Study Guide

Hermann Hesse

Hermann Hesse Biography

Biography (History of the World: The 20th Century)

0111200573-Hesse.jpg(©The Nobel Foundation) Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Article abstract: Writing in the tradition of Romantic individualism, Hesse produced novels and novellas that brought him literary acclaim. Highly autobiographical and confessional, his prose works employ modernist thought and aesthetic principles to narrate the development of existential protagonists.

Early Life

Hermann Hesse was born on July 2, 1877, in Calw, a village on the edge of Germany’s Black Forest. His parents, Johannes and Marie (née Gundert), were German Pietists, and his maternal grandfather was a distinguished Indologist. In Hesse’s youth, the family lived for six years in Basel, Switzerland, where his father taught at a mission school. His own youth and schooling were marked by years of unhappiness, primarily because of conflict with his father and other authority figures. After experiencing severe depression in a Protestant seminary at Maulbronn, he entered a Gymnasium but remained only briefly. Subsequent service as an apprentice in a tower clock factory in Calw was similarly dispiriting. Employment in bookstores, first in Tübingen and later in Basel, enabled him to develop his intellect through reading. With the success of his first novel, Peter Camenzind (1904; English translation, 1961), he resolved to devote his life to literature.

The personal and psychological strife and unhappiness of his early life persisted through most of his writing career, at least until his third marriage, when he was in his fifties. Following the failure of his first marriage in 1916, he suffered a mental breakdown. Disillusioned with German militarism even before World War I, he became a Swiss citizen in 1923. After settling in Montagnola, Switzerland, in 1919, and particularly after his marriage to Ninon Auslander in 1931, his life assumed a measure of stability.

Life’s Work

Hesse’s literary career spanned more than six decades, and over that period he drew his ideas, themes, and narrative techniques from rich and eclectic sources. Among German Romantic writers, the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jean Paul, Novalis, and others was so extensive that critics have placed Hesse in the tradition of Romantic individualism. Among philosophers, Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Friedrich Nietzsche impressed him most deeply. Further, he was steeped in Eastern philosophy and religious thought, including classical Chinese poets, the Upanishads, and the Bhagavad Gita. The historian Jakob Burckhard, the psychologists Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, and the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevski also exerted strong influence on his thought and art. From the individualism of the Romantics with their emphasis on intuition, from the psychology of the will in Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, and from the depth psychology of Freud and Jung, Hesse developed a Romantic individualism akin to modern existentialism—one that escapes the sentimentality of earlier German Romanticism. His writing, confessional and highly autobiographical, is essentially concerned with the development of the individual through what he termed an inward journey.

Hesse’s artistic production was also exceptionally varied. His first book was a collection of lyric poems, and throughout most of his life he continued writing verse—hundreds of lyrics in all. Moreover, he produced essays, articles, book reviews, and short stories in abundance. He mastered watercoloring and illustrated some of his volumes. His major literary achievement, however, lies in the novels and novellas produced during the period spanned by the two world wars, from Demian (1919; English translation, 1923) to Das Glasperlenspiel: Versuch einer Lebensbeschreibung des magister Ludi Josef Knecht samt Knechts hinterlassenen schriften (1943; Magister Ludi, 1949; also as The Glass Bead Game, 1969).

Individual development, Hesse believed, was thwarted by two major forces: nationalism and technology. Because he considered these obstacles to be dehumanizing, Hesse consistently rejected their standardization and regimentation and portrayed characters who transcended them in order to reach the highest level of self-expression. In his early Künstlerromans, such as Klingsor (1920; Klingsor’s Last Summer, 1970), he presents the view that to excel one must escape middle-class conformity through either asceticism or sensuality. Hesse’s protagonists usually engage in these extreme forms of self-denial or self-assertion.

Highly autobiographical and unendingly confessional in form, Hesse’s novels belong to literary genres originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau in which confession becomes an avenue to self-justification. Yet the prized inner journey implied more than a Romantic celebration of individualism. It meant the development of individual talent and capacity through an effort of will in a Schopenhauerian sense, an essentially existential emphasis. Hesse’s protagonists are engaged in a journey; they are seekers who, unable to control reality outside themselves, strive for individual development, fulfillment, and meaning.

