Jackson, Helen Hunt
Helen Hunt Jackson 1830-1885
Also wrote under the pseudonyms H. H., Saxe Holm, Marah, Rip Van Winkle. American children's author, novelist, essayist, non-fiction writer, and poet.
Known primarily as an author of popular children's books and poems during the late-nineteenth century, Helen Hunt Jackson rarely published under her own name, preferring instead to use such pseudonyms as H. H. and Saxe Holm. Although Jackson was a prolific writer and contributor to magazines and journals, many of her book reviews were unsigned, making it difficult to attribute much of her work. Years after her death, Jackson's fame rests not on the children's books that made her so popular during her lifetime, but on two works written for an adult audience—A Century of Dishonor (1881) and Ramona (1884). In the 1880s Jackson became a passionate advocate for the Native American cause and both these books reflect her concerns. Jackson's other works include contributions of short stories and essays to various literary and children's magazines, as well as juvenile novels, such as Nelly's Silver Mine (1878), that reflected her love for the landscape and life in the western United States.
Jackson was born in 1830, in Amherst, Massachusetts. Her father, Nathan Welby Fiske, was a stern clergyman and professor at Amherst College and her mother, Deborah Vinal, was an educated Bostonian. As a child, Jackson was known for her strong will. After her parents died when she was a teenager, an aunt raised Jackson and her sister. Jackson was educated at the Ipswich Female Academy and then continued her instruction at a school run by John and Jacob Abbott in New York City. She became acquainted with the poet Emily Dickinson during her early years in Amherst and the two remained friends and admirers of each other's work for the rest of their lives. In 1852 Jackson married Lieutenant Edward Bisell Hunt and together they had two sons, one of whom died in infancy. Lt. Hunt died in 1863 following an accident while conducting a scientific experiment, and shortly thereafter Jackson also lost her second son. She was grief-stricken at her loss and eventually moved to Newport, Rhode Island. It was here that she began her lifelong association with the literary world. She began attending meetings of local and visiting writers organized by Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Her contact with these writers and intellectuals rekindled an interest in life and she began writing to support herself financially. She became one of Higginson's protégés and began to contribute poetry and prose to periodicals, including the New York Independent, Scribner's Monthly, and the New York Evening Post. She went on to publish hundreds of pieces and her work was included in most of the leading journals. In 1870 Jackson issued her first collection of poetry, titled Verses, to glowing reviews. In fact, author Ralph Waldo Emerson thought so much of her poetry that he included some of it in the second edition of his anthology Parnassus in 1874. After several years in Newport, Jackson traveled to the West in the early 1870s. In 1873, following an illness, she went to Colorado to recover. There she met and married William Sharpless Jackson in 1875. The two had no children, but Jackson was soon consumed with what became her life's crusade. Following a lecture on the suffering and dispossession of Native Americans, Jackson developed an intense interest in their cause and began writing letters and articles on the subject. She devoted the remainder of her life to improving the conditions of Native Americans and exposing the injustices heaped upon this marginalized group. Despite her popularity and acclaim as a poet and children's author, Jackson herself considered A Century of Dishonor and Ramona, two works that reflected her concern with the Native American cause, her own best legacy. Finally after suffering for several years from an unknown illness, Jackson succumbed to stomach cancer in 1885.
Jackson began her publishing career in the early 1870s with the publication of several poems and reviews in contemporary literary journals. Her 1870 collection of poetry, Verses, derived from these early submissions and was reflective of her grief at losing her sons and her first husband. She followed this publication with two volumes of short stories, in 1874 and 1878. Jackson, like many of her female literary contemporaries, wrote for children, often entertaining them with tales of adventure and mischief. Her short stories are full of her own childhood escapades and Jackson often contributed them to children's magazines including Riverside Magazine for Young Readers. In 1876 she collected her children's pieces in one volume, Bits of Talk, in Verse and Prose, for Young Folks. In the mid-1870s Jackson also began writing full-length works and her first two novels, Mercy Philbrick's Choice and Hetty's Strange History, were published in 1876 and 1877 respectively. Both works feature New England settings and hallmark strong characters. A third novel, Nelly's Silver Mine, was published in 1878. An adventure story about the fictional March family, the work is based on Jackson's experiences in Colorado. In contrast to many contemporary stories about the West that presented a barbaric view of frontier life, Jackson's work was lauded for its realistic portrayal. Although the book was praised as a “true classic for the nursery,” its appeal has not endured and it is now read primarily as a historical curiosity. In contrast, Jackson's poetry for children continued to be popular well after her death. In addition to children's short stories and poetry, Jackson was also known for her “cat stories” which are collected into three publications. The most famous of these, Letters from a Cat (1879), relates daily events in the life of a feline. Jackson's other extremely popular cat-related titles include Mammy Tittleback and Her Family and The Hunter Cats of Connorloa.
