Henry Lawes 1596-1662
The preeminent songwriter among the musicians associated with the court of Charles I, with more than 430 songs to his credit, Lawes was praised by contemporary poets for the style of song that he developed as a vehicle for lyric verse. His musical settings gave the greatest possible exposure to the poetic text in terms of meaning, imagery, and verbal play, qualities that were often summed up as “wit.” Lawes set to music poems by many literary luminaries of his time, and his prestige was such that contemporary printer-publishers included a reference to Lawes's settings on the title pages of volumes by John Milton, Thomas Carew, Edmund Waller, John Suckling, and William Cartwright. Lawes also set music to poems by Robert Herrick and Richard Lovelace. Many poets provided commendatory poems to the published volumes of Lawes's songs, the most famous being Milton's sonnet, “To My Friend, Mr. Henry Lawes, on His Airs,” printed in Lawes's Choice Psalmes (1648). Critical commentary on Lawes focuses on his relationship to the important poets whose lyrics he set to music and on his collaboration with them on their works.
Little is known of Lawes's background and personal life. He was born on January 5, 1596 in Wiltshire, England. He was very close to his younger brother, William, who was to become the preeminent instrumental composer of the Caroline court. It is known that William at an early age was taught by Giovanni Coperario (John Cooper) in the household of Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford. Lawes's musical education probably began in the same way, though possibly in the household of the other great Wiltshire patron of artists, William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke. In either house he would have encountered Alfonso Ferrabosco, who, with Coperario and others, introduced the new Italian style of monody to Prince Charles's circle. These Wiltshire connections could also have been Lawes's entrée to the aristocratic households of London, where he was living by 1615, when he was nineteen years old. He received royal preferment soon after the accession of Prince Charles to the throne in 1625. In January 1626 Lawes was granted a probationary post in the Chapel Royal, followed within two years by full appointment as gentleman of the chapel. Five years later, in January 1631, he also became “Musician for Lutes and Voices” in the secular arm of the court musical establishment, the King's Musicke. In both posts his primary duties were to perform, but he was also called upon as a composer.
During the Interregnum, the period from 1649 to 1660 when Britain was a republic, Lawes supported himself primarily by teaching but continued to compose and permitted the publication of many of his songs. Personal allusions in commendatory poems and elsewhere depict Lawes as a sympathetic and convivial companion, and the number and quality of tributes to him by poets bespeak a genuine and widespread admiration. With the restoration of the monarchy to the throne, Lawes was returned to his former court positions, and he composed what has become one of the traditional coronation anthems, “Zadoc the Priest,” for the coronation of Charles II; but he was no longer an active force, and he died within two years, in 1662. His will mentions a “dear and loving wife Eleanor,” who served as executrix; he left no known descendants.
Lawes is noteworthy not only because of his stature as a composer of songs but because of the range and variety of poets whose lyrics he set to music. His early compositions include settings of texts by Philip Sidney and John Donne as well as by Pembroke and his circle. His association with Milton is well documented, especially in relation to the masque Comus (1637), although it is seldom noted that at the time of these collaborations Lawes, not Milton, was the well-established artist sponsoring a young unknown. His principal collaboration was with the courtier George Sandys, for whose fashionable metrical paraphrases of the Psalms Lawes provided a set of new tunes in A Paraphrase Upon the Psalmes of David (1638). He also composed more elaborate, three-voice settings for Sandys's text that spoke to Royalist experiences of war, discouragement, and defeat in Choice Psalmes Put Into Musick (1648). Evidence of Lawes's personal association with other poets is sparse and inconclusive as to how long or how well he knew them. However, scholars have concluded that he was probably widely acquainted with the writers and wits of his time, working closely and fruitfully with some and on terms of long intimacy with a few. He worked almost entirely with the poems of contemporaries, and the preface to the first book of Ayres and Dialogues (1653), an anthology of miscellaneous airs and songs, makes the explicit claim that he received copies of the verses directly from their authors. If he was being accurate, this claim alone would establish an acquaintance with twenty-eight poets, including Herrick, Carew, Lovelace, Waller, William Davenant, Katherine Phillips, Sandys, Suckling, and George Herbert. Lawes's Second Booke of Ayres, and Dialogues (1655) is of particular interest because it reveals the composer's association with a group of gifted women, including his patron and student Lady Unton Dering and the distinguished singer Mary Knight, as well as Phillips. Many of the songs in Ayres and Dialogues express Royalist sentiments, and the third volume, which appeared in 1658, in particular displays an increasing confidence of the Royalist party and its hope for the restoration of the monarchy.