Accompanying this individual quest centered in the self is a set of assumptions about the outside world. Hesse’s orientalism treats Asia as a source of renewal, both personal and spiritual, but it also reflects his view that Europe is in decline because of spiritual and intellectual bankruptcy. This theme surfaces boldly in Klingsor’s Last Summer. In an almost Spenglerian pessimism, Hesse endorses the decline of Europe, and much of his later fiction is influenced by this perceived reality. Often presenting external decline through expressionistic techniques, Hesse has his protagonists view external events as grotesquely distorted and chaotic. Avenues of their escape are isolation, which Siddhartha attempts; sensuality, Harry Haller’s means in Der Steppenwolf (1927; Steppenwolf, 1929); or projection into the future where an ideal society replaces a failed one, as in The Glass Bead Game. Hence, the plight of the individual soul enmeshed in a declining civilization sets the conflict for the major prose fiction.

Hesse’s first novel, a Bildungsroman, Peter Camenzind, a story of adolescent friendship and poignant young love based upon his own early life and...

(The entire section is 2606 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Novels for Students)

Hermann Hesse Published by Gale Cengage

German poet and novelist Hermann Hesse was born on July 2, 1877, in the small town of Calw, in the German state of Württemberg. His father,...

(The entire section is 500 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Literary Essentials: Short Fiction Masterpieces)

After attending various schools, including the Protestant church school at Maulbronn from which he fled, Hermann Hesse became an apprentice in a tower-clock factory in 1894; later he became an apprentice in the book trade. In 1904, he became a freelance writer and contributed to a number of journals and newspapers. From 1907 to 1912, he was coeditor of the journal März (March). In 1911, he traveled to Ceylon, Sumatra, and Malaya, although because of illness he did not actually visit India itself. In 1912, he moved to Switzerland. A nervous breakdown in 1916 led to psychotherapy sessions in 1916-1917 with Dr. J. B. Lang, a student of Carl Jung. In 1919, he moved to Montagnola in Swiss Ticino, where he lived for the rest of...

(The entire section is 156 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Hermann Hesse was born on July 2, 1877, in Calw, Germany, the son of Johannes Hesse, a Baltic-born Pietist missionary, and Marie Hesse (née Gundert), the eldest daughter of the missionary and scholar of Indic languages Hermann Gundert. From 1881 to 1886, Hesse lived with his parents in Basel, Switzerland, where his father taught at the Basel Mission School, but in 1886, Hesse returned to Calw to attend elementary school. During the academic year 1890-1891, Hesse was a pupil at the Göppingen Latin school, where he prepared to take the rigorous state examinations for entrance to one of Württemberg’s four church schools. He passed, and in the fall of 1891 he was sent to the seminary in Maulbronn. There the young Hesse was...

(The entire section is 617 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

ph_0111200573-Hesse.jpgHermann Hesse Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Hermann Hesse (HEH-suh) was born in Calw, Württemberg, Germany, on July 2, 1877, to Johannes and Marie Hesse. The family moved to Basel, Switzerland, in 1881, where Hesse acquired Swiss citizenship. He returned to Calw in 1889, and in 1890 and 1891 he attended Latin school in Göppingen in order to prepare himself for the Württemberg regional examinations. To qualify he had to renounce his Swiss citizenship. In 1891 and 1892, he was a student at the seminary in Maulbronn, which he left after seven months because he wanted to be a writer. In 1892, he underwent exorcism treatments in Bad Boll, attempted suicide, spent three months in a clinic for nervous diseases at Stetten, and was admitted to the Gymnasium in Cannstatt. Over the...

(The entire section is 772 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Hermann Hesse’s works are all fragments of a long confession, reflecting a single human being and his relation to the world and to his own self. Although they are primarily concerned with self-recognition and self-realization, these spiritual autobiographies deal with the human condition in general. They have a mystical quality in the way Hesse traces the quest for identity in a universe that is either hostile or indifferent. Yet the quest is not undertaken within the dogma of an established religion, for then obedience to an established law would suffice. To Hesse, one finds the way according to one’s own inner law.

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Hermann Hesse Biography

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Hermann Hesse

Introduction

One of Germany’s most celebrated writers, Hermann Hesse had a troubled childhood, bouncing from school to school and fighting with his parents. The culmination of these problems occurred in 1892 when he attempted suicide and was placed in two separate mental institutions. He tried several apprenticeships before finally working in a bookshop and beginning his own writing career. Hesse first composed poetry and later moved to writing novels and essays. Always suspicious of authority, Hesse tried to support artists who were persecuted by the Nazis, but he had to endure criticism for not being vocal enough for or against either side. Hesse’s novels, mainly Steppenwolf and Siddhartha, gained popularity in the 1960s because many saw them as aligning with counter-culture values.

Essential Facts

  1. The rock band Steppenwolf is named after Hesse’s famous book about spiritual crisis.
  2. Hesse is the most popular German language author in Japan. This is most likely because an educational minister in Japan once assigned students studying German to read a Hesse novel. The practice stuck.
  3. Hesse received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1946 for his last major work, The Glass Bead Game.
  4. Hesse received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1946 for his last major work, The Glass Bead Game.
  5. In 1933, Hesse helped Bertolt Brecht and Thomas Mann go into exile in an attempt to thwart Hitler’s anti-art campaign.