During a trip to New York City in the 1870s, Jackson attended a lecture by Ponco Chief Standing Bear on the plight of Native Americans and their suffering and dispossession at the hands of the United States government. Jackson was profoundly affected by this knowledge and she became a passionate advocate working for the cause of Native Americans up until her death. In a letter to her friend Charles D. Warner in 1879, Jackson wrote “I shall be found with ‘Indians’ engraved on my brain when I am dead. A fire has been kindled within me, which will never go out.” Her activism led her to write numerous essays and articles on the subject, which further prompted her research for a non-fiction work to expose the government's maltreatment of these native people. The result was the publication of A Century of Dishonor. The work theorizes that contemporary United States government policy regarding Native Americans defied the basic principles of justice. Jackson was so committed to her cause that she mailed copies of the work to all the members of Congress at her own expense. While legislation based on Jackson's work concerning the Mission Indians of California was introduced, and was approved by the Senate, Congress did not pass the bill. In fact, there were many, including Theodore Roosevelt, who criticized her work. Nonetheless, a few years later the Indian Rights Association was formed, and in 1882 Jackson was appointed a commissioner of Indian Affairs, assigned to visit and report on the conditions of Indians in California. Jackson considered A Century of Dishonor her best work and though the book went out of print after her death, later students have considered it “one of the soundest and most exhaustive works” on Indian rights. In 1884 Jackson continued her efforts to highlight the plight of Native Americans by the publication of Ramona, a romantic novel set against the background of the old Spanish patriarchal life in California. It is the story of Ramona, a half Indian and half Spanish woman and her Indian husband's love in the face of persecution by whites. Ramona, who was designed to represent the best of two races, is considered one of the most memorable female characters in nineteenth-century literature. Ramona was the last full-length work issued by Jackson.
Jackson was a prolific and popular writer at a time when women writers faced hostility and disrespect. Although her poetry is now generally considered dated and her handling of the major themes of life, love, and death frequently interpreted as too sentimental, she was considered one of the best poets in her own time. In fact, at the time of her death, her longtime mentor and friend Higginson rated her poetry as her best contribution to American literature. And while Jackson's poems continued to be anthologized well into the 1970s, most twentieth-century scholarship and criticism of Jackson's writing has focused on Ramona and A Century of Dishonor. In 1886 Albion W. Tourgee wrote in the North American Review that Ramona was “unquestionably the best novel yet produced by an American woman.” Along with Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, it was ranked as one of the two great ethical novels of the nineteenth century, and Jackson herself said “If I can do one-hundredth part for the Indian as Mrs. Stowe did for the Negro, I will be thankful.” In contrast, most twentieth-century critics consider Ramona a great sentimental romance, and while they praise the work for its didactic purpose, many critique it because it offers no constructive remedy. In fact, Ramona has become famous primarily because it is a great romance; it has been reprinted over 300 times, attesting to the popularity of the work.
While Ramona's political nature cannot be disputed, some critics have noted that despite its failure to match the social impact of Uncle Tom's Cabin, it is nonetheless a better-written work than Stowe's novel. Reviewing Ramona in his book Through Ramona's Country, George Wharton James noted Jackson's attention to realistic detail. According to James, Jackson used many actual events in the creation of her novel, and although the “hero and heroine are fiction … Ramona … is a work of essential truth.” In an essay that traces the factual elements of Ramona back to Jackson's A Century of Dishonor, critic John R. Byers expresses a similar opinion, calling Century “one of the most scathing indictments of the United States Government on the treatment of the Indian population. …” Byers further states that Century served as the source for Ramona, and that the two works share a close relationship, drawing on the same set of facts. In contrast, although Century is lauded for its strong and convincing indictment of government policy and practice with regards to Native Americans, most critics agree that the work is “stylistically flawed by hasty writing with little revision.” Although Jackson was a popular writer of both prose and poetry in her time, most twentieth-century scholarship focuses on Ramona. With this novel and Century, says Carol Schmudde, Jackson “put the moral authority” she had gained as a poet and author through her previous works “on the line, and it is for her passionate concern and contribution to her cause that she is most remembered today.”
Bathmendi: A Persian Tale [translated by H. H.] (novel) 1867
Verses [as H. H.] (poetry) 1870
Bits of Travel [as H. H.] (prose) 1872
Bits of Talk about Home Matters [as H. H.] (prose) 1873
Saxe Holm's Stories [as Saxe Holm] (short stories) 1874
The Story of Boon [as H. H.] (novel) 1874
Bits of Talk, in Verse and Prose [as H. H.] (prose) 1876
Mercy Philbrick's Choice [as Anonymous] (novel) 1876
Bits of Travel at Home [as H. H.] (prose) 1878
Nelly's Silver Mine: A Story of Colorado Life [as H. H.] (novel) 1878
Letters from a Cat: Published by Her Mistress for the Benefit of all Cats and the Amusement of Little Children [as H. H.] (short stories) 1879
A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government's Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes [as H. H.] (nonfiction) 1881
Mammy Tittleback and Her Family: A True Story of Seventeen Cats [as H. H.] (novel) 1881
Report on the Condition and Needs of the Mission Indians of California [by Jackson and Abbot Kinney] (non-fiction) 1883
Ramona: A Story [as Helen Jackson (H. H.)] (novel) 1884
The Hunter Cats of Connorloa [as H. H.]...
