In content as well as form, Heartbreak House marks a turning point for George Bernard Shaw. Shaw did not abandon his earlier socialism as he abandoned, in his major productions, the well-made play, but he came to see, during the war years, that some essential changes had to take place within mankind itself before a socialist society could be realized. That is one of the themes of Back to Methuselah. Heartbreak House is a step in the evolution of this thought: A corrupt and shallow world has brought on its devastation, from which a new and quite different world must be born through the will of the life force speaking through Shotover’s wisdom and Ellie’s vitality.
Themes from earlier, primarily socialistic, plays remain. When Ellie proposes to marry Mangan for money, Shotover’s argument against it is based on Shaw’s belief, spelled out clearly in Mrs. Warren’s Profession (pb. 1898), that such a marriage is legalized prostitution. The burglar is the same kind of creation of capitalistic society as is the rent collector Lickcheese in Widowers’ Houses (pr. 1892) or Alfred Doolittle in Pygmalion (pr. 1913).
Certain other themes have changed. In Arms and the Man (pr. 1894) and The Devil’s Disciple (pr. 1897), war is the subject of comedy or comic melodrama. In Major Barbara (pr. 1905), the future could be secured by bringing together the money of...
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