During his lifetime Lawes was esteemed as a vocalist and composer of songs. He was praised highly by the poets with whom he associated for his special sensitivity to poetic structure and tone in his musical settings. Commendatory poems by Milton, Waller, and Herrick, among others, emphasize his ability to enhance the eloquence of their lyrics with his musical accompaniments. Modern musicologists point out that to the modern ear Lawes's settings might appear to be spare and lacking in substance, but his free rhythmic delivery, subtle ornamental figures, and slight variations in dynamics were calculated to convey a type of “charming negligence” that delighted seventeenth-century audiences. Modern studies of Lawes's work are limited, partly because he is overshadowed by his more well-known brother, but those that have appeared have emphasized his connection to the poets whose lyrics he set to music. Of particular interest to critics have been Lawes's collaboration on Comus and Milton's support of the composer. Scholars have also commended Lawes for his efforts to create a new music as an expression of the unique English language and character.
A Paraphrase Upon the Psalmes of David. By G. S. Set to new tunes for private Devotion [music by Lawes, text by George Sandys] (songs) 1638
Choice Psalmes Put Into Musick, For Three Voices [music by Lawes and William Lawes, text by George Sandys] (songs) 1648
Ayres and Dialogues for One, Two, and Three Voyces (songs) 1653
The Second Booke of Ayres, and Dialogues (songs) 1655
Ayres and Dialogues for One, Two, and Three Voices: The Third Booke (songs) 1658
The Treasury of Musick [contributor] (music anthology) 1669
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SOURCE: Evans, Willa McClung. “Lawes' Version of Shakespeare's Sonnet CXVI.” PMLA 51, no. 1 (March 1936): 120-22.
[In the following essay, Evans points out that Lawes set a version of Shakespeare's Sonnet 116 to music, which she says establishes that the composer was the only contemporary who collaborated with both Milton and Shakespeare.]
That Henry Lawes set to music a version of Shakespeare's Sonnet CXVI “Let me not to the marriage of true mindes / Admit impediments,” has apparently never been mentioned in print. Lawes' version, which retains seven lines intact, alters seven, and adds two couplets to form three six-line stanzas, is found in John Gamble's commonplace book of songs. This volume was formerly the property of Dr. Edward F. Rimbault, but is now in the Drexel Collection of the New York City Public Library. The manuscript is described in the catalogue of the sale (1877) of Dr. Rimbault's library, as
A collection of upwards of 300 songs by Wilson, Lawes, Johnson, Gamble, and other English composers, containing also the autograph inscription, “John Gamble his book, Amen. 1659 Anno Domini,” thirteen guineas, for America.
The pages are in excellent condition, the writing clear, the ink for the most part unfaded. Gamble apparently copied into this volume the songs which he admired and wished to save, songs written...
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SOURCE: Evans, Willa McClung. “Henry Lawes and Charles Cotton.” PMLA 53, no. 3 (September 1938): 724-29.
[In the following excerpt, Evans shows that Lawes set to music a version of Charles Cotton's poem “The Picture.”]
Hearty, cheerful Mr. Cotton and pious Izaak Walton shared enthusiasms other than their common devotion to angling.1 Both of these seventeenth-century fishermen had some proficiency in singing, and wrote verse to be set to music. Walton, it will be recalled, “made a conversion of an old ketch, and added more to it,”2 for which Henry Lawes composed the melody of The Angler's Song.3 Charles Cotton in imitation of Walton's verse, or out of admiration for Lawes' music, wrote The Angler's Ballad, which can be sung to the tune for Walton's ketch. But Cotton's song writing was not limited to the fitting of new words to old measures. A number of his poems were set by Mr. Coleman,4 and one, The Picture, received the distinction of being “Set by Mr. Laws,” the composer who had provided the music not only for Walton's Angler's Song, but for Milton's Comus songs,5 for Shakespeare's sonnet CXVI,6 and for a great many other sixteenth and seventeenth century lyrics.7
The existence of Lawes' music for Cotton's poem, The Picture, has apparently not been known...
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SOURCE: Freedman, Morris. “Milton's ‘On Shakespeare’ and Henry Lawes.” Shakespeare Quarterly 14, no. 3 (summer 1963): 279-81.
[In the following essay, Freedman provides evidence to show that Lawes may have been responsible for Miton's poem “On Shakespeare” appearing as a preface to the playwright's works in the Second Folio.]