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SOURCE: “The Facts and Fictions of Ramona,” in Through Ramona's Country, Little Brown and Company, 1913, pp. 22-62.
[In the following excerpt, James explores Jackson's use of actual events in the creation of the fictional world of Ramona and praises her descriptions of natural surroundings.]
There are those in Ramonaland who will tell you that Ramona is fiction from beginning to end. They will go further. They will denounce the story as untrue to fact, in that it gives too highly colored descriptions of the scenery and too exalted a conception of the Indians. With these critics I take decided issue. As I have shown in the chapter, “A Climatic Wonderland,” it is not possible for any one to over-color the descriptions of the natural scenic conditions. And as for the Indians, criticism of them is more often based upon imperfect than adequate knowledge.
Leaving these two great points of Ramona out of the question, however, there are many facts of detail, which the gifted author most ingeniously wove into her story. Let us, in this chapter, take a survey of these facts, and see how they have been applied.
The description of life in an old time California ranch-house given in the first chapter is the presentation of an eye witness. While the scene is laid at Camulos, it is well known that Mrs. Jackson was there only two hours, while she...
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SOURCE: “The Indian Matter of Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona: From Fact to Fiction,” in American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 3, Autumn, 1975, pp. 331-46.
[In the following essay, Byers contends that factual descriptions included in Ramona, especially those concerning Ramona and Alessandro's flight and search for security, closely mirror information Jackson had submitted as part of her Mission Indian report.]
In 1881 Helen Hunt Jackson published her A Century of Dishonor, one of the most scathing indictments of the United States Government on the treatment of the Indian population, or on any other charges, ever put forth. The work was the outgrowth of a rising feeling, beginning in 1872 when she traveled in California and shortly afterwards to Colorado where she finally made her home, that the American Indian was in worse shape than the slave had been.1 Mrs. Jackson became extremely conscious of the fact that, according to the surrounding white population, the Indian had no rights whatever and that governmental concern was practically nil. The actual catalyst to her work for the Indians was a lecture in 1879 in Boston, where she heard “Standing Bear” and “Bright Eyes,” whom she later met in New York, tell their tales of the mistreatment of the Poncas.2 After months of gruelling research in the Astor Library in New York, she saw her work come from the...
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SOURCE: “Helen Hunt Jackson: Docudramatist of The American Indian,” in The Markham Review, Vol. 10, Fall, 1980, pp. 15-19.
[In the following essay, Marsden presents a brief overview of Jackson's life and works and comments that it wasn’t until Jackson became involved with Native American affairs that her remarkable writing abilities found an adequate outlet.]
To The Memory of Helen Hunt Jackson: The Most Brilliant, Impetuous and Thoroughly Individual Woman of American Literature
What songs found voice upon those lips, What magic dwelt within the pen, Whose music into silence slips, Whose spell lives not again!
For her the clamorous to-day The dreamful yesterday became; The brands upon dead hearths that lay Leaped into living flame.
Clear ring the silvery Mission bells Their calls to vesper and to mass; O’er the vineyard slopes, thro’ fruited dells, The long processions pass.
The pale Franciscan lifts in air The cross above the kneeling throng; Their simple world how sweet with prayer, With chant and matin song!
There, with her dimpled, lifted hands, Parting the mustard's golden plumes, The dusky maid, Ramona, stands, Amid the sea of blooms.
And Allesandro, type of...
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SOURCE: Helen Hunt Jackson, Boise State University, 1987, pp. 24–39.
[In the following excerpt, Whitaker traces the beginnings of the author's interest in the Native American political cause, providing an overview of Jackson's nonfiction writing on the subject, including A Century of Dishonor.]
By 1879 Jackson was restless and uncertain about the direction her writing should take. Late in the year she decided to return to the East to see if a change of environment would revitalize her. Her future was decided by a chance encounter. While visiting in Boston, she went to a reception sponsored by a group of prominent citizens who were alive with indignation over the U.S. government's treatment of the Indians. Their sentiment had been aroused by Thomas H. Tibbles, a reporter for the Omaha Daily Herald and founder of the Omaha Indian Commission. He had persuaded Ponca Chief Standing Bear and two Omaha Indians, the brother and sister Susette (Bright Eyes) and Frank LaFlesche, to join him on a lecture tour to educate Americans about injustices and to raise money specifically for the Ponca tribe.
