional morality in Hero and Leander, he also positively flouts it. The poem, in fact, mocks received ideas about sexuality and morality. On the other hand, descriptions of the work as merely iconoclastic or simply an exuberant celebration of Eros for its own sake are also dubious. The poem is more complex than...
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Baldwin, T. W. “Marlow's Musaeus.” The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 54, no. 4 (October 1955): 478-85.
Investigates the influence of Musaeus's version of the Hero and Leander story on Marlowe's poem.
Braunmuller, A. R. “Marlowe's Amorous Fates in Hero and Leander.” The Review of English Studies 29, no. 113 (February 1978): 56-61.
Interprets Marlowe's use of the word “engines” in Hero and Leander.
Brown, Georgia E. “Gender and Voice in Hero and Leander.” In Constructing Christopher Marlowe, edited by J. A. Downie and J. T. Parnell, pp. 148-63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Views Hero and Leander as “an agent of destabilization” and places the poem “in the context of the aesthetic and literary debates of the 1590s.”
Bush, Douglas. “Marlowe: Hero and Leander.” In Mythology and the Renaissance Tradition in English Poetry, pp. 121-36. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1963.
Traces the main influences on Hero and Leander—particularly the work of Ovid—and regards Hero and Leander as superficial characters whose affair lacks genuine human values.
Cheney, Patrick. “Marlowe, Chapman, and the Rewriting of Spenser's England in Hero...
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