Milton's first published work, “On Shakespeare”, appeared as one of the prefatory poems to the Second Folio, in 1632. At the time, Milton, twenty-four, was unknown as a poet; only his family, friends, classmates, and perhaps some of his teachers knew of his interest in writing. How did it happen that his lines came to preface the Second Folio?
It is not likely that the publishers of F2, engaged in a commercial venture, asked Milton for them, assuming that they knew him; the addition of a work by an unknown writer, however good the text itself, would not have had much promotional value merely as another tribute. Nor was it likely that Milton proffered the poem on his own, as Masson suggested.1 The young Milton's independence of spirit seems to make the hypothesis of an unsolicited offering improbable. Milton was not launching his career with the poem; it appeared without his name or initials, not being identified as his until the 1645 edition of the minor poems. (The other anonymous poem in F2 had the author's claim...
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SOURCE: Shawcross, John T. “Henry Lawes's Settings of Songs for Milton's ‘Comus.’” Journal of the Rutgers University Library 28 (December 1964): 22-8.
[In the following essay, Shawcross discusses the music Lawes composed for Milton's masque Comus, arguing that the text may have been altered after the composition of the music.]
In a former article on the manuscripts of John Milton's mask called “Comus”1 I drew attention to the fact that the texts of the songs for which music written by Henry Lawes exists are derived from revisions of the basic transcription in Milton's manuscript in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge.2 The songs come down to us in two manuscripts: British Museum Add. MS 11,518 (in an unknown hand)3 and the Lawes MS recently on loan to the British Museum (in Lawes's hand).4 The date of the basic transcription of the mask into the Trinity MS poses important questions for the music which Lawes wrote. Since the mask seems to have been transcribed in the autumn of 1637, three years after the first performance on 29 September 1634,5 the music must have been revised to accord with the new words which furnish its texts. The musical settings in terms of the lines of the final text are: Song 1, 976-983, 992-995, 998-999; Song 2, 230-243; Song 3, 859-866; Song 4, in two parts, 958-975; Song 5, 1012-1023.
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SOURCE: Davidson, Audrey. “Milton on the Music of Henry Lawes.” Milton Newsletter 2, no. 2 (May 1968): 19-23.
[In the following excerpt, Davidson speculates on the relationship between Milton and Lawes through a reading of Milton's sonnet of praise to the composer.]
Milton's encomiastic sonnet to Henry Lawes opens with the highest praise for his eminent contemporary:
Harry, whose tuneful and well measur'd Song First taught our English Music how to span Words with just note and accent, not to scan With Midas' Ears, committing short and long …(1)
These lines, according to Donald Tovey, reveal a Milton who has forgotten the precise and artistic word-setting achieved by the madrigal school in the preceding generation. Furthermore, Tovey charges that “the composer's preoccupation with the scansion of ‘just note and accent’ leads him to over-punctuate the words and interrupt the flow of his music.”2 Thus in Tovey's estimation, the sonnet's claims about Lawes's primary place in the history of English music are not accurate. Eric Ford Hart, however, suggests that the poem's statements about Lawes's art have often been taken too literally when in fact Milton's intention was merely complimentary.3
Another approach to the poem is possible; I believe that the poem is neither inaccurate nor merely complimentary. The key to Milton's...
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SOURCE: Carpenter, Nan Cooke. “Milton and Music: Henry Lawes, Dante, and Casella.” English Literary Renaissance 2 (spring 1972): 237-42.
[In the following essay, Carpenter offers an interpretation of Milton's sonnet in praise of Lawes, arguing that the poem likens Lawes to Casella and the poet himself to Dante.]
Several of Milton's sonnets, Italian and English, rely for effect upon musical allusions and overtones; only one (XIII) is completely musical—“To Mr. H. Lawes, on his Aires.” Although, at first reading, the sonnet seems to be typical laudatory verse, couched in the classical imagery beloved of Milton, closer attention to the poem reveals several puzzling matters never fully explained. If one looks deeply at the last three lines, especially, one finds ideas and techniques beneath the surface, which add immensely to the overall interest of the poem.
Facts of composition and publication of the poem, first of all, present something of a mystery. Henry Lawes, thirteen years older than Milton, was already an eminent composer and in the King's personal employ when his name graced the title page of Milton's poems, printed late in 1645: “The SONGS were set in Musick by Mr. HENRY LAWES Gentleman of the KINGS Chappel, and one of his MAIESTIES Private Musick.”1 Milton's complimentary poem to Lawes is dated February 9, 1645 (that is, 1646) in the...
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SOURCE: Baruch, Franklin R. “Milton's Comus: Skill, Virtue, and Henry Lawes.” Milton Studies 5 (1973): 289-308.