Jackson heard at the reception that in 1817 the United States government had moved the Poncas from their ancient lands in the East to the mouth of the Niobrara River in Nebraska. In 1858 a second treaty had reduced their lands. Then soon after gold was discovered in the Black Hills, they were...
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SOURCE: “Ramona, Its Successes and Failures,” in Helen Hunt Jackson and Her Indian Reform Legacy, University of Texas Press, 1990, pp. 76-94.
[In the following essay, Mathes explains that while the author intended to use Ramona as a means to awaken pubic interest in the condition of Native Americans, the work has enjoyed far greater success as a love story.]
By November 1883, with the report and her Independent articles completed, Jackson could reflect upon a job well done. She and Kinney had saved several tracts of land and had removed what they believed to be an immoral teacher. In addition, much to Jackson's pleasure, Lawson had resigned as agent. Her critical exchange of letters to government officials may well have been one of the reasons for his leaving government service.
Lawson's replacement, J. G. McCallum, took office on October 1, 1883. Unfortunately, not only was he inefficient but time would prove him dishonest as well. In December, while Jackson was busy writing her Indian novel Ramona, McCallum traveled nearly three hundred miles to visit at Temecula, Cahuilla, and Agua Caliente and to see about building schools at Rincon and Santa Ysabel, as recommended by the Jackson/Kinney report. He found Santa Ysabel to be a beautifully located village with 159 Indians, 80 of whom were children. Because it was too late in the season to build an adobe...
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SOURCE: “Sincerity, Secrecy, and Lies: Helen Hunt Jackson's No Name Novels,” in Studies in American Fiction, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring, 1993, pp. 51-66.
[In the following essay, Schmudde contends that although Jackson was an accomplished essayist, poet and short story writer, she did not realize the full potential and power of her writing abilities until she began publishing her work under her own name. The essay also contains an overview of Jackson's early novels, concluding with a brief analysis of Jackson's eventual involvement with the Native American cause.]
Until the last six years of her life, Helen Hunt Jackson's career as a nineteenth-century American women writer was in so many ways conventional that most contemporary critics conclude, as Cheryl Walker does in The Nightingale's Burden, that “for Jackson the culturally determined literary sensibility she inherited was definitive.”1 She turned to writing only after the deaths of her first husband and two sons denied her her first role choice of wife and mother; she published most of her work—poetry, travel essays, domestic advice, children's books, and fiction—pseudonymously or anonymously; while she had a sharp eye for local color and realistic detail, frequently her tone is didactic, her plots improbable, and her characters sentimentally idealized. Today she is remembered as a minor character in the biography of her...
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SOURCE: “‘White Slaves’ and the ‘Arrogant Mestiza’: Reconfiguring Whiteness in The Squatter and the Don and Ramona,” in American Literature, Vol. 69, No. 4, December, 1997, pp. 813-39.
[In the following essay about Ramonaand The Squatter and the Don, Luis-Brown theorizes that through their use of sentimentality, both works attempt to shape the reader's politics and to question white male authority over marginalized groups.]
Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona (1884) and The Squatter and the Don (1885) by María Amparo Ruiz de Burton are indisputably political novels, representing conflicts over land, class position, and racial status in California in the 1870s. These novels represent Anglos, Californios, and Indians as struggling for social position following the U.S. annexation of one-half of Mexico as a result of the Mexican War of 1846-1848.1 However, although most critics view these texts as political, their insufficient historicization of narrative form has led them to misconstrue as antagonistic the relationship between form and reform in these novels. Despite the canon-expanding feminist criticism of Lauren Berlant, Ann Douglas, Jane Tompkins, and others, which has allowed us to read as politically engaged the previously marginalized genres of melodrama and romance, Michael Dorris associates melodrama in Ramona with...
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Byers, John R., Jr. and Elizabeth S. Byers. “Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1885): A Critical Bibliography of Secondary Comment.” In American Literary Realism 6, No. 3 (1973): 197-241.
Comprehensive bibliography of Jackson's writings, including brief annotations.
Olson, Kelli. “Helen Hunt Jackson.” In Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook, edited by Denise D. Knight, pp. 253-61. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Sourcebook for biographical and bibliographical information on Jackson.
Banning, Evelyn I. Helen Hunt Jackson. New York: The Vanguard Press, 1973, 248 p.
Biographical survey of Jackson's life, with special emphasis on the circumstances surrounding the writing of A Century of Dishonor and Ramona.
Odell, Ruth. Helen Hunt Jackson (H. H). New York: Appleton-Century, 1939, 326 p.
A comprehensive biography of Jackson's life and works.
Delany, Martin Robison. The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968, 215 p.
Provides historical and sociological information about...
(The entire section is 293 words.)