Hermann Hesse Biography (Novels for Students)

Hermann Hesse was born July 2, 1877, in Calw, Württemberg, Germany. Both of his parents had been missionaries in the East Indies, and the...

(The entire section is 401 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

ph_0111200573-Hesse.jpgHermann Hesse Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Hermann Hesse (HEHS-uh), one of the most popular novelists of twentieth century world literature, was the second of six children of Johannes Hesse and Marie Gundert, who were extremely religious former missionaries to India. In his youth, he was a sensitive, headstrong child who rebelled against schooling and a trade until he was permitted to serve as a book dealer’s apprentice in Tübingen. There he found time to read widely, educating himself in the process, and to write his own poetry and prose. Because much of Hesse’s fiction derives directly from his own experiences and is confessional in nature, scholars have identified three distinct stages in his development.

The first phase, clearly seen in the characters...

(The entire section is 931 words.)

Hermann Hesse Biography (Novels for Students)

Hermann Hesse Published by Gale Cengage

Born in Calw, Germany, in 1877, Hermann Hesse was influenced by his family's mix of background and beliefs. His father, a Pietist-Lutheran, believed that man is basically evil and requires austere discipline. His parents and grandparents had been missionaries in India and the Far East, and their homes yielded the flavors of Indian, Buddhist, and Mohammedan cultures. Hesse said, "From the time I was a child I breathed in and absorbed the spiritual side of India just as deeply as Christianity."

Hypersensitive, imaginative, and headstrong, Hermann behaved rebelliously while yearning to be a poet and magician. School authorities doubted his sanity, and he even fared poorly at schools for mentally challenged and emotionally disturbed children. Instead, he stayed at home, gardening, assisting in his father's publishing house, and reading books on Eastern philosophy and religion in his grandfather's library.

In 1899, Hesse, who had become something of a misfit, moved to Basel, Switzerland, determined to learn the art of living with other people. In 1904, he married and moved to remote Gaienhofen. Seven years later, he left for a trip to the East, expecting to find wisdom in India, which he considered to be a centerplace of innocence; he also hoped to discover answers to his personal problems. Finding only poverty and commercialized Buddhism he returned, suffering from heat exhaustion, dysentery, and disillusionment.

World War I left an already unsettled Hesse badly shaken. Nationalistic enough to hope for a German victory, he also abhorred war and argued for internationalism. That he volunteered his services to the German embassy in Bern and coedited two weeklies for German prisoners of war did little to dissuade his detractors among both the militarists and the pacifists. His father's death in 1916 further compounded his growing despair. At this time Hesse underwent Jungian psychoanalysis, a process that put him in touch with the irrational forces that lurk beneath both individuals and society at large as well as with the idea of a self-quest through synthesis of these forces.

In 1919, he settled alone in Montagnola, where Siddhartha was written. Persuaded that a postwar Germany was susceptible to change, Hesse helped to found and edit a periodical devoted to social reform, pacifism, and internationalism. Resurgent nationalism and spreading communism caused him to terminate his association with the monthly in 1921. Indignities and waning faith in Germany's political future persuaded Hesse to become a citizen of Switzerland in 1924. During this period, Hesse divorced his first wife and, after a brief second marriage, married Ninon Dolbin, with whom he lived until his death.

During World War II, Hesse was again vilified by the German right-wing press. The bitterness and shock caused by the extermination of his wife's family by the Nazis stayed with Hesse for the rest of his life. Until his death from leukemia in 1962, he remained in Montagnola, rarely leaving it and never going outside of Switzerland, not even when he was awarded the Goethe Prize of Frankfurt am Main and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946.

Hermann Hesse Biography (European Poets and Poetry)

ph_0111200573-Hesse.jpgHermann Hesse Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Hermann Hesse was born in Calw, a picturesque village in the Black Forest. He was the grandson of a publisher of religious tracts and the son of devout missionaries from the Pietists, an evangelical Protestant sect. His father, Johannes Hesse, was a German, born the son of a physician in Estonia (then part of the Russian Empire), and his mother Marie Gundert Hesse, a widow with two sons, was also of German heritage, though she had been born in India, where her father Hermann Gundert, a scholarly linguist, had preached.

A precocious child, young Hesse was difficult to handle and particularly acted out during the five years (1881-1886) when the Hesse family lived in Basle, Switzerland. After they returned to Calw, Hesse...

(The entire section is 501 words.)