[In the following essay, Baruch argues that in his masque Comus Milton characterizes Lawes, who plays the role of the Attendant Spirit, as the teacher and dramatic guide for the Egerton children.]
Much of the attention given to Milton's Comus has sprung from a concern with the pairings seen as operative in the poem. Virginity and profligacy, natural and religious virtue, celibacy and marriage, order and disorder—the list is an abundant one, with results often richly suggestive.1 It is perhaps inevitable that this focus in Comus scholarship should have come about. By the very nature of the form, one looks for contending or, at least, separated elements to be in union at the close. If that union is not possible, we find one alternative to have lost. Thus, the universe of the masque is one of solutions produced by the viewer's or reader's perception of true relationships. It is a universe, too, in which a chief delight consists in the delicacy and appropriateness of compliment offered to those involved with the piece. In their turn, these courtly gestures and decorations at their best become fused with the intellectual and spiritual levels of the work.
I should like to suggest that Comus draws upon two commonplaces of...
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SOURCE: Frost, Elizabeth A. “The Didactic Comus: Henry Lawes and the Trial of Virtue.” Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22 (1991): 87-103.
[In the following essay, Frost elucidates the moral lessons provided in Milton's Comus, maintaining that in the didactic masque Lawes takes on the role of instructor.]
The Jacobean and Caroline court masque traditionally incorporated some moral message into the grandeur of its spectacle, but only as part of its elaborately conceived compliment. Both Jonson's Vision of Delight and Carew's Coelum Britannicum describe the restoration of order over disorder, virtue over intemperance, and a fixed hierarchy over the anarchic forces of nature. Like these masques, Milton's Comus was written for a specific historical occasion—the gathering of the Egerton family at Ludlow Castle, where the earl of Bridgewater had in 1633 become president of the council in the Marches of Wales.1Comus's traditional evocation of the restoration of order over disorder thus served an appropriate allegorical function, for Bridgewater's commission specified as part of his duty the keeping of order along the the unruly Welsh border.2 Despite this similarity, however, Comus boasts few direct compliments to Bridgewater; as J. B. Leishman notes, compliments are reduced to the barest, most “incidental”...
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SOURCE: Hamessley, Lydia. “Henry Lawes's Setting of Katherine Philips's Friendship Poetry in His Second Book of Ayres and Dialogues, 1655: A Musical Misreading?” In Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, edited by Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood and Gary C. Thomas, pp. 115-38. New York: Routledge, 1994.
[In the following excerpt, an expanded version of a lecture delivered in 1991, Hamessley considers whether, in setting Katherine Philip's poetry to music, Lawes projected, masked, or suppressed the lesbian voice.]
But as the morning sun to drooping flowers, As weary travellers a shade do find, As to the parched violet evening showers; Such is from thee to me a look that's kind.
But when that look is drest in words, tis like The mystic pow'r of music's unison; Which when the finger doth one viol strike, The other's string heaves to reflection.
To My Lucasia, in Defence of Declared Friendship—Katherine Philips (1631-1664)1
Throughout the histories of music Henry Lawes has been viewed as a composer who was quite skilled at setting the poetic texts of numerous Cavalier writers, among them Herrick, Carew, Suckling, Lovelace, Waller, and Milton.2 Many of these poets wrote praises to him detailing his skill and offering their gratitude for the way he elevated and, in a sense, completed their poetry with his...
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Spink, Ian. Cavalier Songwriter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, 172 p.
Comprehensive account of Lawes's life, focusing on his work as a musician.
Evans, Willa McClung. “Lawes' and Lovelace's Loose Saraband.” PMLA 54, no. 3 (September 1939): 764-67.
Comments on Lawes's musical setting for a poem by Richard Lovelace.
———. Henry Lawes: Musician and Friend of Poets. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1941, 250 p.
Full-length survey of Lawes's works from a literary perspective.
Nixon, Scott. “Henry Lawes's Hand in the Bridgewater Collection: New Light on Composer and Patron.” Huntington Library Quarterly 62, nos. 3-4 (1999): 232-72.
Examines a copy of the 1655 Select Psalmes of a New Translation and detects Lawes's hand in the collaborative work.
Stevens, David Harrison. “The Bridgewater Manuscript of ‘Comus.’” Modern Philology 24, no. 3 (February 1927): 315-20.
Discusses the value of the Bridgewater manuscript of Comus as a work of collaboration between Milton and Lawes.
Additional coverage of Lawes's life and career is contained in the following sources published by Thomson Gale:...
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